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FORM  3427 5000 1 

Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2010  with  funding  from 

San  Francisco  Public  Library 



■r\'  American  ma\  well  I'c  proud  nf  the  S.S.  Prt-siiicnr 
veland  and  the  S.S.  Pre-idcnr  \\'ilvin,  the  two  lar_L'e>t  and 
■St  American-flaK  .•ships  hinlt  -ince  before  the  war. 
more  passenger  ships  ot  an\  t\pe  are  now  heiiv,'  built  in 
United  States.  Construction  of  American  -hips  has 
indled  to  seventh  phice  amonu'  the  nations  of  the  world, 
igress  should  recei\e  full  Mipport  in  appropriating  the 
ds  necessar.N  to  encourage  the  huildini;  and  operation  of  a 
)ng  Merchant  Marine  essential  to  America's  continued 
sperit)    and  national  securit\. 

JANUARY     1948 




(_)nce  more,  the  .American  Flnj;  in  iht-  Pacihc 
flies  above  American-built  and  .American- 
manned  passenger  ships,  the  equal  in  quality, 
lieauty  and   luxury  of  any  ship   aHoat. 

Built  in  Alameda 

The  President  Cleveland  xsas  built  .,ii  the  West 
Coast  in  the  Bethlchem-.Alameda  shipyard,  in 
San  Francisco  Bay,  where,  also,  her  sister-ship, 
the  President  Wilson,  is  now  nearing  comple- 
tion. These  two  superb  ships  inaugurate  a  new 
era  of  Pacific-Orient  luxury  travel. 

Maiden  Voyage  December  27th 

Sailing  from  San  Francisco  Deccinher  27th,  the 
S.S.  President  Cleveland  provides  new  fast 
schedules  between  San  Francisco,  Honolulu, 
^"okohama,   Shanghai,   Hong  Kong,  Manila. 



*S.S.  PRESIDENT  WILSON                   | 

The    East 

Bay   may 

proudly   claim   these   superb 

ships,      completely 

built     in     the      Bethlehem- 



They  provide  every   modern 

luxury  fo 



F    YOU 




23,500  Tons 


15,359  Tons 





610  feet 

75  feet  i  Inches 

Speed  (rr 


21  knots 

Speed  (c 


19  knots 


20,000  H.P.  turbo 
electric  drive 


arqo  spa 

e         4.500  Tons 



17,400  miles 


rom   San 

Francisco  approximately 

May    1. 


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Adyorthing  Ugr. 
Lot  Angtiot  OHIco 


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Advortlilng  Ugr. 
Son  Franeftco 

iubseripflon  rates: 

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3.50;  three  years,  $5.00;  tor- 
ign,  $1.00  additional  per  year: 
ingle  cooiet,  25e. 


The  Gateway  to  the  Orient         By  T.  Douglas  MacMuUcn  r^        Lj.  ^ 

President  Cleveland — America's  Most  Modern  Liner 

Cleveland  Crew  Sp)ecially  Trained 

President  Cleveland  Inclining  Tests  By  Emmet  Jones     . 

The  President  Cleveland  Interiors,  Home  Comfort  at  Sea 
High  Pressure  and  High  Temperature  Steam  in  Naval  and  Merchant  Vessels 

(Part  I) 

With  the  Naval  Architects  and  Marine  Engineers 

Heavy  Duty  Chain  Drives  for  Marine  Propulsion  By  N.  C.  Bremer     . 

Development  of  Ship  Forms  (Part  II)  By  William  A.  Baker 

Proposed  European  Recovery  Program — The  Marshall  Plan 

With  the  Port  Engineers 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month,  Fred  Cordes  in  L.  A.     . 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month,  Ed  S.  Graff  in  S.  F 

Pacific  World  Trade  ....  ...... 

Admiralty  Decisions         By  Harold  S.  Dohbs 

The  Longshoremen's  and  Harbor  Workers'  Act  .... 

Marine  Insurance 

The  London  Letter    ......... 

Coast  Commercial  Craft 

Tuna  Clipper  Safety  Requirements  By  David  Dickie    . 

G.  M.  Diesels  Crack  the  Crab  Fleet 

Steady  As  You  Go!  "The  Skipper" 

The  Earth's  Magnetism  and  Its  Effect  on  the  Ship  and  Compass 

Your  Problems  Answered  By  "The  Chief" 

"Chalk  Talks"  on  Applied  Mathematics 

Running   Lights  ......••-. 

News  Flashes  .......••• 

Keep  Posted      ........••■ 








LOS  ANGELES  OFFICE 816  West  5th  Street.  Zone   13.    Telephone  Michigan  312* 


Men  who  work  with  ropes  prefer  Colum- 
bian— the  rope  that  is  easier  to  handle  and 
that  stays  on  the  job  longer. 

Columbian  Rope  is  preserved  and  water- 
proofed by  an  exclusive  process  that  keeps 
it  flexible  and  easy-working  regardless  of 
wetting  or  age.  This  same  Columbian  treat- 
ment staves  off  rotting,  maintains  full 
Strength  of  the  rope  longer. 

Whatever  your  need,  Columbian  is  the 
preferred  line.  Columbian's  correct  lay 
means  perfect  balance  and  no  kinking. 

You  can  always  tell  genuine  Columbian 
Pure  Manila  Rope  by  the  red,  white,  and 
blue  surface  markers  running  through  one 
strand  in  3/^"  sizes  and  larger.  Insist  on  the 
red,  white,  and  blue  proof  of  top  rope 
quality  .  .  .  Columbian  Pure  Manila  Rope. 


400-90   Genesee  St.,  Auburn,  "The  Cordage  City",  N.  Y. 

|VI,J^H        ^g  .     ,  O, 

M  sm  m  mmun^x CIFIC    MARINE    REVIEW 

THE  mm\  TO  TH[  ORIEi^T 

1  S  WITH  STATISTICS,  it  often  happens  that  some  one  item  is  taken  from  a  speech  or  re- 
port and  glamorized  to  tiie  point  of  ridiculousness.  So  it  is  with  a  spot  presumption  of  his 
own  by  a  prominent  ship  operating  official,  wliich,  he  went  on  to  say  was  no  longer  true.  It 
had  to  do  with  the  Pacific  Coast's  position  as  the  gateway  to  the  Orient. 

Almost  any  set  of  figures  can  be  misleading.  For  instance  statistics  would  lead  us  to  be- 
lieve that  the  principal  exporting  of  citrus  fruits  is  not  from  Southern  California,  nor  Texas, 
nor  Florida.  It  is  from  Detroit.  Some  statistical  tables  credit  the  last  port  of  call  with  the  en- 
tire cargo  of  a  ship.  Some  call  bunker  fuel  an  export  item — even  when  taken  by  a  Navy 
vessel.  In  some  ports  only  cargo  that  moves  across  a  pier  is  included  in  export  figures;  if 
loaded  from  a  barge  it  is  credited  to  the  barge's  home  port.  The  boys  who  break  down  statis- 
tical figures  to  prove  some  point  of  criticism  should  give  a  thought  to  Longfellow's  "all  your 
danger  is  in  discord." 

The  Gateway  to  the  Orient  is  the  Pacific  Coast  and  its  ports.  As  with  a  farm  or  a  home, 
there  may  be  hack  gateways,  but  the  gates  that  are  tagged  with  address  labels  are  out  in  front. 
There  can  be  more  discord — more  real  damage  to  the  Pacific  Coast — created  in  world  markets 
by  attempts  to  remove  the  "Gateways"  label  from  its  ports  than  can  be  overcome  by  years  of 
good  public  relations  and  the  establishment  of  foreign  trade  zones. 

Comparing  one  month  with  another,  or  o  ne  year  with  another,  is  not  fair.  Conditions 
may  be  abnormal,  or  subnormal,  at  one  time  or  another  and  the  statistics  boys  who  do  not  un- 
derstand will  be  lead  astray.  And  deliberately  excluding  Army  and  Navy  cargo  and  also  tank- 
er cargo,  both  of  which  are  major  Pacific  Coast  groupings,  in  order  to  prove  a  point,  give  those 
who  live  by  statistics  a  field  day.  Pacific  areas  now  served  by  Army  and  Navy  are  not  temporary. 
They  will  continue  to  be  served  by  some  one.  Japan  and  China  are  low  for  the  time  being 
but  will  come  back  as  a  strong  factor  in  Pacific  Coast  cargo  movement.  When  they  do,  and 
when  surplus  war  goods  in  the  Pacific  are  absorbed,  and  when  export  restrictions  are  equal- 
ized with  shippers  who  are  nearer  to  Washington,  and  when  Pacific  Coast  operators  have  their 
fleets  restored,  and  when  intercoastal  services  bring  more  export  and  import  traffic  to  Pacific 
Coast  ports,  comparisons  with  prewar  will  be  less  odious. 

It  is  all  very  well  to  fight  influences  that  would  attract  traffic  to  less  logical  shores,  but 
let  us  not  mislead  our  people.  The  Pacific  Coast  has  problems  that  are  common  to  all  fight- 
ing frontiers.  We  are  after  the  best  and  the  most  and  have  never  been  known  to  accept  medi- 
ocrity as  an  ideal. 

JANUARY     •      1948  Page  41 



good  reason  to  feel  proud  of  their  latest  product 
(P2-SE2-R3)  the  SS  President  Cleveland.  In  construc- 
tion, machinery,  outfitting,  furnishings,  and  interior  deco- 
ration, she  is  a  first-class  vessel,  built  to  the  highest 
standards,  and  capable  of  maintaining  the  most  exacting 
schedules  in  the  long  run  to  the  Orient. 

And  Bethlehem-Alameda  is  proud.  Say  to  any  employee 
of  the  Alameda  yard,  from  the  office  boy  to  the  general 
manager,  "This  is  a  good  ship,"  and  the  answer  snaps 
back,  "That's  the  only  kind  of  ship  that  Bethlehem  knows 
how  to  build!  ' 

President  Cleveland  is  the  largest  passenger  vessel  ever 
built  in  a  Pacific  Coast  yard,  and  the  largest  built  in  any 
American  yard  since  the  Atnerica  in  1939.  Her  principal 
characteristics  are  shown  in  the  box  herewith.  She  was 
built  to  the  very  high  standards  set  by  law  and  regulation 
for  American  passenger  vessels  and  conforms  with  all 
the  applicable  rules  of  the  following  shipping  and  ship- 
building regulatory  bodies: 

1.  American  Bureau  of  Shipping. 

2.  U.   S.   Coast  Guard:    Division   of   Inspection   and 

3.  International  Load  Line  Convention. 

4.  U.   S.   Public   Health   Service   for   Inspection   and 
Certification  of  Vessel  Sanitation. 

5.  International  Convention  for  Safety  of  Life  at  Sea. 

6.  Senate  Report  No.  184. 

7.  U.  S.  Customs  Admeasurement. 

8.  Panama  Canal  Regulations. 

9.  Suez  Canal  Certificate. 

The  Trials 
To  the  several  hundred  persons  converging  toward 
this  vessel  in  the  early  hours  of  December  10  at  the  out- 
fitting dock  of  the  yard,  she  presented  a  beautiful  flood- 
lighted profile  against  the  dark  pre-dawn  sky.  On  her 
official  trials  that  day  she  behaved  like  a  well-trained 
thoroughbred  and  met  all  the  specified  results  with  a 
good  margin  to  spare.  These  tests  included:  a  gradual 
work-up  from  80  RPM  of  the  propellers  to  110  RPM 
in  10  RPM  increases  at  half-hour  intervals;  crash  back 
from   1  10  RPM  ahead  to  90  RPM  astern;  crash  ahead 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

from  90  RPM  astern  to  110  RPM  ahead;  four-hour 
economy  run  at  120  RPM  18000  SHP;  and  one  hour 
maximum  power  run  at  124  RPM  corresponding  to 
20,000  SHP.  The  results  of  these  tests  are  recorded  in 
Table  I. 

The  fuel  economy  figures  in  Table  I  need  a  little  ex- 
planation. Under  identical  conditions  of  operation,  the 
fuel  economy  for  normal  power  would  be  slightly  better 
than  that  for  maximum  power.  On  these  trials  when  con- 
ducting the  four-hour  economy  test,  a  number  of  auxil- 
iaries such  as  the  two  big  low  pressure  evaporators  are 
required  to  be  in  operation,  thus  considerably  increasing 
the  auxiliary  use  of  steam.  On  the  maximum  power  run, 



Left,  W 

Miller  Laughton.  Pacific  Coast  General  Manager, 
1  Steel  Company's  Shipbuilding  Division;  right, 
;.    Ingersoll,    Manager.    Bethlehem's   Bay   Area   Yards. 

Page  43 


Rail  birds,  watching  the 

only  those  auxiliaries  necessary  to  normal  ship  opera- 
tion are  required  and  the  auxiliary  steam  consumption  is 
much  lower.  In  this  ship  an  additional  very  slight  ad- 
vantage is  gained  for  the  maximum  power  test  in  that 
rhe  steam  has  a  slightly  higher  heat  content  as  it  reaches 
the  turbine  than  it  has  at  the  normal  output  from  the 

Some  Trial   Results 

Diameter  of  turnmg  circle — 700  yards  approx. 

Head  reach — 2940'  ahead 

Stern  reach — 1000'  astern 

Time  till  dead  in  water  ahead  .i  min.  30  sec. 

Time  till  dead  in  water  astern  2  min.  10  sec. 

From  full  ahead  at  128  RPM  to  90  RPM  astern 
5  min.  19  sec. 

From  full  astern  at  90  RPM  to  full  ahead  at  126 
RPM  14  min.  26  sec. 

From  full  ahead  at  128  RPM  to  0  RPM  1  min.  17 

From  90  RPM  astern  to  0  RPM  20  V2  sec. 

Estimated  speed  on  economy  run — 22  knots 

Maximum  power  developed — 20460  SHP 

RPM  aver,  both  shafts— 122.9 

Corresponding  fuel  SHP  hour,  all  purposes, 
aver,  both  engine  rooms  .609  lbs. 

Normal  power  economy  run  SHP — 18,230 

RPM  aver,  both  shafts  119.5 

Fuel  SHP  hour,  all  purposes,  aver,  both  engine 
rooms — 0.623  lbs. 


When  she  steamed  out  through  the  Golden  Gate, 
December  27,  on  her  maiden  voyage,  she  was  equipped 
and  stocked  in  most  complete  fashion  to  take  care  of 
the  550  passengers  aboard  for  the  round  trip  scheduled 
to  arrive  back  at  San  Francisco  8:00  a.m.,  February  9, 
and  timed  as  follows: 



6  a.m. 




6  a.m. 




6  a.m. 












8  a.m. 



San  Francisco 

8  a.m. 




San  Francisco 









6  p.m. 












5  p.m. 




8  p.m. 



Master  of  the  Clevela-nd  on  this  trip  is  that  "grand 
old  sea  dog"  Commodore  Henry  Nelson,  formerly  skip- 
per of  the  President  Coolidge  and  one  of  the  most 
colorful  and  best-loved  veterans  of  Pacific  Ocean  navi- 
gation. Other  officers  include:  Fred  Jennings,  chief  en- 
gineer; Edward  A.  Seeley,  chief  purser;  Samuel  A. 
Agnew,  chief  steward;  Herman  L.  Schurtz,  chef,  former 
chef  on  SS  Leviathan. 

American  President  Lines  visualizes  a  fleet  of  four 
identical  liners  in  their  oriental  service.  SS  President 
Wilsoft,  sister  to  the  SS  President  Cleveland  and  now 

Principal  Characteristics  of 
President  Cleveland 

Length  OveraU  608'   5%" 

32  Ft.  Waterline  593'  2     " 

29  Ft.  Waterline  590'  0     " 

Bet.  Perpendiculars  573'  0     " 

Beam  molded         75'  6     " 

Draft  subdivision  30'   0     " 

Draft  scantling  ..  32'  0     " 

Normal  Shaft  Horsepower  18,000 

Sustained  Sea  Speed  19  knots 

Depth  Molded  Promenade  Deck. ...61'  6     " 
Height  Upper  Deck  to  Promenade 

Deck      9'  0     " 

A  Deck  to  Upper  Deck    _     9'  0     "  at  side 

B  Deck  to  A  Deck 9'  0     " 

"       C  Deck  to  B  Deck 8'  6     " 

Crew  including  spares     352 

Passengers  (about)  550 

Lightweight  of  ship  including  700  tons 

fixed  ballast 12,424  tons 

Deadweight  in  long  tons — 

Stores,  passenger,  crew  and  effects, 

and  pools  545 

Freshwater 388 

Fuel  oil 4,343 

Cargo  oil ..  762 

Cargo  oil  heating  water 114 

Refrigerated  cargo 500  @  70  cf/ton 

General  cargo 4,431 

Total  deadweight  11,083  tons 

Total  displacement  at  30'-l%"  draft.. ..23, 507  tons 

nearing  completion  at  Bethlehem-Alameda  Shipyard, 
will  be  ready  sometime  this  spring.  When  she  is  on  the 
run,  SS  General  M.  C.  Meigs  and  SS  General  W.  H. 
Gordon  will  be  taken  out  of  service  and  converted  to 

Page  44 


luxury  class  passenger  liners  similar  to  the  CJcieLind. 

American  President  Lines  is  also  at  present  planning 
to  build  live  new  specially  designed  vessels  for  their 
Round-the- World  service — the  V-2()00.  They  hope  to 
have  these  vessels  in  operation  some  time  in  1949.  In 
the  words  of  President  Killion  of  APL,  "With  revised 
and  faster  schedules,  luxury  passenger  accommodations, 
and  most  modern  cargo-handling  facilities,  this  lleet  now 
in  the  process  of  organization,  will  raise  new  and  higher 
standards  m  transpacific  and  round-the-world  transpor- 
tation services." 

A  passenger  liner  is  a  first-class  hotel  afloat  and  self- 
contained.  All  her  services  must  be  maintained  with  a 
very  high  degree  of  reliability  through  her  own  ma- 
chinery. In  addition  she  must  be  able  to  move  herself 
on  definite  schedules  from  one  port  to  another,  almost 
regardless  of  weather.  She  is  therefore  one  of  the  most 
complicated  structures  devised  by  the  mind  of  man  and 
her  functioning  is  dependent  on  a  great  number  and 
great  variety  of  mechanisms.  These  together  with  the 
furnishings  and  equipment  give  work  to  a  great  many 
artisans  who  are  scattered  all  over  the  nation  and  who 
in  many  cases  may  never  have  seen  a  shipyard  or  even 
have  seen  salt  water.  The  cost  of  a  vessel  is  distributed 
over  the  whole  country  for  labor  and  materials,  to  a 
greater  degree  than  is  true  in  any  other  mdustry.  A  par- 

Top  picture,  left  to  right: 
,  Ar1(\ur  Poole.  Vice  Presi- 
dent and  Treasurer  of  APL; 
James  L.  Bates,  Director  of 
Technical  Division,  Maritime 
Commission;  George  G. 
Sharp,  Naval  Architect;  W. 
Miller  Laughton.  General 
Manager  of  Pacific  Coast 
Bethlehem  Yards;  E.  Russell 
Lull,  Exec.  Vice  President 
of  APL;  Henry  Frick,  Con- 

Bottom  picture,  left  to 
right:  Tom  Ingersoll,  Man- 
ager of  Bethlehem's  Bay 
Area  Yards;  Tom  Cokely, 
Vice  President  and  Operat- 
ing Manager  of  APL;  Fred 
Doelfeer  of  W.  R.  Grace  & 
Co.;  Captain  Perch,  Assist- 
ant Operating  Manager  of 
APL;  William  Warren,  Prin- 
cipal Surveyor  of  American 
Bureau;  Alexander  J.  Dickie, 
Consulting  Editor,  Pacific 
Marine  Review. 

Wake  of  the  Cleveland  du 
ing  steering  tests. 

JANUARY     •      1941 




1.  The 

Distiller  Flat.    Two  Bethlehem  Iom 

pressure  type 


irs  (one  in  each  engine  room)  have  a  combined 


fy    to    produce    80,000    gallons    a 

day    of   good 


water.     2.  The    Cochrane    deaera 

ing    feedwater 


raises  the  condensate  240°    F.  a 

d  removes  all 


led  gases.    3.  One  of  two  Genera 

Electric  main 


B    generating    sets,    each    of    whi 

ch    supplies    a 


9000    shp    to    one    of    the    propulsion    motors. 

4.  This 

Worthington  centrifugal  main  cir 

culating  pump 


the  cooling  water  through  the  co 

ndenser  tubes. 

5.  Fou 

r   General    Electric  steam-turbo  a 

uxiliary   gener- 


sets    provide   electric   power   for 

light,    cooking 

and   a 

uxiliary   machinery. 

Page  46 



k.  One  of  the  two  General  Electric  ?000  stip  propulsion 
motors.  View  looking  forward  from  thrust  block. 
7.  Firing  alley  in  one  of  the  two  engine  rooms  featur- 
ing the  boiler  fronts  of  the  Combustion  Engineering 
boilers  with  their  Todd  burners  and  the  Hagan  auto- 
matic control  board.  8.  Then  engineers  desk,  engine 
telegrapn  and  main  turbo  generator  control  board 
in  one  of  the  two  engine  rooms.  9.  Part  of  a  General 
Electric  main  switchboard,  dead  front  type. 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

Page  47 

IVavigating  [puipment  and  Steering  Gear 

Top;  Radar  mast.  Second  row:  Left— Chart  room,  radio  d!rect!( 
finder  at  extreme  left;  Right— Wheel  house  looking  aft.  Third 
Left — Steering  gear,  forward  end;  Right — Steering  gear,  after  end. 
Bottom  row:  Left — Loran;  center — Gyro  room;  right — G.  E.  Electronic 
Navigator  (radar). 

Page  48 


rial  list  of  vendors  supplying  the  President  Cleveland 
indicates  that  it  comes  from  15  states,  5  of  which  are 
middle  western  states. 

Hull  Design  and  Construction 

The  basic  hull  design  of  these  vessels  was  evolved  by 
the  U.  S.  Maritime  Commission,  Technical  Division,  and 
altered  by  the  Navy.  All  passenger  accommodation  and 
crew  space  arrangement  and  interior  decoration  design 
was  produced  by  George  G.  Sharp,  Naval  Architect, 
New  York.  All  joiner  work,  furnishing  and  interior  deco- 
ration were  installed  and  erected  by  the  Aetna  Marine 

The  hull  is  of  combined  riveted  and  welded  steel  con- 
struction with  a  curved  stem,  a  cruiser  stern,  and  with 
three  complete  decks  and  a  partial  deck.  These  decks  are 
designated  A,  B,  C,  and  D.  Above  these  are:  an  upper 
deck  extending  from  the  stem  almost  to  the  stern;  a 
promenade  deck  extending  from  the  stem  to  frame  168; 
a  boat  deck  covering  the  midship  house;  and  a  navigating 
bridge  deck.  The  midship  house  above  the  boat  deck  is  of 

Top;  Music  and  broad- 
cast room.  Center 
Left— Watertight  d 
way  with  watertight 
door  half-closed;  right 
—  Automatic  telephone 
exchange  and  steward's 
call  board.  Bottom 
Left— Fire  control 
room  showing  CO2 
panel  and  watertight 
doors  panel;  right  — 
Radio  room. 

Page  49 

riveted  aluminum  construction  which  saves  some  75 
tons  in  weight  at  a  position  where  weight  saving  is  im- 
portant. This  use  of  aluminum  is  new  in  merchant  ship 
construction  although  the  Navy  has  used  this  metal  on 
the  superstructures  of  destroyers  and  cruisers  with  very 
satisfactory  service  results.  In  this  work  all  rivet  holes 
are  drilled  or  punched  to  a  diameter  l/16th  inch  less 
than  that  of  the  rivet.  After  assembly  and  packing,  with 
every  third  hole  bolted,  the  holes  are  reamed  to  a  diameter 
l/32d  inch  larger  than  the  rivet.  Up  to  and  including 
3/8"  diameter  the  rivets  are  driven  and  set  up  cold. 
Above  3/8"  diameter  they  are  driven  hot. 

All  decks  above  A  deck  have  both  camber  and  sheer, 
A  deck  has  sheer  but  no  camber,  decks  below  A  have  no 
camber  and  no  sheer.  As  has  been  usual  for  some  years 
in  American  passenger  liners  of  this  type,  the  promenade 
deck,  in  way  of  the  house  amidships,  projects  about  2 
feet  outboard  from  the  hull,  port  and  starboard.  This 
serves  the  purpose  of  helping  to  keep  boats  clear  of  hull 
when  lowering  and  allows  the  installation  of  flood  lights 
under  this  overhang  to  illuminate  the  sea.  It  gives,  of 
course,  a  wider  promenade  which  is  a  decided  advantage 
for  passenger  recreation  and  loafing  space. 

Several  of  the  weather  decks  in  the  way  of  passenger 
accommodations  are  covered  with  Oregon  pine  deckmg 
2%"  thick  and  4^/^"  wide.  Margin  strakes  on  these 
decks  are  of  teak  2%"  thick  and  the  pine  timbers  are 
carefully  nibbed  into  the  teak  at  curved  sections  of  the 
ship  and  around  all  deck  fittings.  Deck  timbers  were 
laid  over  a  coating  of  Dex-O-Tex,  a  corrosion-prevention 

composition  manufactured  by  Crossfield  Products  Corp., 
of  Los  Angeles,  and  all  seams  caulked  with  two  strands  of 
cotton  and  one  of  oakum  payed  over  with  marine  glue. 

It  is  an  interesting  sidelight  on  the  widespread  bene- 
fits of  shipbuilding  that  the  grommets  used  to  make  a 
watertight  seal  under  the  nuts  used  to  hold  the  wooden 
decks  to  aluminum  or  steel  decks  on  these  vessels  are 
procured  from  California  Blind  Craft,  Inc.  Steel  studs 
are  welded  to  the  steel  decks  and  aluminum  studs  to  the 
aluminum  decks.  Highest  grade  Oregon  pine  decking  is 
drilled  and  counterbored  to  receive  these  studs,  and  the 
nut  with  washer  and  grommet  is  screwed  down  onto 
the  stud  in  the  counterbore.  Nelson  automatic  welding 
guns  were  used  to  fasten  studs  to  decks.  All  counter 
sinks  were  carefully  stopped  with  an  Oregon  pine  plug 
set  in  white  lead  and  carefully  chosen  to  harmonize 
with  the  grain  in  the  adjacent  timber.  This  work  was  all 
done  by  Builders  Wood  Flooring  Company,  Inc.,  of  New 
York,  who  also  furnished  and  installed  all  the  wood 
railing  on  the  vessel. 

Provisions  for  air  conditioning  and  ventilating  are 
very  complete.  Air  conditioning  is  provided:  for  all 
cabin  and  tourist  class  passenger  staterooms;  for  a  num- 
ber of  ship's  officers  staterooms  and  oflSces;  for  all  mess 
rooms;  for  tourist  and  cabin  class  dining  rooms;  the 
library,  waiting  room,  writing  room,  and  shops;  and  for 
tourist,  cabin,  and  officers'  lounge  rooms.  Mechanical 
ventilation  is  provided  for  practically  all  the  enclosed 
spaces  on  the  ship.  In  general  the  air  supply  to  all  un- 
cooled   space   is   required   to   equal    30   cubic   feet  per 

Fige  50 


minute  for  each  occupant.  In  unoccupied  spaces  the  air 
change  varies  from  a  complete  change  every  two  minutes 
in  the  battery  room  to  a  change  every  30  minutes  in  dry 
cargo  spaces,  air  supply  to  be  for  the  gross  cubic  measure 
without  benefit  of  deductions  for  furniture  or  other  con- 
tents and  no  space  to  receive  less  than  25  cfm.  Air  condi- 
tioning machinery  is  supplied  by  the  Carrier  Corpora- 
tion and  the  ventilating  and  air  conditioning  systems 


Top  row:  Left  —  State 
room  air  conditioning 
unit;  right— Wl 
Canter  row:  Left— Ship's 
right— Car- 
go reefer  room.  Bottom 
row:  Left — Ship's 
reefer  machinery 
center  — George  Hoef- 
ner,  asst.  operating  en- 
gineer at  Bethlehem- 
Alameda,  and  Hart 
Livingston,  asst.  ma- 
chinery superintendent, 
also  of  Bethtehem-Ala- 
meda.  at  main  control 
board  for  the  Carrier 
Air  conditioning  equip- 


JANUARY     •      I  941 

Page  51 

are  equipped  with  llg  fans.  Air  conditioning  systems  are 
served  by  heaters  and  cooling  coils  supplied  by  McQuay, 

Deck   Equipment 

On  the  boat  deck  there  are  installed  under  aluminum 
gravity  type  davits  10  lifeboats  as  follows: 

Four — 36'  6"  by  11'  9"  by  5'  .V,  135  person  lifeboat 
hand  propelled; 

Two — 36'  6"  by  ir  9"  by  5'  3",  105  person  life- 
boats motor  propelled,  and  radio  equipped; 

Two — 26'  8"  by  8'  3%"  by  3'  71/4",  46  person  life- 
boats; and 

Two — 26'  8"  by  8'  3%"  by  3'  IVa" ,  46  person  rescue 
boats  oar  propelled. 

The  total  person  capacity  here  is  934,  or  more  than 
enough  to  take  care  of  the  full  complement  of  890 
passengers  and  crew. 

Each  pair  of  davits  is  served  by  an  electric  winch  of 
capacity  for  hoisting  the  fully  loaded  boat  safely  at  20 
fpm  and  for  safely  lowering  at  100  fpm  In  addition  to 
the  lifeboats  there  are  sufficient  life  rafts  carried  to  take 
care  of  25  per  cent  of  the  total  personnel.  These  rafts 
may  be  launched  over  the  side  or  will  float  free  in  the 
case  of  sinking  of  the  vessel.  A  life  preserver  for  every 
person  aboard  and  18  life  buoys  are  also  carried  for 
emergencies.  All  of  the  boats,  davits  and  winches  were 
supplied  by  Welin  Davit  and  Boat  Corp.  All  of  the  boats 
except  the  after  pair  are  handled  and  passengers  em- 
barked from  the  Boat  Deck.  In  the  case  of  the  after  pair 
of  boats  they  are  handled  from  the  Boat  Deck  and  pas- 
sengers embarked  from  the  promenade  deck. 

The  electric  drive  Lidgerwood  windlass  is  mounted 
forward  on  the  promenade  deck  and  is  of  the  horizontal 
shaft,  double  wildcat,  double  gypsy  type,  the  entire  as- 
sembly including  electric  motor  being  installed  above  the 
weather  deck.  This  equipment  is  capable  of  hoisting  two 
stockless  cast  steel  anchors  each  weighing  15,575  lbs.  and 
two  165  fathom  lengths  of  2%"  NACO  steel  stud  link 
chain,  each  weighing  11,630  lbs.  at  a  rate  not  less  than 
30  fpm.  Either  gypsy  head  must  have  a  line  pull  of  20,000 
lbs.  at  a  speed  of  30  fpm.  and  a  no  load  speed  of  not  less 
than  75  fpm.  The  motor  for  this  windlass  is  rated  125  hp 
230  volts,  approximately  600  rpm. 

The  steering  gear  is  of  the  Lidgerwood  hydro-electric 
double  ram  four  cylinder  Rapson  slide  type,  located  di- 
rectly over  the  rudder  on  "C  deck.  It  is  capable  of  mov- 
ing the  rudder  from  hard  over  to  hard  over  (70°  )  in  less 
than  30  seconds  when  the  ship  is  going  ahead  at  a  speed 
corresponding  to  the  maximum  designed  shaft  hp  and  at 
full  load  draft  and  in  less  than  60  seconds  when  going 
astern  at  40  per  cent  of  the  maximum  shaft  horsepower. 
The  rudder  may  be  independently  operated  by  either 
ram.  The  maximum  working  pressure  ahead  or  astern 
must  never  exceed  1500  psi.  The  hydraulic  pumps  for 
these  gears  are  in  duplicate,  each  pump  having  capacity 
to  handle  the  gear.  Each  pump  is  driven  by  a  50  hp  440 
volt  A.C.,  3  phase  60  cycle  motor  operating  at  1800  rpm. 
These  motors  may  be  controlled  from  four  steering  sta- 
tions: a  pair  of  trick  wheels  in  the  steering  gear  room; 
a  mechanically  connected  after  deck  steering  wheel  sta- 
tion; the  standard  station  in  the  pilot  house;  and  a  sta- 
tion on  the  pilot  house  top.  At  the  last  two  the  control 

is  by  hydraulic  telemotor  connection  for  manual  steering, 
and  by  Gyro  Pilot  system  for  automatic  holding  to  the 
course.  Suitable  switch-over  arrangements  prevent  any 
interference  between  the  steering  systems. 

Ten  single  drum  and  six  double  drum  electric  drive 
winches,  of  double  reduction  gear  type  are  provided  for 
cargo  handling  at  the  six  hatches.  These  winches  are 
driven  by  50  hp  d.  c,  600  rpm,  230  volt  motors,  and  are 
capable  of  handling:  IV2  tons  at  290  fpm;  3  tons  at  220 
fpm;  and  10  tons  at  56  fpm.  They  were  manufactured  by 
Lake  Shore  Engineering  Co.  with  motors  and  controls  by 

Two  24  inch  vertical  Lidgerwood  capstans  driven  by 
35  hp,  230  volt  d.  c.  motors  through  gearing  are  each 
capable  of  exerting  a  20,000  pound  pull  at  30  fpm  on 
warping  or  other  hawsers.  Motor  and  gearing  are  installed 
on  deck  below. 

An  interesting  advance  in  the  design  of  cargo  handling 
machinery  is  the  Lake  Shore  Engineering  Co.  side  port 
loading-discharging  crane  for  hatch  No.  4  which  tops  on 
"A"  deck.  Two  bridges  each  carrying  one  trolley  and  each 
capable  of  handling  V-h  tons  safely  are  installed  for  ath- 
wartship  travel  in  unison.  The  travel  of  the  bridges  is 
served  by  a  10  hp  motor;  the  travel  of  the  trolleys  by  a 
15  hp  motor,  and  the  hoist  drums  are  operated  by  a  50 
hp  motor.  The  bridges  at  the  limit  of  their  travel  have 
sufficient  outboard  projection  to  give  the  trolley  1 5  feet 
clearance  from  ship's  side. 

Another  interesting  item  of  cargo  handling  equip- 
ment is  a  pair  of  portable  cargo  oil  pumps  supplied  by 
the  Waterous  Company.  These  are  of  the  rotary  type 
with  herringbone  reduction  gears  driven  by  Westing- 
house  30  hp,  1800  rpm  motors  and  each  pump  will  dis- 
charge 350  gpm  against  100  psi  with  440  rpm  of  the 
pump  rotors.  These  pumps  are  handled  by  three  electric 
motor  drive  whip  type  hoists  each  with  a  capacity  for 
lifting  two  tons  at  25  fpm. 

Two  elevators  by  Otis  are  installed,  one  for  passengers 
and  one  for  baggage  each  capable  of  lifting  2000  lbs.  at 
100  fpm.  The  passenger  cage  travels  from  "B"  deck  to 
the  promenade  deck  and  the  baggage  elevator  from  "C" 
deck  to  the  upper  deck. 

Navigating  Equipment 

The  pilot  house,  navigating  bridges  and  pilot  house 
top  are  equipped  with  all  the  most  modern  devices  for 
making  navigation  simple  and  safe. 

Gyrocompass  system  includes  one  Sperry  Mark  XIV 
master  gyrocompass  and  eight  repeaters  mounted  and 
located  as  follows:  steering  type  repeater  on  gyro  pilot 
control  stand  in  wheelhouse;  steering  type  repeater  on 
column  stand  on  wheelhouse  top;  bearing  type  repeater 
on  column  stand  at  after  steering  station;  bearing  type 
repeater  on  column  stand,  port  and  starboard  on  bridge 
wings;  bearing  type  repeater  bulkhead  mounted  in  mas- 
ter's office;  steering  type  repeater  bulkhead  mounted  in 
steering  room;  and  repeater  mounted  in  radio  direction 
finder.  An  automatic  course  recorder  of  the  gyrocompass 
repeater  type  in  the  chart  room  keeps  accurate  records 
of  all  courses. 

A  Sperry  gyro-pilot  system  provides  complete  and  in- 

Page   52 


dependent  electric  telemotoring  for  eitlier  manual  or 
automatic  control  of  the  stroke  of  the  main  steering  gear 
pumps.  The  control  unit  of  this  system  is  mounted  in  the 

A  Submarine  Signal  Co.  echo  depth  sounder  provides 
visual  and  recorded  reading  of  the  depth  of  water  under 
keel.  This  instrument  has  a  range  of  from  three  fathoms 
up  and  its  readings  are  accurate  within  2  per  cent. 

Two  systems  of  sound  powered  telephones  are  used. 
System  A  keeps  the  wheel  house  in  communication  with: 
the  wheelhouse  top;  the  chart  room;  the  forecastle  head; 
the  crow's  nest;  the  captain's  office;  the  radio  room;  the 
stern  capstan;    the   steering  gear   room;    and   the   after 

Passenger  Service 

I.  Washing  section  of  ship's  laun 
dry.  2.  Gymnasium.  3.  Tailor' 
shop.  4.  Dog  kennel.  5.  Barbe 
shop.      6.  Beauty    shop.      7.  Flowe 

Steering  station.  System  B  connects  the  wheelhouse  with: 
the  foreward  engine  room  operating  station;  the  after 
motor  room;  the  Chief  Engineer's  office;  the  emergency 
generator  room;  the  steering  gear  room;  and  the  electric 
distribution  room.  Voice  tubes  connect  the  wheelhouse 
with  the  radio  room,  the  wheelhouse  top,  the  master 
gyro  room,  and  the  captain's  stateroom. 

Port  and  starboard  propeller  shaft  revolution  indica- 
tors indicate  the  rpm  and  direction  of  rotation  of  each 
propeller.  A  waterproof  mechanical  seven  digit  counter 
and  electrical  transmitter  are  installed  on  each  shaft  and 

JANUARY     •      194 

waterproof  electrical  indicators:  at  each  engine  control 
stand;  on  forward  bulkhead  above  windows  in  the  wheel- 
house;  and  in  the  chief  engineer's  office. 

A  Navy  standard  magnetic  compass  with  complete  azi- 
muth circle  is  mounted  on  top  of  wheelhouse;  a  standard 
magnetic  steering  compass  and  binnacle  in  the  wheel- 
house;  and  a  standard  magnetic  steering  compass  at  the 
steering  station  aft. 

The  Electronic  Navigator,  General  Electric 's  equipment 
for  radar  navigation,  is  installed  so  that  regardless  of 
visibility  the  navigating  officer  is  able  to  detect  visually 
any  approaching  vessel  or  other  floating  object  and  any 
landfall  in  ample  time  to  avoid  collision  or  stranding. 

The  radio  direction  finder  is  the  latest  model  of  the 
Radiomarine  Corporation  of  America  and  is  located  in 
the  chart  room. 

A  Leslie  Tyfon  whistle  and  whistle  control  with  con- 
trol stations  in  the  wheelhouse  and  on  the  navigating 
bridge,  port  and  starboard,  is  arranged  for  both  electric 
and  manual  operation. 

The  ship's  radio  telegraph  and  telephone  installation 
was  supplied  by  R.M.C.A.  and  consists  of  four  radio 
telegraph  transmitters  of  various  frequencies  and  four 
receivers  of  various  frequencies  covering  all  the  regular 
and  emergency  requirements  of  a  passenger  liner  radio 
service.  A  harbor  type  radio  telephone  transmitter  re- 
ceiver takes  care  of  ship  to  shore  conversations  in  or  near 
harbors.  Each  motor  lifeboat  is  equipped  with  a  radio 
telegraph  transmitter  and  with  a  storage  battery  of  suffi- 
cient capacity  to  operate  this  transmitter-receiver  con- 
tinuously for  at  least  six  hours. 

In  connection  with  the  ship's  radio  there  is  an  auto- 
matic alarm  that  responds  to  the  ship's  radio  call  letters 
and  rings  bells  in  the  pilot  house,  in  the  radio  room,  and 
in  the  radio  operator's  cabin. 

One  broadcast  and  high  frequency  receiver  is  provided 
together  with  loud  speakers  in  the  mess  rooms,  the  din- 
ing rooms,  the  lounges,  the  dance  floor  and  in  other  public 
rooms  to  provide  for  entertainment  of  passengers  and 

Safety  Systems 

A  complete  C-O-Two  Fire  Equipment  Co.  fire  detect- 
ing and  extinguishing  system  provides  detection  of 
smoke  by  eye,  ear  and  nose  through  two  cabinets  in  the 
wheelhouse  which  indicates  the  space  from  which  the 
smoke  comes  and  are  combined  with  a  carbon  dioxide 
fire  extinguishing  system  in  the  51  spaces  covered.  These 
spaces  include:  cargo  holds,  cargo  'tween  deck  spaces, 
trunks  to  cargo  spaces;  and  special  cargo  lockers;  paint 
and  lamp  rooms,  carpenter  shop,  engineer's  paint  locker 
and  oil  lockers;  wiring  trunks;  provision  and  other  store 
rooms.  Separate  C-O-Two  systems  are  provided  for  the 
machinery  spaces  and  for  the  gyro  room,  the  projector 
booth  film  locker,  the  emergency  generator  room  and 
similar  spaces. 

In  each  engine  room  a  hose  reel  unit  is  installed  hav- 
ing two  50  lb.  carbon  dioxide  cylinders  and  sufficient 
length  of  flexible  reinforced  hose  to  reach  any  part  of 
the  space. 

The  special  C-O-2  hose  reel  fire  extinguishing  equip- 
ment for  the  propulsion  generators  and  propulsion  mo- 
tors was  furnished  by  'Walter  Kidde  and  Company,  Inc. 

A  complete  water  fire  extinguishing  system  is  served 
by  four  horizontal  centrifugal  pumps,  two  in  each  engine 
room.  Each  of  these  pumps  is  driven  by  a  50  hp  motor 
and  has  a  capacity  of  400  gpm  against  55  psi  or  225  gpm 
against  125  psi.  This  system  has  an  8-inch  pressure  gage 
located  in  the  fire  control  room  so  that  the  watchman  on 
duty  there  can  see  at  all  times  that  the  necessary  pressure 
is  maintained.  Fire  hydrants  and  hose  racks  are  installed 
so  that  any  point  may  be  reached  by  two  separate  hose 

An  electrical  thermostat  and  annunciator  system  covers 
all  spaces  not  protected  by  the  smoke  detection  system, 
and  this  system  rings  an  alarm  and  indicates  space  and 
zone  affected  on  an  annunciator  panel  in  fire  control 
room.  Fire  doors  are  fitted  to  stairway  enclosures  and  to 
fire  screen  bulkheads.  These  are  of  the  hinged  self-clos- 
ing type  and  can  be  released  by  electric  control  from  the 

Coincident  with  such  modern  handling  facilities  as  the  Si- 
Porter,  attention  to  the  care  of  cargoes  enroute  is  also 
receiving  wide  attention  in  that  "Cargocaire"  has  been 
installed,  as  it  is  at  the  present  time  in  more  than  150  vessels 
■ing    trade    routes    throughout   the    world. 

Page  54 


Left:  Lidqcrwood 
Anchor  Windlass 
looking  aft,  show- 
ing ship's  bell  and 
cargo  booms  in 

Below:  Hatch,   look- 
ing   down    through 
the  decks. 

fire  control  room.  A  system  of  watchman's  clocks  moni- 
tors the  watchmen  and  is  supervised  by  the  fire  control 
room.  Thus  a  man  on  watch  in  the  fire  control  room  can 
supervise  all  fire  risks  and  extinguishing  systems  on  the 
vessel  and  promptly  apply  the  water  or  the  COj  to  the 
best  advantage. 

Watertight  doors  of  the  electrically  operated  horizontal 
sliding  type  are  fitted  between  the  motor  rooms  and  the 
shaft  alleys  and  between  the  motor  rooms  in  the  center- 
line  watertight  bulkhead.  Same  type  doors  provide  access 
through  the  watertight  bulkheads  on  "B"  and  "C"  decks. 
These  doors  are  controllable  locally  and  from  a  central 
control  station. 

Refrigeration   Machinery 

There  are  thirteen  refrigerated  cargo  compartments  in 
each  vessel  with  a  total  volume  of  52, .^50  cubic  feet. 
Estimated  load  for  the  total  volume  with  each  compart- 
ment maintained  at  the  most  severe  conditions  is  90.05 
tons  of  refrigeration. 

The  nine  ship  service  compartments  have  a  total 
volume  of  17,575  cubic  feet. 

In  addition  to  the  above  there  is  the  refrigeration 
load  in  connection  with  the  extensive  air  conditioning 
system.  Each  of  these  is  a  separate  system  of  the  direct 
expansion  Freon  type. 

AU  the  machinery  for  these  systems  is  installed  in  one 

Serving  them  are  the  following  pumps,  supplied  by 
the  Warren  Steam  Pump  Company,  Inc.: 

Three  5"  vertical  centrifugal  refrigerator  condenser 

circulating;  two  4"  vertical  centrifugal  chilled  water  cir- 
culating; three  3"  vertical  centrifugal  brine  circulating; 
one  iVa"  vertical  centrifugal  air  conditioning  hot  water 
circulating;  two  IV2"  vertical  centrifugal  air  condition- 
ing hot  or  cold  water  circulating;  one  2"  vertical  centrif- 
ugal warm  brine  circulating  and  mixing;  and  one  %" 
horizontal  centrifugal  ice  water  circulating. 

For  cargo  refrigeration  there  are  three  Frick  Freon- 12 
systems,  each  compressor  being  driven  by  a  d.c.  240  volt 
100  hp  Westinghouse  marine  type  motor. 

On  the  air  conditioning  load  there  are  two  Carrier 

JANUARY     .      194: 

Page  55 

ind   Cooler 

(one    to   e 

:dch   engine   room), 

ps   are    Qui 

mby.     Als 

o   Wagner    Electric 

s.     At    lowe 

!r   right   is 

the   De   Uval   Oil 

The  Lube  Oil  Heater 
Bethlehem-made.  Pur 
motors,    Ruggles   Valv 

systems  each  served  by  a  Carrier  multi-stage  centrifugal 
compressor.  One  compressor  is  driven  by  a  1 50  hp  3 
phase  60  cycle  440  volt  a.c.  Westinghouse  marine  type 
motor,  and  the  other  by  a  reduction  geared  steam  turbine. 
This  air  conditioning  refrigeration  takes  care  of  the 
cooling  of  air  for  the  cargo  hold  air  conditioning  system 
in  addition  to  the  extensive  air  conditioning  load  for  the 
passenger  and  crew  accommodations. 

Propulsion   Machinery 

The  P-2  design  is  for  turbo-electric  drive  and  its  most 
distinctive  feature  is  the  complete  separation  of  its  two 
power  plant  units  and  of  its  two  motor  units.  Each  power 
unit  comprises  two  Combustion  Engineering  Company 
boilers  generating  steam  at  600  psi  and  840°  F  for  a 
General  Electric  turbo  generating  set  that  has  an  output 
of  6890  K.W.  at  .3500  volts,  3  "phase  60  cycle  at  3600 
rpm  and  supplies  this  current  to  a  synchronous  propulsion 
motor  normally  rated  9000  shp  at  120  rpm  and  with  a 
maximum  capacity  for  10,000  shp  at  124  rpm — 3610 
volts.  Each  generator  is  normally  at  full  power  direct 
connected  to  one  of  the  motors  giving  a  normal  shaft 
horsepower  of  18,000  on  the  twin  screw  propellers  or  a 
maximum  rating  of  20,000  shp. 

In  each  engine  room  there  are  two  General  Electric 
five  unit  turbo-generating  sets.  Each  set  consists  of  a 
steam  turbine  rated  600  K.W.  at  10,033  rpm  connected, 
through  an  enclosed  reduction  gear,  to  a  500  K.W.  450 
volt  3  phase  60  cycle  1 200  rpm  a.c.  generator,  a  200  K. 
W.  3  wire  240/120  volt  1200  rpm  d.c.  generator,  and  a 
booster  exciter  750  amp.  at  100  volts  1200  rpm.  The  a.c. 
generators  supply  power  for  general  auxiliary  ship's  serv- 
ice. The  d.c.  generators  supply  excitation  current  for  the 
propulsion  generators  and  the  propulsion  motors. 

The  boilers  in  each  engine  room  are  served  by  Hagan 
Automatic  Combustion  Control  equipment  that  main- 
tains a  constant  steam  pressure  and  the  correct  fuel  and 
air  ratio  for  complete  combustion  of  fuel.  Todd  Hex- 
Press  oil  burners  take  care  of  correct  atomizing  of  the 
fuel.  Copes  thermostats  mounted  at  the  front  of  the  boiler 
drum  operate  the  feed  water  regulating  valves.  Reliance 

water  gages  are  used  to  indicate  the  water  level.  In  each 
boiler  uptake  there  is  installed  a  Wager  smoke  indicator. 
In  each  boiler  10  Diamond  Soot  Blowers  are  fitted — three 
in  the  superheater  section,  two  in  the  small  boiler  tube 
bank,  and  five  in  the  economizer.  Three  Crosby  safety 
valves  protect  each  boiler,  two  in  the  drum  and  one  at 
the  superheater  outlet.  All  the  miscellaneous  valves  used 
in  these  boilers  are  Edward  with  EV  alloy  seats.  Furnish- 
ed with  the  boilers  for  cleaning  the  interiors  of  tubes 
are  Wilson  pneumatic  turbine  drive  tube  cleaners. 

Specifications  call  for  a  maximum  consumption  in  each 
boiler  of  3002  lbs.  per  hour  of  18,500  B.T.U.  oil.  That 
would  be  12,028  lbs.  per  hour  for  all  four  boilers  which 
figures  at  close  to  0.66  lbs  of  oil  per  brake  horsepower 
hour  for  propulsion  or  something  like  0.635  lbs.  per  shp 
hour  for  all  purposes.  This  indicates  a  very  high  boiler 
efficiency  and  also  the  importance  of  the  steam  generator 
in  low  fuel  consumption  per  unit  of  power.  The  sides 
and  rear  of  the  furnace  space  are  lined  with  2"  water- 
wall  tubes.  On  the  uptake  side  there  are  three  rows  of 
these  2"  tubes,  back  of  which  are  the  superheater  ele- 
ments which  are  held  in  position  by  two  sets  of  alloy 
support  castings  clamped  at  each  side  to  two  pairs  of 
21/4  inch  support  tubes.  Back  of  the  superheater  is  a 
bank  of  1 V4  inch  boiler  tubes.  Two  baffles  and  a  partition 
plate  direct  the  flow  of  the  hot  gases  up  through  the 
superheater  elements  down  through  the  bank  of  IV4" 
boiler  tubes,  and  up  through  the  economizer.  The  feed 
water  enters  the  economizer  at  the  top  and  emerges  at 
the  bottom  on  its  way  to  the  boiler  steam  drum.  An 
economizer  is  thus  a  last  stage  feed  water  heater  utilizing 
the  heat  left  in  the  combustion  gases  from  the  boiler 

A  forced  draft  blower  is  provided  for  each  boiler.  This 
blower  takes  its  suction  air  from  the  machinery  space  and 
delivers  it  to  the  furnace  front  of  the  boiler  through  an 
air  preheater  which  is  heated  by  75  lbs.  steam  bled  from 
the  main  turbines.  This  pre-heater  raises  the  combustion 
air  from  100°  F  to  280°  F. 

Two  fuel  oil  service  pumps  each  capable  of  serving 
both  boilers  are  provided  in  each  engine  room.  These 
pumps  take  suction  from  the  fuel  oil  settling  tanks  and 
deliver   it  to   the  burner  headers  on   the  boiler  fronts 

Page   56 


PHESIDEIVT   CLEVELAIVD -Artist's  Conception 

Below-Inboard  Profile 
Reverse-Deck  Plans 



through  the  fuel  oil  heaters.  Three  of  these  heaters  are 
provided  in  each  engine  room.  Any  two  are  capable  of 
heating  6500  lbs.  of  Bunker  C  fuel  oil  per  hour  from 
100°  F  to  230'  F  when  supplied  with  steam  from  the 
contaminated  evaporator  at  50  psi  gage.  The  water  drains 
from  all  oil  heaters  are  pumped  to  the  contaminated  evap- 
orator where  they  are  heated  to  wet  steam  at  100  psi  by 
desuperheated  steam  at  250  psi.  As  will  be  noted  m  the 
trial  results  herewith,  the  steam  generating  plant  exceed- 
ed specified  performance. 

Steam  from  the  boilers  comes  through  a  short  pipe 
lead  to  the  main  turbine  in  each  engine  room  at  590  psi 
815°  F  total  temperature  for  normal  operation  at  9000 
shp  and  at  585  psi  845  '  F  total  temperature  for  max- 
imum output  at  10,000  shp.  The  turbines  are  of  the 
General  Electric  impulse  reaction  type.  Each  turbine 
is  mounted  over  and  exhausts  directly  into  its  condenser 
which  is  of  capacity  to  maintain  a  vacuum  of  28.75  inches 
hg  when  its  unit  of  the  propulsion  machinery  is  develop- 
ing 9000  shp  ahead  with  normal  extraction  from  the  tur- 
bine. Condensate  and  feed  water  system  is  of  the  closed 
type  and  follows  the  U.  S.  Navy-Maritime  Commission 
flow  type  that  has  become  practically  standard  on  marine 
turbine  drives.  There  are  two  condensate  pumps  to  each 
condenser.  The  suctions  of  these  pumps  connect  to  the 
hot  well  under  the  condenser.  This  discharge  is  through 
the  intercondenser  of  the  main  air  ejector,  the  drain 
cooler,  the  gland  cooler,  the  after  condenser  and  the  first 
stage  heater  to  the  deaerating  heater.  From  the  deaerat- 
ing  heater  one  of  the  two  main  feed  pumps  takes  the  feed 
water  and  discharges  it  through  the  economizer  to  the 
steam  drum  of  the  boilers.  Each  auxiliary  condenser  is 
served  by  a  similar  condensate  and  feed  system  discharg- 
ing to  the  deaerating  feed  heater.  Arrangement  of  piping 
and  tankage  in  each  engine  room  provides  for  feeding  of 
boiler  compound  into  the  feed  pump  discharge. 

Each  main  generator  is  equipped  with  a  totally  enclosed 
ventilating  system  having  fans  integral  with  the  genera- 
tor rotor.  The  air  coolers  are  mounted  below  the  generator 
frame.  Cooling   water   is   forced   through   the   tubes  of 


Nelson    at    the    control     box    of    his    automatic 

nket.  The 

re   is   a    supply   of  these   General    Electric    blankets 

available   to   passengers. 

Mike    R.uri.    rjj.jl    Ar^hite..).    Emmel   Jones.   Chief    Hull    Drafts, 
man,    Befhlehem-Alameda;    Fred   Doelker,   W.   R.  Grace. 

these  coolers  by  a  motor  driven  puinp  and  the  capacity 
is  such  that  at  maximum  power  requirement  the  ventilat- 
ing air  must  be  kept  at  40°C  when  the  circulating  water 
enters  at  85  °F.  The  same  type  of  ventilating  system  with 
the  same  requirements  is  used  on  the  propulsion  motors 
with  the  exception  that  the  fan  is  external  and  operated 
by  a  separate  motor. 

A  main  control  panel  in  each  engine  room  adjusts  the 
circuits  between  each  main  generator  and  its  correspond- 
ing propulsion  motor.  These  panels  are  of  the  dead  front 
type.  Combined  with  transfer  panels  in  the  motor  rooms 
these  panels  make  possible  any  workable  combination  of 
generators  and  motors. 

The  J.  O.  Martin  Company  furnished  some  52  King 
gages  on  several  panels  in  convenient  locations  in  the  en- 
gine room  which  permit  accurate  centralized  reading  of 
the  quantity  of  liquid  in  the  fresh  water,  lube  oil,  diesel 
oil,  fuel  oil  and  gravity  tanks.  The  gages  not  only  elim- 
inate the  daily  necessity  of  taking  soundings  at  each  in- 
dividual tank  but  the  system  is  so  designed  that  accurate 
remote  readings  can  be  had  on  tanks  which  cannot  other- 
wise be  measured  with  a  tape,  rod,  or  float  device  because 
of  inaccessability  of  the  sounding  tubes.  The  gages  are 
located  near  the  pumps  or  valves  which  fill  the  tanks  so 
that  for  taking  bunkers,  and  for  trimming  the  tanks  when 
loading  or  at  sea  one  man  can  accomplish  this  work 
from  a  centralized  King  Gage  panel. 

With  the  exception  of  the  main  feed  pumps  and  a  few 
stand-by  pumps  practically  every  auxiliary  machine  on 
these  ships  is  motor  drive.  All  of  the  auxiliary  power  cir- 
cuits and  lighting,  cooking,  and  heating  circuits  are  dis- 
tributed from  the  switchboards  in  the  main  engine  rooms 
through  a  panel  board  system.  The  panel  boards,  the  mo- 
tor controls  and  practically  all  of  the  motors  in  these 
systems  are  supplied  by  Westinghouse. 

An  interesting  installation  in  each  engine  room  is  the 
low  pressure  distilling  plant  built  at  Bethlehem's  Fore 
River  plant.  Each  of  these  plants  will  produce  fresh  water 
for  boiler  feed  and  for  domestic  purposes  at  the  rate  of 
40,000  gal.  per  24  hours. 

Clean  oil  for  turbine  lubrication  is  insured  by  De 
Laval  centrifugal  oil  purifiers  of  the  latest  type  installed 
in  each  engine  room. 

JANUARY     •      1941 

Page  57 

Top    to    bottom:    Section    of    main 

galley    serving    cabin    class;    section 

of   tourist   class   galley;    third   class 


Page  58 



The  most  importiint  function  on  a  passenger  liner, 
aside  from  safety  and  reliability  of  the  hull  and  the  pro- 
pulsion machinery,  is  the  preparation  of  food  for  the 
passengers  and  the  service  of  that  food  in  the  dining 
rooms.  Excellence  of  sleeping  comfort,  luxuriousness  of 
furnishing,  eye  satisfaction  from  elaborate  decor,  enter- 
tainment through  the  ear  or  the  eye,  all  quickly  lose  their 
charm  unless  the  passenger  is  fed  regularly  with  appetiz- 
ing and  satisfying  meals  served  promptly  and  courteous- 
ly on  well-set  tables  in  a  well-ventilated  room.  Therefore, 
in  many  respects,  the  galley  and  its  auxiliary  compart- 
ments, are  the  most  important  part  of  a  passenger  vessel. 

The  President  Cleielami  has  four  galleys  and  numerous 
pantries  fitted  with  the  most  modern  electrical  ec]uipment 
for  preparing  and  for  cooking  food.  These  are  the  Cabin 
class  galley,  the  Tourist  class  galley,  the  Third  class  gal- 
ley, and  the  crew's  g.illey.  All  of  these  galleys  are  on  "B" 
deck  adjacent  to  the  dining  rooms  they  serve. 

Cabin  class  and  Tourist  class  galleys  are  in  one  com- 
partment of  the  hull  located  aft  of  the  Cabin  class  dining 
room,  and  forward  of  the  Tourist  class  dining  room. 
Reference  to  the  general  arrangement  plan  of  "B  "  deck 
will  indicate  that  the  space  occupied  by  these  two  galleys 
is  larger  than  either  of  the  dining  rooms  they  serve.  Note 
also  that  on  "C "  deck  immediately  below  the  Cabin  class 
dining  room  and  the  galley  space  are  located  the  dry  and 
the  refrigerated  stores  that  serve  these  spaces. 

In  the  space  occupied  by  the  main  galley  are  arranged 
not  only  the  two  galleys,  but  all  their  auxiliary  pantries, 
and  the  arrangement  is  so  planned  that  all  service  move- 
ments are  streamlined.  No  waiter  coming  out  of  either 
dining  room  crosses  the  path  of  a  waiter  going  in.  Path 
of  the  outward-bound  waiter  brings  him  into  contact  with 
the  equipment  that  takes  care  of  soiled  tableware,  cutlery 
and  napery.  Path  of  waiter  in-bound  is  planned  to  bring 
him  in  contact  with  the  service  pantries  where  he  fills  his 

The  heart  of  the  kitchen  is  always  the  range.  Cleve- 

land's main  galley  is  fitted  with  electric  ranges  by  Hot- 
point,  Inc.  Also  by  Hotpoint  are  the  electric  "back 
shelves"  and  the  "back  shelf"  broilers;  the  electric  roast- 
ing ovens;  the  electric  baking  ovens;  and  the  electric 
deep-fry  kettles. 

The  bakery  in  this  galley  is  equipped  to  take  care  of 
the  bread,  cake,  pie  and  pastry  needs  of  the  entire  ship. 
This  bakery  is  fitted  with  a  dough  mixer  built  by  the 
Triumph  Mfg.  Co.  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  that  is  served  by 
a  Century  Wat-a-Mat  liquid  regulator  furnished  by  the 
Fred  D.  Pfenning  Co.  of  Columbus,  Ohio.  Special  bread 
racks  for  the  finished  product  were  furnished  by  Union 
Steel  Products  Co.,  Albion,  Michigan. 

All  cooking  in  all  galleys  is  done  on  electric  ranges 
or  broilers,  with  the  exception  of  certain  vegetables  and 
soup  stock  which  are  cooked  by  steam.  All  galleys  have 
complete  electric-mechanical  dishwashing  and  drying 
equipment  furnished  by  the  Colt's  Patent  Fire  Arms 
Mfg.  Co. 

Special  pantry  spaces  provided  in  the  main  galley  to 
take  care  of  Cabin  class  and  Tourist  class  include:  coffee 
service;  vegetable  preparation  and  cooking;  butchering; 
pot  washing  and  storage;  silver  cleaning  and  storage; 
dish  and  glass  cleaning  and  storage;  crockery  storage;  and 
baking  and  bread  storage.  The  waiters'  pantry  and  a  serv- 
ice bar  are  located  outside  the  Cabin  class  dining  room. 
For  further  food  and  beverage  service  outside  of  dining 
rooms  there  are  10  pantries  as  follows:  5  for  crew  use; 
1  diet  pantry;  2  for  engine  and  deck  officers,  1  for  the 
captain,  and  y  for  passenger  service. 

Presiding  over  this  electrified  main  galley  will  be  a 
supervising  chef,  a  sous-chef,  a  soup  and  fish  cook,  a  roast 
cook,  a  round  cook,  a  grill  cook,  a  vegetable  cook,  several 
assistance  cooks,  a  coffee  man,  a  cold  meat  pantry  man 
and  14  scullions. 

Fifty-four  waiters  will  be  required  to  serve  all  the 
Clei'eland's  three  classes  of  passengers  as  well  as  officers 
and  crew. 

Blickman,  Inc.,  of  Weehawken,  N.  J.,  furnished  much 

Below:  Vegetable  preparation  room.  Top,  cen.  j^^^SSi    ^^i>-^ 

ten   Bakery,  sliowing  bread  oven.  «    .  ^"^^ 

"  i 

Below:    Hotpoint    ranges.     Bottom,    center: 
Crew's  galley. 

JANUARY     •      I94i 

Page  59 

of  the  special  pantry  and  galley  equipment. 


Serving  the  personal  needs  of  passengers  and  crew  are 
a  number  of  shops  and  personal  service  rooms,  including 
a  photographic  supply  and  service  shop,  a  Cabin  class 
dress  shop,  a  Tourist  class  novelty  shop,  several  barber 
shops,  a  beauty  shop,  a  gymnasium,  a  massage  room,  a 
completely  equipped  steam-heated  dog  kennel,  and  the 
crew's  slop  chest. 


A  complete  four-ward,  eight-room  hospital  is  located 
on  "B'  deck.  This  will  be  under  the  supervision  of 
American  President  Lines  Chief  Surgeon,  Dr.  Rodney  A. 
Yoell.  It  is  mechanically  ventilated  and  air  conditioned, 
and  has  sound  insulated  partitions.  There  is  a  six-bed 
crew's  ward,  a  two-bed  isolation  ward,  a  two-bed  men's 
ward,  a  two-bed  women's  ward;  a  fully-equipped  operat- 
ing-room, a  dispensary,  a  diet  kitchen,  and  an  attendant's 
room.  Each  of  the  wards  has  a  bathroom  adjoining.  Two 
registered  nurses  will  take  care  of  the  patients  under 
supervision  of  the  doctor.  Included  in  the  equipment  are 
an  X-Ray  machine  of  the  latest  type  by  General  Electric 
Company,  and  an  obstetrical  bed. 

When  the  Cleveland  has  a  capacity  passenger  load  and 
a  full  crew  complement,  she  will  have  one  hospital  bed 
ready  for  every  73  persons  aboard.  One  hospital  bed  for 
every  200  persons  is  considered  by  public  health  author- 

ities to  be  adequate  for  the  needs  of  the  average  com- 

In  addition  to  the  hospital,  the  ship's  surgeon  will  have 
offices  on  "A"  deck,  including  a  consulting-room  with 
adequate  facilities  for  examination,  and  a  pleasantly 
furnished  waiting-room.  Forward  on  "A"  deck  is  a  dis- 
pensary for  serving  minor  medical  needs  of  the  crew. 

Medicines  carried  aboard  would  just  about  stock  the 
pharmaceutical  shelves  of  a  modern  drugstore.  They  in- 
clude practically  everything  from  aspirin  to  penicillin 
and  an  ample  supply  of  blood  plasma. 

A  special  nurse  will  give  full-time  attention  to  super- 
vision of  the  children's  playroom. 

Unique  among  steamship  lines  is  the  American  Presi- 
dent Lines'  medical  department  in  that  it  holds  that 
highly  coveted  award — the  American  College  of  Sur- 
geons' Certificate  of  Approval. 

President  Clefeliind  is  the  most  modern,  the  most 
luxurious,  and  the  safest  passenger  vessel  now  operating 
on  regular  schedule  across  the  Pacific.  She  has  a  sturdy 
steel  hull  of  ample  strength  to  take  care  of  itself  in  any 
weather.  Her  propulsion  power  plant  has  plenty  of  re- 
serve power  to  maintain  schedules.  Her  safety  equipment 
for  all  emergencies  is  more  than  sufficient  to  meet  all 
requirements.  Her  ventilation,  air  conditioning,  and  com- 
missary are  planned  to  maintain  the  best  health  condi- 
tions of  passengers  and  crew.  She  is  the  most  perfectly 
rat-proofed  vessel  afloat.  Her  scheduled  route  is  one  of 
the  most  exotically  romantic  in  the  world.  The  only  thing 
left  to  say  is,  "Buy  a  ticket!" 


One  hundred  cooks,  stewards,  waiters  and  bellboys  as- 
signed to  the  American  President  Lines'  new  President 
Cleveland  began  their  "refresher"  course  November  17  at 
the  U.  S.  Maritime  School  at  Alameda,  California.  The 
intensive  four-weeks  schooling  period  preceded  the  de- 
livery of  the  23,000-ton  liner  from  Bethlehem- Alameda 
shipyard,  which  took  place  December  15. 

According  to  T.  J.  Cokely,  vice  president  in  charge 
of  operations,  the  training  is  designed  not  merely  to  re- 
store prewar  levels  of  service  neglected  during  the  war 
years,  but  to  create  new  standards  of  luxury  service  in 

keeping  with  the  postwar  strides  in  travel  comfort  which 
the  President  Cleveland  represents. 

All  100  enrollees,  whose  wages  were  paid  by  American 
President  Lines,  performed  their  "schoolwork"  under 
conditions  that  simulated  those  on  board  the  big  liner. 
Chefs  and  cooks  prepared  meals  stressing  an  international 
cuisine  that  duplicate  the  menus  offered  during  the  voy- 
age. An  exact  replica  of  a  stateroom  was  built  at  the 
school  to  facilitate  standard  practices  in  making  the  new 
convertible  types  of  sofa  beds.  Waiters  received  a 
thorough  course  that  includes  the  serving  of  wines  and 

students  enrolled  in  the  Cook- 
ing. Baking  and  Butchering 
School  turn  to  preparing  the 
courses  on  the  special  menu  tor 
the  day.  Individualized  in- 
struction designed  to  give  a 
well-rounded  training  in  food 
preparation  on  board  ship  is 
the  keynote  of  the  course  at 
the  Maritime  Service  Training 
station,   Alameda,   California. 

Ship's  cooks  learn  pointers  on 
meatcutting  during  course  of 
training  in  the  Cooking,  Baking 
and    Butchering    School. 

Page  60 



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Special  dishes,  and  had  actual  practice  in  waiting  on  all 
types  of  guests  acting  as  passengers,  including  children. 
Bellboys  were  specially  coached  on  points  of  courtesy 
and  tact. 

Participating  in  the  course  as  instructors  were  Alan 
Agnew,  veteran  APL  chief  steward  who  will  serve  in  that 

capacity  on  the  new  ship,  and  Herman  L.  Schurtz,  the 
vessel's  chef  de  cuisine.  Schurtz,  former  chef  on  the 
Leviathim.  was  once  characterized  by  the  late  Sir  Thomas 
Lipton  as  "the  greatest  chef  in  the  world"  and  has  held 
notable  culinary  posts  in  London  and  Paris  and  at  the 

The  APL  refresher  course  was  held  in  cooperation  with 
the  Maritime  Commission  and  the  Marine  Cooks  and 
Stewards  Union.  Although  many  of  those  attending  are 
prewar  personnel  of  the  Line,  others  include  qualified 
men  with  hotel  experience,  and  men  whose  ability  has 
been  proved  on  interim  ships  of  the  Company's  fleet  in 
operation  since  the  end  of  the  war. 

The  course,  given  for  the  first  time  on  the  West  Coast, 
is  one  of  several  maritime  training  courses  which  the  U. 
S.  Maritime  School,  under  the  direction  of  Captain  Mal- 
colm E.  Crossman,  offers  seagoing  personnel.  The  APL 
program  was  under  the  direction  of  Lt.  Cmdr.  Constantin 

Port  Stewards  Society  visits  the  school.  Lett  to  right:  Paul  Baker. 
Pacific  Transport  Lines;  Eugene  Blank.  Pope  t  Talbot;  Con  Crimlnlus, 
APL  P.  F.  Cannon.  Matson;  Al  Agnew,  Chief  Steward  on  Cleveland; 
Tim  Mullin  APL  Al  Bissell,  Weyerhaeuser;  Jack  T.  McCartney.  Labor 
Relations  Consultant  PASA;  Frank  Inglean  U.  S.  Lines;  Paul  Bab- 
cock,   Pacific  Transport  Lines. 

nmm  clevelmd  mmm  m\% 


Bethlehem  -A  lameda 

Chief    Hull   Draftsman, 

The  President  Cleveland  was  inclined  on  November 
28,  1947  in  compliance  with  Coast  Guard  Regulations 
and  the  Maritime  Commission's  Specifications  for  the 
purpose  of  determming  the  center  of  gravity  and  the 
metacentric  height  of  the  vessel  in  the  light  condition, 
and  from  this  the  available  metacentric  height  and  sta- 
bility in  the  various  conditions  of  loading.  The  experi- 
ment was  conducted  by  personnel  from  the  Bethlehem- 
Alameda  Shipyard,  Inc.  and  Bethlehem  Steel  Company's 
San  Francisco  Yard  under  the  direction  of  the  Coast 

A  ship  is  said  to  be  stable  if  it  returns  to  its  original 
position   after  being   heeled   over   by   the   wind   or   by 

wave  action;  if  it  moves  farther  from  its  original  posi- 
tion it  is  said  to  be  unstable.  The  Metiicentric  height  is 
a  measure  of  stability  and  is  defined  as  the  vertical  height 
from  the  center  of  gravity  of  the  vessel  to  the  meta- 
center.  The  center  of  gravity  depends  on  how  the  ship 
is  loaded  while  the  metacenter  depends  on  the  shape  of 
the  ship  and  is  virtually  constant  for  any  one  draft,  for 
small  angles  of  heel.  A  ship  with  a  small  metacenter 
height  will  roll  slowly  and  easily  and  will  probably  be 
very  comfortable,  but  may  not  provide  for  enough  re- 
serve to  keep  the  ship  stable  if  it  is  damaged.  A  large 
metacentric  height  causes  the  ship  to  roll  quickly  and 
while  it  makes  the  ship  safer  if  damaged  it  can  make 



Page  61 

the  ship  uncomfortable  and  can  cause  damage  from  ex- 
cessive roUing.  The  ship's  personnel  has  the  problem  of 
loading  the  ship  so  that  she  will  be  safe  enough  to  satisfy 
the  Coast  Guard,  which  requires  that  the  ship  be  stable 
enough  to  withstand  damage,  but  still  be  comfortable 
enough  to  keep  the  passengers  happy. 

These  rolling  characteristics  provide  a  quick  and  easy 
means  for  the  ship's  personnel  to  determine  the  meta- 
centric height  of  the  ship  in  service.  It  is  customary  to 
furnish  the  operator  with  a  table  listing  period  of  roll 
against  metacentric  height.  The  table  is  derived  from 
the  formula: 

Period  of  roll  (sees.)  equals  beam  of  vessel,  times  a 

constant  divided  by  the  square  root  of  G.  M. 
The  constant  is  determined  at  the  time  of  inclining  by 
rolling  the  ship  and  measuring  the  period.  Since  the 
G.M.  is  calculated  from  the  inclining  the  constant   is 
easily  found. 

The  metacentric  height,  or  "GM ",  is  found  by  divid- 
ing the  inclining  weight,  times  the  distance  moved,  by 
the  displacement  of  the  ship  times  the  tangent  of  the 
angle  of  heel.  After  finding  the  metacentric  height  this 
figure  is  subtracted  from  the  known  position  of  the 
metacenter  as  read  off  the  curves  of  form,  giving  the 
center  of  gravity  of  the  vessel  in  the  inclined  condition. 
From  this  the  center  of  gravity  in  various  loaded  condi- 
tions can  be  predicted.  In  practice  the  angle  of  heel  is 
measured  by  noting  the  swing  of  a  pendulum,  which 
hangs  vertically,  as  the  ship  heels  from  the  movement 
of  the  weights.  The  displacement  is  measured  as  closely 
as  possible  from  the  draft  marks  and  is  corrected  for 
the  hog  or  sag  of  the  ship  when  waterborne,  the  "built- 
in"  hog  or  sag  of  the  keel,  the  specific  gravity  and  the 
temperature  of  the  water,  and  the  fore  and  aft  trim  of 
the  vessel.  This  displacement,  when  corrected  for  liquids 
aboard,  weight  of  material  to  complete  the  ship,  and 
weight  of  tools,  dunnage  and  miscellaneous  material  not 

a  part  of  the  ship,  is  used  for  the  light  ship  weight  in  the 
Certificate  of  Deadweight. 

If  tanks  on  the  vessel  are  partially  full,  heeling  the 
ship  causes  the  liquids  to  flow  to  the  low  side,  shifting 
the  center  of  gravity  of  the  liquid  and  of  the  ship  and 
causing  the  condition  called  "free  surface"  for  which 
the  results  of  inclining  must  be  corrected.  The  correc- 
tion is  not  easily  made  unless  the  exact  boundaries  of  the 
surface  of  the  liquid  can  be  determined  so  every  effort 
is  made  to  eliminate  free  surface  by  keeping  the  tanks 
either  full  or  empty. 

Since  the  results  of  an  inclining  experiment  would  be 
inconclusive  if  the  ship  as  inclined  had  zero  or  negative 
GM  the  President  Cleveland  was  given  an  extra  margin 

Cleveland  on  drydock  at 
Bethlehem  Steel's  San  Fran- 
cisco yard,  prior  to  inclin- 
ing. Weights  are  visible 
on  the  forward  deck. 

Page  62 


Cortldndt  W.  Quinby  and  Donald  Reardon  of 
the  U.SC.G.,  Emmet  Jonej.  and  William  Baker, 
Asst.  to  Naval  Architect,  at  Bethlehem's  Ala- 
meda   Yard,     checking    results. 

Period  o( 


cked with  aid  of  gu 

of  Stability  by  filling  double  bottom  tanks  No.  2,  3  and 
4  with  water.  Free  surface  was  eliminated  from  these 
tanks  by  carrying  the  water  level  up  into  the  vent  pipes 
and  sounding  tubes.  Fuel  oil  settlers  and  potable  water 
tanks  were  partially  full  but  since  the  tanks  were  small 
and  rectangular  the  free  surface  effect  could  easily  be 
calculated.  All  other  tanks  were  drained  while  the  ship 
was  on  drydock  and  were  then  visually  inspected  to  see 
that  they  were  dry.  All  bilge  wells  were  dried.  The  ship 
was  in  steaming  condition,  with  water  in  the  boilers 
and  condensers,  but  no  machinery  was  operating.  The 
ship  was  virtually  complete  at  the  time  of  inclining, 
lacking  only  stewards  stores  and  chairs  in  some  areas. 
All  tool  boxes,  staging,  dunnage  and  yard  equipment 
had  been  removed  so  that  the  ship  was,  as  nearly  as 
possible,  in  the  'Light  Condition. " 

The  experiment  was  conducted  in  San  Francisco  be- 
tween the  wing  walls  of  Bethlehem  Steel  Company's 
No.  1  Floating  Drydock  at  7:00  a.m.  in  order  to  take 
advantage  of  quiet  water  and  to  cut  down  wind  dis- 
turbance. Pads  were  welded  to  the  stem  and  stern  at  the 
height  of  the  center  of  rotation  for  the  purpose  of 
mooring  the  ship  during  the  experiment.  The  inclining 
weights  consisted  of  concrete  blocks  mounted  on  flat 
cars,  a  total  of  41  tons,  and  running  on  a  track  across 
No.  t)  hatch.  Wire  rope  falls,  with  leads  to  cargo  winches, 
were  rigged  for  moving  the  weights. 

Three  pendulums  were  used,  following  USMC  prac- 
tice, with  lengths  ranging  from  22 V2  feet  to  21^2  feet. 
The  "plumb  bobs"  consisted  of  %"  steel  plates,  4"x7", 
slotted  and  welded  together  to  form  an  "X"  cross  sec- 
tion, in  order  to  give  the  maximum  damping  effect. 
These  plumb  bobs  were  hung  on  steel  wire  and  ar- 
ranged so  that  they  hung  in  a  bucket  of  oil  to  damp  the 
swing.  Small  buckets  were  used  and  shifted  with  each 
movement  of  the  weights  in  preference  to  troughs,  since 
the  surging  back  and  forth  of  oil  in  a  trough  is  enough 
to  swing  the  pendulum.  Wooden  battens  were  laid  on 
horses  so  that  the  deflections  of  the  wires  could  be 
marked  in  pencil  and  measured  off.  By  marking  battens 
a  permanent  record  was  made  for  future  reference. 

Telephones  were  installed  connecting  each  pendulum 
station  with  the  control  station,  which  was  located  along- 
side hatch  No.  3,  near  the  weights. 

After  marking  the  locations  of  the  pendulums  on  the 
battens  with  the  ship  upright,  deflections  were  read  with 
the  weights  moved  to  27  feet,  20  feet  and  10  feet  off 
centerline  to  port,  then  the  same  sequence  was  repeated 
on  starboard.  The  maximum  angle  of  heel  produced  was 
about  3^4  degrees. 

Pendulum  deflections  were  then  converted  to  tangents 
of  the  angle  of  heel  and  were  plotted  against  the  off 
center  movement  of  the  weights.  Any  doubtful  readings 
were  rechecked  before  moving  the  weights  to  the  next 
position,  so  that  it  was  possible  to  know  at  all  times 
whether  the  information  was  consistent.  During  the 
experiment  all  persons  not  concerned  with  the  security 
of  the  vessel  or  with  the  test  were  sent  ashore,  and  all 
those  remaining  on  board  were  warned  not  to  move 

The  movement  of  the  weights  was  sufficiently  quick 
so  that  a  slight  rolling  motion  was  imparted  to  the 
ship,   enough   to   time   the   period   of  roll.   A   gunner's 

Weights  in  the  extreme  starboard  outboard  position. 

JANUARY     •      1941 

Page  63 




d   fo 

r  th 


St  tim 

e   a 



orked    112   A 





Tl's     U 





s  ar 

d   cc 











George    Kra 

i,    cc 










asst.  outfitt 

ng  su 










r    Gib 

son,    coordir 









r;     G 







;     H 

Graves  coordinator  A.  Benton  T.  A.  Minot,  head  outfitting  super- 
visor; C.  H.  Kretschman.  acting  general  superintendent;  R.  Mahan. 
asst.  to  manager  (inspection);  J.  F.  Schmidt,  Jr..  asst,  outfitting  and 
machining  superintendent;  also  present,  but  not  shown  in  the  above 
picture  was   R.   O.    Eidell.   coordinator. 

quadrant  with  a  sensitive  bubble  was  used  to  determine 
the  start  and  finish  of  the  roll.  The  gunner's  quadrant 
was  also  used  to  give  a  quick  measure  of  the  angle  of 

The  entire  procedure  was  completed  by  10:00  a.m. 
and  the  ship  was  then  moved  out  of  the  drydock  and 
was  returned  to  the  Bethlehem-Alameda  Shipyard  to  be 
fueled  and  provisioned  for  her  sea  trials  and  delivery. 

$500,000  went  for  ratproofing  on  the  Cleveland 


George  Buchanan 
and  Andy  Faisal,  of 
Aetna  Marine. 

Showing  Schlage 
locks  on  bulkhead 
doors.  These  ma- 
rine fittings  are 
throughout  the  ship 

Ship  to  sho 
Radiomarine  te 

Page  64 


T.  C.  Ingersoll  {center. 
dent  CIcveldnd  compl. 
behalf  of  the  Maritim( 
ground).  The  Commis 
sented   by  T.  J.  Cohely 

kground)    r 

i-Alameda  Shipyard.  Inc.,  signs  Presi 
t  the  Yard.  Accepting  fhe  vessel  or 
onstruction  representative  (left,  fore 
to  American  President  Lines,  repre 
ans  (third  from  left).  Also  otficiatini; 
f  the  ceremony  were  Ray  Strickland,  chief  of  control,  Bethlehem-Alameda  (second  from  left) 
sst.  to  Mr.  Strickland  (fourth  from  leff);  George  Jackson,  assf.  superintending  engineer,  APL 
;ommodore  Henry  Nelson,  master  of  the  new  vessel;  Donald  Day,  American  Bureau  of  Shipping 

lager  of  Bethleh 
^  certificate  in  brief  ceremony 
Dmmission  is  Paul  Ivl  Mulvany 
then  turned  the  Cleveland  ov 
:e-president   in  charge  of   operd 

Taken  in  side-port  loading  room:  Left  to  right:  K.  W.  Nasi,  U.  S. 
Public  Health  Service;  W.  A.  Williamson,  Lt.  Cmdr.  U.S.C.G.;  W.  R. 
Gill,  Lt.,  U.S.C.G.;  David  Neilson.  Head  Hull  Inspector.  U.S.M.C; 
H.  R.  Carlson.  U.S.P.H.S.;  James  Scott.  Asst.  Ivlaritimc  Director, 
Pacific  Coast;  J.  H.  Conlon.  Lt.  Cmdr..  U.S.C.G.  These  people 
represented   the  three  official    bodies  for   whom   the  sea   trials   are   run. 

U.S.M.C.  Inventory  Crew,  left  to  right:  E.  R.  Worst,  L.  H.  Helmke, 
R.  E.  Saelens.  This  is  one  of  the  toughest  iobs.  involving  receiving, 
checking,  boiing.  stowing,  delivery,  inventory  of  all  movable  and 
removal  parts  and  spare  parts  with  official  Washington  allowance 
lists.  The  spare  parts  inventory  alone  amounts  to  half  a  million  dollars. 

the    Electro 



ment will  aid  in  guid- 
ing the  big  ship  through 
channel  or  sea.  through 
fog    or    storm    or    night. 

on.  Master  of  th 
eland,  and  Georg 
>n.       president      o 

the  23.000-ton  pas 
ship.      raise      fhe 
house  flag   as  the 
dent    Cleveland 
livered    from    fhe 
time       Commission 
APL.      The    flag-rais 
ceremonies    took    pi 
aboard  the  liner  a 
44       from       which 
eland     later 



for    the    Oi 
capacity    p 

of  550  persons  on  its 
maiden  voyage-  Others 
in  the  group,  leff  to 
right,  are:  Lloyd  Flem- 
ing. Maritime  Commis- 
sion representative  on 
the  West  Coast;  T.  J. 
Cokely.  APL  vice  pre: 
Russell    Luti.   executive  < 

f  Pi 



Page  65 


[  COMFORT  AT  m 

Interior  Design 

and  Decoration 

Public  rooms  and  staterooms  on 
these  new  President  liners  are  deco- 
rated in  American  moderne  style 
very  deftly  accentuated  by  occasion- 
al introduction  of  Chinese  motifs, 
thus  saluting  both  America  and  the 

Orient.  Responsible  for  the  design 
is  the  Interior  Decoration  Division 
of  George  Sharp,  N;ival  Architect, 
New  York.  E.xecution  of  the  design 
and  of  all  joiner  work,  ventilation 
ducts  and  much  other  light  construc- 
tion, was  contracted  by  Aetna  Ma- 
rine Corporation. 

First  impression  on  entering  the 

Top  picture:  Veranda  de  lu«e  suite; 
bedroom    is   to   the   left. 

Bottom:    Cabin  Class  Stateroom. 

Enclosed    Promenade    Deck. 

Page  66 


JANUARY     •      I  94i 

Page  67 


promenade  deck  is  spaciousness. 
Most  of  the  promenade  in  way  of 
the  superstructure  erection  is  en- 
closed with  Kearfott  Clear  Vu  wm- 
dows.  Much  of  the  inboard  bulk- 
heads separating  this  promenade 
space  from  the  public  rooms,  is  in 
large  fixed  glass  windows  and  this 
combination  produces  the  illusion 
of  great  wide-open  spaces.  The 
promenade  itself  is  wide  so  that  with 

six-footers  stretched  out  on  steamer 
chairs  against  the  inboard  bulkhead, 
there  is  still  a  wide  promenade  free 
to  pedestrians.  Twelve  times  around 
this  deck  equals  a  mile,  says  the  sign. 
Ships  figure  in  nautical  miles  so 
there  must  be  approximately  250 
feet  of  this  promenade,  on  port  and 
starboard  sides. 

The  deck   of   the  promenade   is 
covered  with  dark  green  Koroseal 

(  Vinyl  plastic  )  molded  into  a  dia- 
mond-shaped pattern  with  semi- 
abrasive  surface  and  with  small  gut- 
ters outlining  the  pattern.  On  labora- 
tory tests,  this  comparatively  new 
material  proves  to  have:  many  times 
the  wearing  qualities  of  rubber  or 
linoleum;  a  much  harder  surface 
than  any  other  comparable  deck 
covering;  a  great  degree  of  fire  re- 
sistance;   and   possibilities   in   color 

schemes  that  are  only  Hmited  by  the 
imagination  of  the  designer.  The 
same  material  is  used  on  the  Cleve- 
land in  many  forms  such  as  simu- 
lated leather  and  patent  leather  up- 
holstery materials,  and  shower  cur- 
tains. It  is  a  product  of  the  B.  F. 
Goodrich  Company  and  was  sup- 
plied to  the  Cleveland  by  Sloane- 
Blabon  Corp.  of  New  York. 

All  public  deck  spaces  not  car- 

peted are  covered  with  moulded 
Koroseal  or  Koroseal  tile.  This  ap- 
plication of  vinyl  plastic  deck  cov- 
erings is  said  to  be  the  most  exten- 
sive on  any  ship  afloat. 

Interiors  of  the  public  rooms  on 
this  deck  produce  the  same  illusion 
of  great  wide  open  space  that  pre- 
vails on  the  promenade  and  for  the 
same  reason  plus  the  lavish  use  of 
plate  glass  doors  between  the  rooms. 

The  arrangement  and  comparative 
size  of  the  public  rooms  and  the 
swimming  pool  are  shown  on  the 
plans  herewith. 

Main  lounge,  a  large  room  with 
abundant  fenestration,  is  decorated 
and  furnished  in  restrained  good 
taste.  Focal  point  is  the  large  fire- 
place with  mirror  above,  central  on 
the  aft  bulkhead.  Into  a  niche  in  the 
mirror    is    set    a    specially-designed 

Top   picture:    Tourist   lo 

Right:    Tourist  class  stateri 

Chinese  style  clock  and  flanking  the 
fireplace  on  each  side  are  green  lac- 
quered cabinets  trimmed  with  gold- 
en bronze  and  supporting  porcelain 
figurine  lamps  in  modern  Chinese 
motif.  A  beautiful  pair  of  daven- 
ports with  end  tables  form  an  ingle 
nook.  Occasional  chairs  and  tables 
in  excellent  taste  and  design  for 
luxurious  comfort  are  supplied  in 
adequate  quantity.  Notably  and 
thankfully  missed  is  that  great 
confusion  of  large  overstuffed  atroc- 
ities that  usually  fills  the  main 
lounges  on  the  passenger  liner.  Ar- 
not  &  Company,  engineers  and  de- 
signers of  distinctive  furniture  have 
produced  sleeping  accommodations 
and  public  room  equipment  that 
combine  passenger  luxury  with 
space-saving  efficiency. 

Forward  foyer  and  stair  hall 
features  a  large  mural  on  the  after 
bulkhead  of  the  well.  This  mural 
depicts  the  hills  on  each  side  of  the 
entrance  to  San  Francisco  Bay,  the 
Golden  Gate  Bridge  and  the  outer 
portion  of  the  bay. 

The  Smoking  Room,  a  somewhat 
larger  room  than  the  main  lounge, 
is  panelled  beautifully  in  mahogany. 
The  predominant  note  in  decor  and 
furniture  is  a  restrained  moderne 
American,  and  the  Chinese  motif  is 
touched  only  in  a  modern  Chinese 
chest  with  jade  handles,  and  in  the 
decorative  treatment  on  the  base  of 
table  lamps.  On  the  port  and  star- 
board sides  of  this  room  are  built-in 
seats  upholstered  in  Koroseal  and 
arranged  in  sections  to  accommodate 
small  groups.  As  in  all  the  public 
spaces  the  lighting  is  indirect  and  is 
concealed  in  a  ceiling  soffit  so  skill- 
fully harmonized  as  to  be  scarcely 
noticeable  when  the  lights  are  off. 
This  soffit  directs  soft  illumination 
onto  bulkheads  and  ceiling,  giving 
dim  daylight  illusion. 

Next  in  order  aft  is  the  main  en- 
trance hall  and  stairwell  with  its 
flower  and  gift  shop  starboard,  and 
service  bar  port,  and  the  same  in- 
teresting brass  stair  rail  design  al- 
ready described.  Central  in  decor 
motif  here  are  the  elevator  doors 
done  in  Chinese  style  gold  on  black 

Short  passages  port  and  starboard 
contacting  service  rooms  lead  to  the 
cocktail  lounge  where  we  pass  im- 
mediately into  modern  China.  Along 
the     after     bulkhead     upholstered 

booths  are  topped  by  a  wall  curving 
forward  and  upward  to  the  ceiling. 
Between  this  wall  and  the  top  of  the 
upholstered  booth  seat  is  a  depressed 
recess  which  reflects  indirect  light- 
ing on  the  wall.  The  wall  itself  is 
painted  a  deep  Chinese  red  and  is 
decorated  with  Chinese  line  designs 
in  gold  wire.  The  color  scheme,  even 
the  forms  of  chairs,  tables,  bar  stools 
and  their  pedestals,  and  the  bar  it- 
self, are  all  reminiscent  of  Chinese 
art  and  architecture. 

All  upholstered  furniture  in  the 
ship  and  all  built-in  upholstered 
seats  are  stufifed  with  interlaced  curl- 
ed hair  supplied  by  the  curled  hair 
division  of  Armour  and  Company, 
Chicago.  This  product  is  curled  hair 
knitted  into  burlap  or  cloth  sheet- 
ing, and  made  up  into  rolls  or  cut 
to  special  patterns  to  suit  the  job. 
Finishing  hardware  in  brass,  bronze 
and  white  metal  was  furnished  by 
P  and  F  Corbin  of  New  Britain, 
Connecticut.  This  includes  concealed 
holders  to  operate  all  fire  doors, 
heavy  duty  overhead  checks  on  all 
self-closing  doors,  cast  bronze  olive 
knuckle  self-lubricating  butts  for  all 
doors,  door  stops  and  holders,  push 
plates,  lavatory  bolts,  strikes,  coat 
and  hat  hooks,  bumpers  and  handles. 
Door  locks,  the  heart  of  shipboard 
hardware,  are  Schlage  Lock  Com- 
pany's rust-proof  marine  product. 

The  Marine  Veranda  follows  the 
suggestion  of  its  name  and  creates 
the  feeling  of  outdoors  and  a  night 
club  at  the  same  time.  Heavy  white 
classical  moldings  outline  doors  and 
contrast  with  the  dark  walls.  Win- 
dows on  three  sides  of  the  room  are 
richly  draped  in  eggshell  mohair 
with  a  banana  leaf  design.  The 
orchestra  backing  —  painted  the 
same  as  the  wall  —  is  combed  to 
show  its  silver  lining.  To  carry  out 
further  the  veranda  effect,  chairs  are 
made  of  open-work  cast  aluminum 
painted  white.  Pierre  Bourdelle,  an 
artist  well-known  for  his  work 
in  carved  linoleum,  produced 
panels  for  the  face  of  the  movie 
projection  booth  and  for  wall  space 
above  the  windows.  Vinyl  tile  is 
used  as  deck  covering  in  the  Veran- 
da. An  off-white  feature  strip  cir- 
cles the  midnight  blue  dance  floor, 
repeating  the  curved  design  of  light- 
ing ingrown  into  the  ceiling  above 
the  tables. 

Illustrations  herewith  give  a  much 

better  idea  of  the  public  rooms  than 
could  be  conveyed  by  a  multitude 
of  words,  attempting  a  detailed  des- 
cription. Just  outside  the  after  win- 
dows of  the  marine  veranda  on  the 
open  portion  of  the  promenade  deck 
is  the  cabin  class  built-in  swimming 
pool,  finished  in  ceramic  tile  and 
equipped  with  a  wide  beach  space. 

Sleeping  Accommodations 

With  very  few  exceptions,  cabin 
class  staterooms  are  located  at  the 
ship's  side.  They  vary  in  size  and 
passenger  capacity,  but  the  average 
room  with  its  generously  propor- 
tioned private  bath  and  extensive 
wardrobe  and  trunk  space  is  equip- 
ped for  three  people.  Through  care- 
ful design  and  arrangement  of  furni- 
ture, the  atmosphere  of  an  intimate 
sitting  room  or  lounge  is  created, 
suiting  the  room  to  daytime  living. 
Beneath  one  or  two  softly  draped 
airports,  unified  as  one  large  window 
by  a  Venetian  blind,  sits  a  sofa  bed. 
It  is  upholstered  in  an  original  pin- 
stripe mohair  and  has  the  dimen- 
sions and  appearance  of  a  regular 
sofa.  The  existence  of  wall-flush 
upper  and  lower  berths  opposite  is 
barely  indicated  by  their  outlines 
on  the  wall.  At  night  passengers 
push  buttons  and  births  glide  from 
their  vertical,  stowed  position  and 
with  further  digital  pressure  on 
another  disk,  the  back  of  the  sofa 
bed  slips  casually  down  to  rest  on 
the  seat.  Thus,  quickly  and  easily, 
the  room  is  transformed  into  a  bed- 
room— beds  made  up  and  ready  for 
use.  Here  again  Arnot  &  Co's.  en- 
gineering skill  has  made  itself  ap- 
parent, and  the  Arnot  Guest-operat- 
ed Sleeper  has  revolutionized  ship- 
board living,  making  every  room  a 

The  staterooms,  their  furniture 
and  other  facilities,  are  planned  to 
please  the  passenger  whether  his  de- 
sire of  the  hour  be  to  sleep  thor- 
oughly on  a  luxurious  mattress  of 
foam  neoprene- rubber,  or  to  enter- 
tain from  a  comfortable  lounge 
chair  upholstered  in  the  same  resi- 
lient material.  If  he  likes  to  read  late 
into  the  night,  without  disturbing 

Top:   Writing    room. 
Bottom:    tv^ain   lounge,   with  fireplac 

Page  70 


JANUARY     •      1941 

Page  71 

others,  he  may  flick  off  the  end  table 
lamp,  turn  on  a  light  in  the  serrated 
glass  cylinder  which  forms  the 
lamp's  base  and  direct  light  to  his 
book  only. 

To  serve  the  feminine  traveling 
world,  a  vanity  unit  is  concealed  in 
the  graceful  modern  dresser.  Miss 
America,  or  her  sister,  simply  pulls 
out  the  top  drawer  of  the  dresser, 
raises  and  tilts  back  a  mirror-faced 
lid  revealing  a  spacious  compart- 
ment made  to  care  for  small  bottles, 
jars  and  such  necessities.  Thus,  re- 
posed in  a  neat  vanity  chair,  sur- 
rounded with  equipment  and  ade- 
quate lighting  she  goes  painlessly  to 
work.  When  she  finishes,  another 
job  can  be  accomplished  with  the 
top  down.  The  smooth  surface  of 
the  open  drawer's  cover  heartily  sug- 
gests that  the  stationery  in  the  next 

Left:    Children's   Playroorr 

elow:    The   Marine  Veranda 

compartment  is  destined  to  be  used 
for  a  letter  home.  Thus  the  dresser 
becomes  a  desk! 

Each  ship  offers  two  de  luxe  suites 
of  three  rooms  each,  specially  en- 
dowed to  please  the  most  demand- 
ing critic.  The  layout  comprises  a 
real  bedroom,  a  sitting  room  and  a 
"veranda"  lounge  with  large  ob- 
servation windows.  Instead  of  creat- 
ing a  contrast,  as  in  other  staterooms, 
by  setting  bleached  oak  furniture 
and  light  shades  of  upholstery 
against  darker,  shadow-soft  walls, 
the  designer  has  done  these  suites  in 
the  more  conventional,  reverse  color 
scheme,  maintaining  at  the  same 
time  the  simplicity  and  grace  found 
in  modern  lines  of  furniture 
throughout  the  ship.  With  rich  ma- 
hogany used  for  woodwork  of  dress- 
ers, tables  and  chairs,  he  has  mixed 

a  warm  blue  carpet,  light  pastel 
blue  walls,  textured  drapery  and 
upholstery  fabrics  in  tones  of  beige, 
rose  and  dark  blue,  all  of  which 
blend  with  or  complement  each 
other.  To  match  the  woodwork,  cig- 
arette-and  alcohol-proof  Formica 
used  for  dresser  and  table  tops  is 
made  of  "realwood"  mahogany. 

In  each  stateroom — for  comfort's 
sake —  a  Carrier  "Weathermaster  " 
unit  and  fan  counteract  the  heat  or 
cold  with  air  conditioning  and  cir- 
culation. Control  is  either  automatic 
by  Minneapolis-Honeywell  thermo- 
static regulators,  or  manual  through 
manipulation  in  the  room.  All  cabin 
class  rooms  have  private  phones  for 
intraship  communication,  and  from 
public  booths  all  ship-to-shore  busi- 
ness may  be  taken  care  of. 

American  President  Lines  is  mak- 
ing available  to  its  passengers  an- 
other innovation  in  sleeping  com- 
fort, the  G-E  Automatic  blanket,  on 
request.  All  the  passenger  needs  to 
do  is  to  select  the  warmth  desired, 
set  the  control,  then  let  the  blanket 
automatically  maintain  the  same 
even  warmth  though  temperatures 
vary  greatly  on  wintertime  high  seas 
of  the  Pacific. 

Facilities  in  the  tourist  bathrooms 
include  a  space-saving  combination 
unit  with  toilet,  Monel-metal  wash 
basin,  a  medicine  cabinet  and  light. 

*  ^■jfT^I^^           J^^H^ 

m.    & 




Left  to  right:  Julian 
W.  O.  Schrader,  fn 
Lundegaard  and  Non 

nst.  Assistant  Manager.  Bethlehe 
U.S.M.C.,  Washington,  D.C.;  ( 
1   A.    ProHltl.   Aetna   Marine. 

Suspended  on  the  wall  are  a  stream- 
lined thermo-carafe  and  a  handy 
satin-finished  steel  Kleenex  cabinet. 

Dining   Room 

Dining  "cabin  class"  cannot  help 
but  be  an  appetizing  treat  in  decor 
as  well  as  in  food.  Imagine  a  sump- 
tuous Hawaiian  foliage  mural  by  a 
prominent  artist,  Andre  Durenceau, 
blended  into  a  soft  grey-blue  and 
beige  color  scheme;  modern  red 
gum  buffets  trimmed  on  top  with 
edge-lighted  Harriton  carved  glass 
panels;  add  comfort  in  gold  leather 
chairs  at  regular  tables  or  ci)ngenial 
chatter  at  diagonally  patterned  ban- 
quettes beneath  a  long  range  of 
lighted  windows.  Try  Tourist  Class 

— more  carved  glass — more  mirrors, 
some  bleached  oak  fluted  columns — 
red  chairs  contrasting  with  French 
gray  walls,  all  done  with  the  light 
hand  of  restraint  for  long  durability. 
Background  for  all  this  interior 
decoration,  its  support  and  its 
strength  is  the  joiner  construction 
designed,  manufactured  and  erected 
by  the  Aetna  Marine  Corporation. 
Double  flush  steel  divisional  panels 
inclosing  a  mat  of  fibre  glass  insula- 
tion, are  cleverly  formed  on  the 
edges  to  make  a  strong  interlocking 
joint,  which  acts  as  a  stiflFener.  Panel 
bulkheads  of  this  type  eliminate  the 
use  of  posts  or  fasteners  other  than 
retaining  members  top  and  bottom. 
Even  the  marine  veneer  ceilings  are 

Vee-jointed.  Doors  and  frames  are 
fashioned  to  blend  naturally  into 
this  construction  and  form  a  smooth 
panelled  wall  that  makes  a  wonder- 
ful base  for  decorative  treatment. 
These  panels  are  fireproof  and  ex- 
tremely resistant  to  the  conduction 
of  temperature,  easily  passing  the 
tests  imposed  by  Senate  Resolution 
184.  For  the  structure  above  the 
boat  deck,  the  same  type  of  paneling 
is  made  in  aluminum  alloy. 

Aetna  Marine  Corporation  de- 
serves great  praise  for  the  excellent 
workmanship  and  the  high  finish 
achieved  in  the  Cleveland's  interiors, 
and  for  the  masterful  fashion  in 
which  the  various  decorative  motifs 
were  applied. 


There  are  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
square  feet  of  Johns-Manville  Mari- 
nite  asbestos  panels  on  the  ship. 
They  appear  in  ceilings  and  walls 
where  their  purpose,  aside  from 
beauty  of  finish,  is  fire  protection 
and  acoustical  advantage. 
I.  Stateroom.  2.  Passageway,  look- 
ing aft  into  third  class  dining  room 
(portside).  3.  Dining  room.  4.  Cock- 
tail   lounge.   5.    Lounge,    i.    Lounge. 

Dex-O-Tex  Magnabond  Crossfield 
Products  Corp.'s  Dex-O-Tex  prod- 
ucts are  used  as  bonding  agents 
under  deck  planking,  swimming 
pool  tiling,  and  elsewhere.  They 
are  also  to  be  found  on  topside 
od  decks  where  they  are  almost 
wear-proof  and  slide-proof. 

Page  74 


HiCH  nmm  m  hich  tehpehature 

mm  1^  urn  m  mmm  vessels 

Pari  1 

Note:  This  article  is  in  two  parts.  Part  II,  dealing 
with  Merchant  Vessels,  will  appear  in  the  February 
Pacific  Marine  Review. 

All  front  line  combat  ships  and  most  auxiliary  ships 
in  the  Navy  at  the  present  time  are  driven  by  turbines 
powered  by  steam  generated  in  watertube  boilers.  Oil 
is  the  fuel  used  to  generate  the  steam.  The  problem  that 
confronts  designers  in  this  respect  is  to  extract  every 
possible  iota  of  energy  from  the  oil,  and  to  transform 
this  energy  into  the  maximum  possible  driving  force  at 
the  propeller,  using  boilers  and  propulsion  machinery 
that  are  as  light-weight  and  compact  as  possible,  and 
that  are  of  rugged,  absolutely  reliable  construction. 

There  has  thus  been  a  constant  search  on  the  part  of 
marine  engineers  for  boilers  that  could  reliably  produce 
increasing  amounts  of  steam  while  burning  the  mini- 
mum practical  amount  of  fuel.  Similarly,  engines  have 
been  under  constant  review  to  develop  designs  that 
could  transform  the  energy  in  the  steam  into  driving 
force  at  the  propeller  with  an  absolute  minimum  of 
losses.  At  the  same  time,  in  order  to  obtain  utmost  speed 
and  cruising  radius,  and  in  order  to  be  able  to  install 
the  greatest  possible  amount  of  armor  and  armament, 
there  has  been  a  steady  demand  for  reduction  in  the 
weight  and  in  the  space  occupied  by  boilers  and  en- 

Engineers  have  known  for  a  great  many  years  that, 
other  things  being  equal,  power  plants  using  steam  at 
higher  pressures  and  temperatures  can  transform  fuel 
into  driving  power  more  efficiently  than  can  plants  using 
steam  at  lower  pressures  and  temperatures.  For  example, 
at  a  steam  pressure  of  .lOO  psi  and  at  a  temperature  of 
500°  F,  approximately  40 /r  more  fuel  would  be  re- 
quired per  shaft  horsepower  than  would  be  required 
when  using  steam  at  600  psi  and  850°  F,  and  60% 
more  than  for  steam  at  1200  psi  and  900°  F  (Fig.  3). 

However,  the  use  of  higher  steam  pressures  and  tem- 
peratures involved  extensive  complications,  particularly 
with  regard  to  strength  of  materials  and  design  and  con- 
struction techniques  Natural  likes  and  dislikes  of  men 
who  had  worked  for  years  with  lower  pressures  and 
temperatures  also  had  to  be  overcome.  The  change  to 

higher  pressures  and  temperatures  was  thus  a  very  grad- 
ual development  (Fig.  1).  The  eflorts  to  increase  effi- 
ciently and  decrease  weight  were  first  limited  to  those 
improvements  made  possible  by  changes  in  types  and 
designs  of  engines  and  boilers  and  in  the  types  of  fuels. 
When  the  benefits  derived  from  these  changes  began 
to  approach  their  limitations,  and  as  materials  and  tech- 
niques were  improved,  the  change  to  higher  pressures 
and  temperatures  was  accelerated.  The  curves  of  Fig.  1 
show  this  quite  graphically  with  respect  to  watertube 
boilers.  From  1895  to  1925  pressures  and  temperatures 
increased  very  slowly,  but  boiler  weights  decreased  and 

iislsis     Hill!     sss  =  s     SoSsss 

;:,::::  ::::  S:  :::;- 

'---   ^;-    

!:;^;;:  ::c  ::::  :::::: 
' \ 

Pounds  0*  Oil  P«r  ShoH  Hors«pow«r 

\       J^' 

8  / 

3  / 

^s  r 

i  g        I 

Fig.  1:  Watertube 
boilers  in  naval 
service:  full  power 
operation.  (Graph 
is  from  a  paper 
"Development  of 
tvlarine  Watertube 
Boilers"  by  J.  H. 
King  and  R.  S.  Coi, 
presented  before 
the  Society  of  Na- 
val Architects  and 
Marine  Engineers. 
Fig.  3:  Curve  show- 
ing general  trend 
of  pounds  of  oil  re- 
quired for  all  pur- 
poses to  develop 
a  shaft  horsepower 
when  using  steam 
at  various  pressures 
and  corresponding- 
ly appropriate  tem- 

JANUARY     •      1941 

Page   75 

efficiencies  increased  remarkably  because  of  changes  in 
types  and  design  and  because  of  the  use  of  oil  instead 
of  coal.  After  1925  temperatures  started  to  shoot  upwards, 
and  pressures  followed  along  in  the  1930's.  This  called 
for  new  advances  in  boiler  design  because,  as  can  be 
seen  from  the  curves,  boiler  weights  per  pound  of  equiva- 
lent evaporation*  remained  almost  constant  despite 
heavier  materials  required  for  higher  pressures  and  tem- 
peratures, and  despite  the  fact  that  economizers  were 
added  to  obtain  still  higher  efficiencies. 

Prior  to  1900  all  but  a  few  of  the  vessels  in  the  Navy 
were  equipped  with  reciprocating  engines  and  coal-burn- 
ing Scotch  boilers.  Basically,  Scotch  boilers  consist  of  one 
or  more  cylindrical  furnaces  surrounded  by  water.  This 
water  envelope  is  traversed  by  numerous  tubes  through 
which  pass  the  gases  from  the  furnace.  The  heat  picked 
up  by  the  water  from  these  tubes  and  from  the  furnaces 
transforms  it  into  steam.  Because  of  the  necessity  of  using 
relatively  heavy  shell  plates  with  suitably  stayed  flat 
heads,  Scotch  boilers  are  heavy  and  inflexible,  and  are 
seldom  built  for  operating  pressures  in  excess  of  250  psi. 
Scotch  boilers,  with  water,  weigh  in  the  neighborhood 
of  70  pounds  per  square  foot  of  boiler  heating  surface. 
Because  of  their  inflexible  construction  and  relatively 
poor  circulating  characteristics,  it  is  not  usual  to  "force" 
boilers  of  this  type.  At  normal  loads,  approximately  10 
to  15  pounds  of  boiler  are  required  for  each  pound  of 
equivalent  evaporation  per  hour.  Trials  in  the  early  1890's 
on  various  Naval  warships  fitted  with  Scotch  boilers 
showed  coal  consumption  of  2.4  to  3.1  5  lbs.  per  indicated 

Because  of  the  limitations  of  Scotch  boilers,  active  steps 
were  taken  at  the  turn  of  the  century  to  explore  the  pos- 
sibilities of  watertube  boilers.  Watertube  boilers  consist, 
essentially,  of  a  furnace  in  which  the  fuel  is  burned,  and 
a  series  of  inclined  tubes  across  which  the  gases  pass, 
transforming  the  water  inside  the  tubes  into  steam.  The 
steam  is  collected  in  a  drum  before  being  sent  to  the 
superheater  or  prime  mover.  Because  the  water  in  this 
design  of  boiler  is  contained  inside  the  tubes  breaking 
it  down  into  small  segments,  which  improves  heat  trans- 
fer, and  because  circulation  is  more  rapid,  steam  can  be 
generated  far  more  quickly  than  in  a  Scotch  boiler. 

The  change  from  Scotch  to  watertube  boilers  was  not 
effected  without  considerably  controversy,  and  the  dis- 
cussions both  in  America  and  abroad  were  lengthy,  in- 
volved, and  heated.  But  the  demands  for  lighter  and  more 
efficient  boilers  were  insistent,  and  after  much  experimen- 

'Note  1.  "Equivalent  Evaporation"  is  a  term  used  to  provide  a  com- 
mon  basis  for  compatison  of  boilers  operating  under  different  pressures, 
temperatures,  and  feedwater  conditions.  For  example,  a  boiler  generating 
one  pound  of  satiirated  steam  per  square  foot  ar  250  psi  from  feedwater 
at  300°  F,  is  doing  much  less  work,  other  things  being  equal,  than  a 
boiler  generating  one  pound  of  saturated  steam  per  square  foot  at  450 
psi  from  feedwater  at  200°  F,  To  place  these  "actual  evaporations"  on  a 
comparable  basis,  the  amount  of  heat  required  to  change  one  pound  of 
water  at  212°  F  to  dry  steam  at  212°F,  both  under  atmospheric  pressure, 
is  used  as  the  common  denominator.  This  amount  of  heat  is  970,3  BTU, 
Thus,  for  the  first  example  above,  the  actual  BTU's  required  would  be 
932-1  per  pound.  Dividing  by  970.3,  we  have  ,96  pounds  of  equivalent 
evaporation.  Fof  the  second  example,  the  actual  BTU's  required  would  be 
1036.6  per  pound.  Dividing  by  970.3.  we  have  lO"?  pounds  of  equivalent 
evaporation.  The  comparison  between  ,96  and  1.0"'  is  thus  a  true  measure 
of  the  relative  work  being  done  by  each   boiler  per  square  foot. 

'  'Note  2,  "Indicated"  horsepower  is  the  power  of  an  engine  as  calculated 
from  curves  drawn  on  indicator  cards  attached  to  the  engine  when  it  is 
in  operation,  "Shaft"  horsepower  is  customarily  taken  as  being  about 
90%  of  indicated  horsepower.  This  distinction  is  important  when  making 
comparisons  with  turbine  installations,  where  the  power  is  always  measured 
directly  on  the  shaft  and  is  thus  termed  "shaft"  horsepower. 


ck    & 


Wilcon  "alert"  type 
marine  boiler,  189? 
— patented. 

ration,  watertube  boilers  became  standard  equipment  for 
the  Navy.  The  first  Babcock  &  Wilcox  boilers  in  the 
Navy  were  of  the  Sectional-Header  type  and  were  install- 
ed in  the  Marietta,  Annapolis,  and  Chicago  in  1896.  The 
reliability  of  these  boilers  was  an  important  factor  which 
influenced  the  decision  to  adopt  watertube  boilers  as  a 
standard  in  the  U.  S.  Navy.  During  the  Spanish  American 
War,  the  Oregon,  equipped  with  Scotch  boilers,  and  the 
Marietta,  equipped  with  B  &  W  boilers,  took  part  in  the 
great  dash  from  the  Pacific  around  South  America  to  the 
East  Coast.  Commenting  on  their  performance.  Rear  Ad- 
miral George  W.  Melville,  who  more  than  any  other  man 
was  responsible  for  the  adoption  of  the  watertube  boiler 
in  the  U.  S.  Navy,  stated: 

"The  Marietta's  trip  around  South  America  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  war  with  Spain  was  quite  as  successful  as 
that  of  the  Oregon.  .  .  .  No  repairs  were  required  to 
either  set  of  boilers  after  the  completion  of  the  trip." 

In  1897  William  D.  Hoxie,  then  vice  president  of 
the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Company,  patented  the  boiler 
that  later  became  widely  known  and  widely  used  through- 
out the  navies  and  merchant  marines  of  the  world.  Simi- 
lar to  the  design  used  in  the  Marietta,  it  incorporated, 
among  other  advancements,  the  new  feature  of  firing  the 
boiler  under  the  downtake  headers,  which  greatly  im- 
proved combustion  and  simplified  operation.  Although 
apparently  simple,  this  invention  was  hailed  as  revolution- 
izing marine  watertube  boiler  practice  (  Fig.  4  ) . 

Interesting  installations  of  B  &  W  boilers  of  this  design 
were  in  the  battleships  Michigan  and  South  Carolina. 
boilers  for  which  were  ordered  in  1907.  These  were  the 
first  vessels  in  the  Navy  to  be  originally  built  with  super- 
heaters applied  to  the  boilers.  The  working  pressure  was 
295  psi  and  the  superheaters  were  designed  to  give  a 
total  steam  temperature  of  approximately  520"  F.  It  was 
estimated  that  the  use  of  superheated  steam  resulted  in 
an  overall  saving  of  approximately  9'  '<  in  coal  consump- 
tion from  that  which  would  have  been  expected  with 
saturated  steam.  The  coal  consumed  was  1.46  lbs.  per 
indicated  horsepower — a  substantial  reduction  from  the 
average  consumption  for  Scotch  boilers  in  the  preceding 
decade.  Improvements  in  engine  design  deserve,  of  course, 
equal  credit  with  the  boilers  for  effecting  this  saving  in 

Boilers  of  this  design  weighed  approximately  26  lbs. 
per  square  foot  of  boiler  heating  surface,  including  water. 
Superheaters  added  slightly  more  than  2  lbs.  per  square 
foot,  making  a  total  weight  of  about  28  lbs.  per  square 

Page   76 


foot  of  boiler  surface — or  less  than  half  the  weight  of  a 
typical  Scotch  boiler.  Also,  it  required  approximately  5 
pounds  of  boiler  per  pound  of  equivalent  evaporation, 
as  compared  to  10  to  15  pounds  per  pound  of  equivalent 
evaporation  for  a  Scotch  boiler. 

Watertube  boilers  played  an  important  role  in  the 
development  of  destroyers  during  the  decade  1900-1910 
when  the  use  of  destroyers  grew  in  importance  in  all  the 
navies  of  the  world.  One  naval  authority  has  stated; 
The  most  striking  trends  in  design  of  destroyers  were 
toward  greater  displacement,  higher  speed,  heavier  guns, 
and  greater  seaworthiness,  habitability,  and  endurance. 
The  success  of  this  type  of  ship  depended  to  a  great  de- 
gree upon  the  adequ.icy  of  its  power  plant.  The  results 
achieved  would  have  been  impossible  without  the  use  of 
water-tube  boilers."  One  of  the  types  of  water-tube  boilers 
that  found  wide  acceptance  in  the  Navy  was  the  White- 
Forster  design  as  built  by  the  B&W  Co.  The  first  boilers 
of  this  design  used  in  the  Navy  were  ordered  for  the 
destroyers  Aiayrant  and  Witrrh!gto>/  in  1909.  The  wet 
weight  was  approximately  12  pounds  per  square  foot  of 
boiler  surface.  This  exceedingly  light  weight  contributed 
materially  to  successful  destroyer  design.  Because  of  space 
limitations,  and  limited  design  techniques  superheaters 
were  not  used  with  this  type  of  boiler. 

In  general,  these  were  the  two  designs  that  continued 
in  use  throughout  World  War  I — B&W  Sectional-Head- 
er boilers,  usually  with  topside  superheaters,  for  larger 
combat  ships,  and  B&W-built  White-Forster  boilers  for 
destroyers.  Despite  the  general  adoption  of  turbines,  there 
was  a  relatively  slow  increase  in  working  pressures  and 

The  development  of  turbines  to  replace  reciprocating 
engines  was  parallel  to  the  change  from  Scotch  to  water- 
tube  boilers,  and  was  equally  important.  The  use  of  tur- 
bines came  about  for  primarily  the  same  reasons  as  the 
adoption  of  watertube  boilers:  Saving  in  space  and 
weight,  increased  economy,  lower  first  cost,  reduced  cost 
of  maintenance,  etc.  Turbines  also  made  it  possible  to 
use  smaller  shafts  and  propellers,  and  they  reduced  vibra- 
tion considerably.  However,  these  advantages  were  not 
always  immediately  forthcoming,  and  a  similar  contro- 
versy raged  over  turbines  versus  reciprocating  engines 
as  took  place  over  water  tube  boilers  versus  Scotch  boilers. 
A  different  problem  which  had  to  be  overcame  in  the 
use  of  turbines  was  that  of  efficiently  transferring  power 
to  the  propeller.  This  called  for  the  development,  among 
other  things,  of  efficient  reduction  gearing.  Also  perform- 
ance of  reciprocating  engines  continued  to  advance,  and 
turbine  performance  had  to  keep  abreast  of  it,  at  the 
same  time  that  the  "kinks"  in  turbine  design  and  applica- 
tion were  being  ironed  out. 

One  characteristic  that  delayed  the  adoption  of  tur- 
bines for  larger  vessels  such  as  battleships  was  their  rela- 
tive inefficiency  at  low  cruising  speeds.  This  was  of  par- 
ticular importance  to  the  Navy,  whose  ships  had  to  cover 
areas  of  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific,  with  refueling  bases 
few  and  far  between.  Fuel  economy  at  low  cruising  speeds 
was  thus  of  paramount  importance,  and  many  of  the 
large  battleships  built  just  prior  to  World  War  I  were 
equipped  with  reciprocating  engines.  However,  turbine 
designers  succeeded  in  overcoming  these  diificulties,  pri- 
marily by  the  use  of  separate  cruising  turbines  and  effec- 

tive reduction  gears.  Comparative  tests  were  run  on  three 
battleships — the  Oklahoma  with  reciprocating  engines 
and  the  Nevada  and  Pennsylvania  with  turbines  of  dif- 
ferent makes.  The  successful  performance  of  the  turbines 
in  these  latter  two  ships  marked  the  passing  of  the  re- 
ciprocating engine  in  combat  ship  propulsion. 

Along  with  the  adoption  of  watertube  boilers  and  tur- 
bines came  the  use  of  oil  rather  than  coal  as  the  original 
source  of  power.  The  discovery  of  large  oil  reserves  in 
the  United  States  at  the  turn  of  the  century  led  the  Navy 
to  study  comparative  advantages  of  oil  and  coal.  Fuel 
oil  was  definitely  adopted  for  destroyers  in  1908,  and  the 
previously  mentioned  Mayran/  and  Warrington  were 
built  with  oil-burning  equipment.  In  1912  oil  was  select- 
ed as  the  fuel  for  the  battleships  Oklahoma  and  Nevada, 
and  subsequently  became  standard  for  all  steam-propel- 
led Naval  vessels.  The  major  advantages  of  oil  over  coal, 
which  led  to  its  general  use  were: 

1.  Increased  efficiency,  steadier  performance  of 
boilers,  better  regulation  of  steam  supply,  and 
faster  starting  up. 

2.  Decreased  maintenance  of  boiler  and  hull.  Great- 
er cleanliness. 

3.  Decrease  in  fuel  weight  for  a  given  cruising 
radius  and  decrease  of  bunkering  space.  Liquid 
fuel  could  also  be  stored  in  spaces  previously 

4.  Fewer  men  required  for  operation,  less  manual 
labor  involved. 

5.  Ease  and  simplicity  of  refueling. 

The  cumulative  results  of  all  these  advances  in  design 
and  in  the  type  of  fuel  was  demonstrated  by  the  per- 
formance of  the  large  battleships  laid  down  during,  and 
completed  shortly  after  World  War  I.  As  an  average,  the 
fuel  rate  for  these  battleships  was  slightly  less  than  one 
pound  of  oil  per  shaft  horsepower,  as  contrasted  with  the 
previously  mentioned  fuel  rates  of  2.4  to  3.15  pounds  of 
coal  per  indicated  horsepower*  for  the  naval  vessels  of 
the  1890's  equipped  with  Scotch  boilers  and  reciprocating 
engines.  This  significant  reduction  in  fuel  consumption 
was  a  major  factor  in  permitting  the  construction  of 
bigger,  heavier  armed  warships,  which  could  travel  at 
greater  speeds  over  longer  distances  than  could  earlier 

The  period  following  World  War  I  saw  the  signing  of 
the  Washington  Naval  Limitations  Treaty,  which  placed 
severe  restrictions  on  naval  construction.  The  number 
and  total  tonnage  of  capital  ships  for  each  country  was 
definitely  specified.  New  capital  ship  construction  was 
limited  to  replacements,  with  each  ship  not  exceeding 
35,000  tons  maximum  displacement,  except  for  aircraft 
carriers  which  were  limited  to  27,000  tons  each.  A 
capital  ship  was  defined  as  any  ship  of  war,  not  an  air- 
craft carrier,  whose  displacement  exceeded  10,000  tons, 
or  which  carried  a  gun  with  a  caliber  exceeding  8  inches. 
Lighter  ships  were  not  limited  in  number. 

Commander  H.  E.  Rossell,  (Cl.C.)  U.  S.  N.  (Ret.)  has 
aptly  summarized  the  effect  of  this  treaty  on  design 
practice:  The  limit  of  10,000  tons  set  by  the  Washing- 
ton Treaty  on  the  size  of  warships  other  than  capital 
ships  and  aircraft  carriers  had  a  profound  influence  on 

JANUARY     •      1941 

Page   77 

warship  design  practice.  Designers  were  faced  with  the 
problem  of  getting  the  "most  ship"  on  a  given  displace- 
ment. Obviously  the  solution  lay  in  achieving  the  great- 
est economy  of  weight  without  loss  of  military  effective- 
ness. All  means  to  this  end  were  explored  and  many 
found  expression  in  the  designs  of  cruisers  which  ap- 
peared within  a  few  years  after  the  treaty  became  effec- 

"The  innovations  were  progressive  in  nature;  that  is, 
one  step  led  to  another  and  still  another.  In  time  many  of 
the  changes  introduced  first  on  cruisers  were  extended  to 
other  types  of  warships.  On  the  whole  the  result  was  to 
improve  greatly  the  quality  of  warships,  both  small  and 
large.  .  .  .  Among  the  immediate  consequences  of  the 
Washington  Treaty  on  the  design  of  naval  machinery  was 
the  general  recognition  of  geared  turbines  together  with 
small-tube  oil-fired  boilers  as  the  most  suitable  type  of 
propulsive  machinery  for  all  surface  warships  except 
motorboats  and  other  very  small  vessels.  .  .  _.  Other  con- 
sequences of  the  treaty  were  the  introduction  of  light 
weight  alloys  .  .  .  the  gradual  substitution  of  weldments 
for  castings  or  riveted  structures  .  .  .  and  the  use  of  great- 
er care  in  the  design  of  machinery  and  fittings  with  a 
view  to  reducing  weight. 

"The  use  of  high  steam  pressure  and  high  superheat 
in  conformity  with  practice  in  power  plants  ashore  in 
the  early  1920's  offered  to  naval  designers  the  possibility 
of  making  substantial  reductions  in  the  weight  of  the 
propulsive  plant.  .  .  .  Today  (1943)  a  boiler  pressure  of 
600  pounds  per  square  inch  and  superheat  up  to  850 
degrees  F  are  not  uncommon  on  naval  ships.  The  use  of 
high  pressure  and  temperature  brought  many  problems, 
the  most  serious  of  which  had  to  do  with  the  behavior  of 
metals  at  high  temperatures,  and  deaeration  of  feedwater, 
the  prevention  of  contamination  of  feedwater,  the 
strength  of  high-pressure  piping,  the  fire  hazard,  and  the 
insulation  of  exposed  surfaces  at  high  temperatures. 

"During  the  period  under  discussion  there  has  been 
a  strong  trend  toward  great  size  of  boilers  with  the  re- 
sult that  a  modern  warship  carries  far  fewer  boilers  than 
a  ship  of  the  same  power  built  twenty-five  years  ago. 
The  performance  of  naval  boilers  has  been  improved 
substantially  during  the  last  twenty  years  through  better 
design  of  practically  every  feature.  At  the  same  time 
there  has  been  a  reduction  in  weight  per  unit  of  heat  de- 
livered. This  end  has  been  reached  partly  by  increased 
efficiency  of  boilers  and  partly  by  greater  consumption  of 
fuel  per  unit  area  of  heating  surface." 

The  paper  "Development  of  Marine  Watertube  Boil- 
ers" by  J.  H.  King  and  R.  S.  Cox  gives  graphic  and  de- 
tailed proof  of  the  general  statements  made  by  Com- 
mander Rossell  with  respect  to  the  effect  of  the  Wash- 
ington Treaty  on  boiler  design. 

The  first  of  the  so-called  treaty  cruisers,  laid  down  in 
the  United  States  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the 
Washington  Treaty  were  those  of  the  Salt  Lake  City  class 
of  9100  tons  displacement  which  were  completed  in 
1929.  These  ships  required  the  lightest  possible  boilers 
and  machinery  consistent  with  ruggedness  and  reliability 
in  order  to  provide  for  armament  and  other  features 
within  the  treaty  limits.  The  boilers  of  the  preceding 
Trenton  class,  completed  in  1924,  had  been  considered 
light   and   efficient   and   they   occupied   relatively   small 

Fig.  5:  Babcock  & 
Wilcox  sectional  ex- 
press   boiler. 

Fig.  6:  Babcock  & 
Wilcox  divided  fur- 
nace superheater- 
control  boiler. 

Space.  The  Trenton  boilers  with  water  at  steaming  level 
and  temperature  weighed  11.84  pounds  per  square  foot 
of  heating  surface.  There  were  12  boilers  in  each  ship, 
with  a  total  heating  surface  of  98,040  square  feet,  and  the 
steam  generated  per  ship  at  full  power  was  810,000 
pounds  per  hour  at  265  psi.  The  Salt  Lake  City  had  eight 
Babcock  &  Wilcox  Express  Type  boilers  with  a  total  heat- 
ing surface  of  95,040  square  feet  and  designed  to  gener- 
ate at  full  power  a  total  of  1,400,000  pounds  of  saturated 
steam  at  300  psi.  The  wet  weight  was  10.37  pounds  per 
square  foot  of  heating  surface,  and  the  space  occupied 
was  considerably  less  than  that  of  the  boilers  in  the 
Trenton  class.  These  boilers  at  a  higher  pressure,  generat- 
ed more  steam  with  less  weight  and  spare  than  those  in 
the  Trenton,  and  thereby  contributed  materially  to  the 
success  of  these  treaty  cruisers.  These  Salt  Lake  City  boil- 
ers weighed  less  than  .66  pounds  for  each  pound  of  steam 
generated  on  the  basis  of  equivalent  evaporation  which 
may  be  compared  to  the  10  to  15  pounds  per  pound  of 
steam  required  by  the  old  Scotch  boilers,  or  the  5  pounds 
per  pound  of  steam  required  by  earlier  designs  of  water- 
tube  boilers. 

The  trend  to  higher  pressures  and  temperatures 
brought  about  several  important  developments  in  the 
early  1930's,  many  of  which  were  first  introduced  with 
the  B&W  boilers  installed  in  the  treaty  cruisers  of  the 
New  Orleans  class.  Because  of  the  limitations  imposed 
by  the  materials  and  techniques  prevailing  at  that  time, 
boiler  efficiency  dropped  off  with  increases  in  pressure. 
To  overcome  this  difficulty,  a  new  design  of  boiler  was 
sought.  This  investigation  culminated  in  the  B&W  Sec- 
tional-Express boilers  (Fig.  5  ).  This  design  incorporated 
some  of  the  features  of  the  usual  sectional-header  boiler, 
but  differed  from  this  design  in  that  cylindrical  headers 

Page  78 


Fig.    7. 




single - 


iaVe      controlied- 




Fig.   e. 

Babcock   i 


three  -  pass 


al   -   header 


were  used  with  small  diameter  curved  tubes  between 
the  headers.  The  cylindrical  headers  were  arranged  so  as 
to  provide  a  decreasing  gas  area  through  the  boiler,  re- 
sulting in  a  uniformly  high  rate  of  heat  transfer.  Boilers 
of  this  design  met  the  requirements  of  high  steam  pres- 
sures and  temperatures  and  gave  a  high  boiler  efficiency. 

The  Sectional-Express  boilers  installed  in  the  Scout 
Cruisers  of  the  New  Orleans  class  were  designed  for  a 
working  pressure  of  .^00  psi  and  a  total  temperature  of 
570^  F.  On  official  full  power  tests  they  developed  an  effi- 
ciency of  82.12  per  cent  under  the  firing  rate  then  cus- 
tomary in  naval  practice — namely,  1.1  pounds  of  oil  per 
square  foot  of  heating  surface.  This  boiler  was  relatively 
light  weight  and  at  that  time  was  considered  a  great  im- 
provement for  naval  use. 

The  boilers  in  the  New  Orleans  class  cruisers  embodied 
one  additional  advance  of  great  significance:  fusion  weld- 
ed drums.  All  previous  boilers  had  used  riveted  drums 
which  were  heavy,  subject  to  leaks  and  cracking,  and 
imposed  severe  limits  on  thickness.  The  Babcock  &  Wil- 
cox Company  therefore  conducted  an  extensive  series  of 
investigations  and  experiments  with  fusion  welding 
which  resulted  in  a  highly  successful  process  giving  light- 
weight, trouble-free  drums,  and  thus  opened  the  way  to 
higher  steam  pressures  without  prohibitive  increases  in 

This  initial  installation  of  welded  drums  in  the  Navy 
was  followed  by  their  adoption  for  all  naval  boilers,  and 
gradually  for  all  of  the  United  States  merchant  marine. 

Great  impetus  was  given  to  naval  construction  in  the 
United  States  with  the  start  of  the  naval  building  pro- 
gram in  1933.  The  destroyer  leaders  of  the  Porter  class 
were  among  the  first  of  this  program.  They  were  fitted 
with  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Express-Type  Boilers  designed 
for  a  working  pressure  of  425  psi  and  a  total  steam 
temperature  of  650°  F. 

The  use  of  higher  temperatures  in  naval  practice 
presented  a  problem  in  connection  with  the  effect  of 
high  steam  temperature  on  backing  turbines  and  on 
main  turbines  and  auxiliaries  for  maneuvering.  Further- 
more, with  the  usual  convection  type  of  superheater, 
the  steam  temperature  increases  with  increase  in  the 
boiler  firing  rate.  It  was  felt  that,  if  some  means  could 
be  provided  to  maintain  a  constant  temperature  at  all 
ahead  speeds  of  the  ship  and  at  the  same  time  provide 
saturated  or  low-temperature  steam  for  the  backing  tur- 

bines when  going  astern,  increased  economy  could  be 
obtained  without  detrimental  effects  on  the  machinery. 
The  first  solution  was  the  B&W  separately  fired  super- 
heater. With  this  method  of  temperature  control,  steam 
is  generated  in  Express-Type  boilers  and  all  steam  to  be 
superheated  is  passed  to  the  separately  fired  superheaters, 
where  the  temperature  of  the  steam  is  controlled  by  the 
firing  rate.  Some  saturated  steam  is  generated  in  the 
separately  fired  superheaters,  since  generating  tubes  were 
placed  between  the  furnace  and  the  superheaters  in  order 
that  the  convection-type  superheaters  could  be  fully 
screened  from  the  radiant  heat  of  the  furnace.  B&W 
boilers  of  this  design  were  installed  in  the  cruisers 
Saiannah,  Boise,  Phoetiix  and  Nashville,  and  the  air- 
craft carriers  Yorktotvn  and  Enterprise  and  several  years 
later  in  the  first  Hornet.  The  first  economizers  in  the 
Navy  were  also  installed  in  these  vessels.  These  boilers 
were  designed  for  a  drum  working  pressure  of  450  psi 
and  the  separately  fired  superheaters  were  designed  for  a 
total  temperature  of  650°F. 

A  new  era  in  boiler  design  opened  with  the  develop- 
ment of  the  B&W  boilers  for  the  destroyers  of  the  Somers 
class  in  1934.  Designed  for  a  working  pressure  of  600 
psi  and  a  total  steam  temperature  of  850°F,  the  boilers 
installed  in  these  ships  were  significant  in  that  they  in- 
corporated an  integral  superheater  control  which,  in  a 
single  unit  and  with  much  lighter  weight,  provided  the 
features  of  superheater  control  previously  obtained  with 
separately  fired  superheaters.  These  boilers  were  the  Bab- 
cock &  Wilcox  Divided-Furnace  Superheater-Control  de- 
sign fitted  with  convection-type  superheaters  (Fig.  6). 

This  boiler  was  a  modification  of  the  three-drum  ex- 
press-type boiler.  The  furnace  was  divided  by  means  of 
a  stud-tube  division  wall  which  provided  two  furnaces, 
one  of  which  is  referred  to  as  a  "superheater  furnace"  and 
the  other  as  a  "saturated  furnace."  Superheaters  of  the 
convection  type  were  placed  in  one  bank  and  were 
.screened  from  the  radiant  heat  of  the  furnace  by  several 
rows  of  boiler  generating  tubes.  The  other  bank  consist- 
ed entirely  of  generating  tubes.  With  this  design,  saturat- 
ed or  superheated  steam  could  be  obtained  as  required. 
When  saturated  steam  without  superheating  was  needed, 
the  saturated  furnace  was  fired.  When  superheated  steam 
was  needed,  the  saturated  steam  was  passed  to  the  super- 
heater and  the  degree  of  superheating  imparted  was  con- 
fPlease  turn  to  page  130) 

JANUARY     •      1  948 

Page  79 



THE  55TH  ANNUAL  MEETING  of  the  Society  of 
Naval  Architects  and  Marine  Engineers  at  New  York, 
November  13th  and  I4th,  brought  out  nine  technical 
papers  by  some  of  the  big  marine  experts. 

Most  outstanding  feature  in  the  make-up  of  the  pro- 
gram is  the  dearth  of  marine  engineering  material.  Only 
one  paper  in  the  nine  deals  with  propulsion.  The  nearest 
approach  to  engineering  among  the  other  eight  papers  is 
No.  4,  which  deals  with  Electronics  on  Shipboard.  All 
of  the  others  are  concerned  with  hull  construction  and 

We  present  herewith  a  short  abstract  of  each  paper: 

l\lo.  1  -  The  Resistance  of  Rarges  and  Flotillas 

By  L.  A.  Baier,  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Naval 
Architecture  and  Marine  Engineering,  and  Director  of 
the  Naval  Tank  at  the  University  of  Michigan. 

For  over  36  years  the  Naval  Tank  at  Michigan  Uni- 
versity has  been  testing  barge  forms,  both  singly  and  in 
flotillas,  and  producing  new  designs  of  barge  hulls  and 
attachments  thereto.  From  time  to  time,  reports  of  this 
work  have  appeared  as  papers  at  A.S.N. A.  and  M.E. 
meetings.  These  experiments  began  in  1911  under  the 
famous  Dr.  H.  C.  Sadler.  Dr.  Baler's  papers  brings  them 
up  to  date  and  arrives  at  these  conclusions: 

"For  single  barges,  influence  of  rake  variations  on 
resistance  is  reflected  as  a  whole  by  the  change  in  the 
block  or  longitudinal  coefficient,  although  minor  factors 
such  as  bilge  and  rake  edge  radii  and  shape  of  rake 
profile  must  be  considered.  As  speeds  are  increased,  the 
single  barge  is  lengthened,  the  ends  turned  in,  large 
bilge  radii  are  used  and  modeled  rakes  at  each  end  are  of 

"In  direct  contrast,  for  flotilla  purposes  the  barge  unit 
should  be  designed  for  the  maximum  integration  possible. 
All  edge  radii  should  be  small  to  reduce  wetted  surface 
and  avoid  wedging  apart  of  the  units  by  drift  wood. 
Where  complete  integration  is  impracticable,  the  in- 
terior ends  should  have  shorter  rakes.  A  recent  develop- 
ment in  the  oil  trade  is  the  use  of  integrated  barges  in 
pairs  with  the  after  rake  snubbed  off  and  the  forward 
rakes  lengthened.  Four  of  these  units,  arranged  either 

two  wide  and  two  long  or  one  wide  and  four  long,  pro- 
vide terminal  and  trip  flexibility  accompanied  by  effi- 
cient propulsion.  The  best  size  for  these  units  is  about 
240  feet  by  50  feet,  making  a  flotilla  either  960  feet  by 
50  feet  or  480  feet  by  100  feet  for  lockage.  When  prop- 
erly designed,  the  resistance  of  the  wide  flotilla  is  only 
slightly  greater  than  that  of  the  tandem  arrangement. 
For  general  freight  and  multiple  units  the  175-foot  by 
26-foot  or  195-foot  by  35-foot  barge  with  snubbed  after 
rakes  gives  a  convenient  lock  combination  and  ap- 
proaches the  efficiency  of  the  full  integrated  flotilla. 

"It  is  interesting  to  note  that  due  to  improvements  in 
flotilla  units,  controlled  fleet  arrangements,  installation 
of  the  Kort  nozzle  and  use  of  supercharged  Diesel  power 
plants  the  cost  per  horsepower  today  of  modern  towboats 
for  a  given  tonnage  is  lower  than  in  the  past." 

lo.  2 -Various  Coverning  Rodies  and  the  Effect 
of  their  Regulations  on  Shipping 

Three  authors  combined  to  produce  this  survey:  Wil- 
liam B.  Jupp,  Mgr.  Marine  Construction  and  Repair 
Division,  Socony  Vacuum  Oil  Co.;  George  I.  Sullivan, 
Supt.  of  Drafting,  Quincy  Yard,  Bethlehem  Steel  Com- 
pany; Wolcott  E.  Spofford,  Technical  Consultant,  U.  S. 
Maritime  Commission. 

They  confine  their  treatment  to  U.  S.  National  Gov- 
erning Bodies.  Any  survey  of  world  shipping  will  in- 
dicate that  for  the  past  900  years  "there  has  been  a  very 
definite  relationship  between  governmental  law  and  regu- 
lations, and  the  success  or  failure  of  any  specific  merchant 
marine."  Successful  marine  powers  have  had  laws  whose 
obvious  intent  was,  and  is,  to  foster  all  phases  of  the 
Maritime  industry.  In  recent  years,  the  apparent  effect  of 
U.  S.  Maritime  law  has  been  to  "protect  everything  but 
the  economics  of  the  industry." 

So  complicated  is  the  governmental  regulation  of 
American  shipping  that  it  now  takes:  12  different  cer- 
tificates for  the  documentation  of  a  new  ship  on  delivery; 
9  separate  papers  to  clear  an  American  port;  and  from 
5  to  10  other  papers  relating  to  cargo.  The  set-up  is  in- 
efficient, uneconomical,  and  demoralizing  to  the  in- 
dustry.  We   have   23   standing  committees   of  Congress 

Page  80 


making  conflicting  laws  that  form  the  basis  of  our  mari- 
time policy,  and  67  bureaus  and  agencies  that  make  and 
execute  the  regulations  applying  the  laws  made  by  the 
23  committees. 

It  is  recommended  that  a  Merchant  Marine  Advisory 
Committee  should  be  formed  of  selected  delegates  from 
each  of  the  Associations  representing  the  maritime  in- 
dustry and  that  this  committee  act  in  an  advisory  capacity 
to  all  the  government  regulatory  bodies.  This  M.M.A.C. 
would  function  similarly  to  the  Tanker  Industry  Com- 
mittee which  has  been  quite  successful  in  this  type  of 
work  for  over  15  years. 

l\lo.  3-The  Multiple -Skeg  Stern  of  Ships 

By  Captain  Harold  E.  Saunders,  U.  S.  N.  Director  of 
David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin  at  Carderock. 

Another  of  those  monumental  technical  papers  by 
Captain  Saunders,  wherein  he  traces  the  historical  de- 
velopment of  the  twin  or  multiple  skeg  stern  in  Europe 
and  in  the  United  States;  recites  the  reasons  for  interest 
in  skeg  sterns;  analyzes  the  technical  benefits  derived 
from  skegs;  gives  examples  and  analyses  of  tests  on 
identical  design  models  with  and  without  skegs;  gives 
an  analysis  of  detail  hull  design  in  connection  with  twin 
skegs;  and  formulates  design  rules  covering  hull  shape 
and  stern  arrangement,  tunnel  shape,  skeg  shape,  skeg 
ending,  propeller,  rudder,  shafting,  bearings,  foundations, 
and  skeg  structural  details.  We  reproduce  herewith  two 
tables,  one  showing  comparison  between  skegless  and 
twin  skeg  designs  for  a  very  large  tanker,  the  other,  a 
similar  comparison  for  the  passenger  liners  Manhattan 
and    WaihifigtoH. 

distances    are    in    feet    and    inches     Lengths    fot    co- 
lengths   between   perpendiculars.    All    tons    are    22-10 

All    lengths    i 
efficient  purposes 
TMB  Model  Nut 

I  hers 

Type  of  stetn 

Length  between  perpend  it 

Length  overall 

Length  on  waterline 






Block  coefficii 
Midship  sectii 
Longitudinal  CB  forward  < 
Wetted  surface,  sq.   ft, 
L/B  ratio 
B/H  ratio 

Displacement-length  ratio 
Speed  range,  knots 
Designed   speed,    knots 
Speed-length  ratio  at  desi 
EMP  at  designed  speed 
SHP  at  designed  speed 
EHP/SHP  ratio 
Length   of   model,   ft. 
Scale   ratio 

TMB  propeller  model   ni 
Propeller  diameter 

number  of  blades 
mean  width  ratio 
blade  thickness  fractioi 
projected   area   ratio 
type  of  blade  section 

TMB  Model 

TMB  Model 



Normal   form 

Twin  skegs 





















1  17.1  18 


-)  67 

4  67 

.)  69 




8  to  18 

8  to  1 8 




0  612 































All    lengih%    and    distances    are    in 
efficient  purposes  are  IciiKth  "n   the  wai 
Prototype  Ships 

TMB  Model  Numbers 
Type  of  stern 

Length  between  perpendiculars,  ft.  an 

Length   overall 

Length  on   waterline 

Beam,  molded,  maximum 

Beam,  molded,  at  29-ft.  WL 

Draft,  molded,  designed 

Draft,  for  model   tests 

Displacement  at  29-0  ft-  draft,  tons 

Block   coefficient 

Longitudinal  coefficient 

Midship  section  coefficient 

Longitudinal  CB  forward  of  amidship 

Wetted  surface,  sq.  ft. 

L/B  ratio 

B/H  ratio,  based  on  29-0  ft.  draft 

Displacement-length   ratio 

Designed   speed,   knots 

Speed-length  ratio  at  designed  speed 

EHP  at  designed  speed 

Sl^P  at  designed  speed 

EHP/SHP  ratio 

Thrust  deduction  factor 

Length  of  model,  ft. 

Scale  ratio 

TMB  Propeller  model   numbers 

Propeller,   diameter 


pitch-diameter    ratio 

number  of   blades 

mean   width   ratio 

blade  thickness  fraction 

projected  area  ratio 

type   of   blade  section 



feet    and    inches. 

Lengths    for    co- 

erline. All  tons  a 

re  2240  pounds. 





TMB  Model 

TMB  Model 



Normal  forn 

.      Twin      skegs 

with      bal- 

with   twin 

anced   rud- 


der         and 


dead  wood 

tut  away 

m.   666-0 




































16.5  30 




























Ogival,    with 

Ogival.    with 

lifted  lead- 

lifted lead- 

ing edge  at 

ing  edge  at 

^u.  4  -  [lectronics  on  Shipboard 

By  H.  Franklin  Harvey,  Jr.  and  Frederick  P.  Colman, 
respectively  Electrical  Engineer  and  Assistant  Electrical 
Engineer,  Newport  News  Shipbuilding  and  Dry  Dock 

Approaching  the  subject  from  the  viewpoint  of  the 
shipowner  and  the  shipbuilder,  this  paper  briefly  de- 
scribes all  present  applications  of  electronics  on  ship- 
board, and  discusses  probable  future  applications.  It 
defines  electronics  as  dealing  with  "the  conduction  of 
electricity  through  a  vacuum  or  a  gas." 

Earliest  application  was  radio  telegraphy  in  1896.  This 
was  followed  by:  radio  telephones;  radio  direction  find- 
ers; radar;  loran;  shoran;  life  boat  announcing  systems; 
music  and  entertainment  systems;  fire  detective  alarms; 
temperature  recorders;  electric  megaphone;  electric  eye 
door  control;  fluorescent  lighting. 

Principal  future  use  visualized  by  the  authors  is  in 
rectification  of  alternating  current  for  such  uses  as:  bat- 
tery charging;  energizing  holding  magnets  for  self-clos- 
ing fire-doors;  motors  for  operating  watertight  doors; 
direct  current  cargo  winch  motors.  The  authors  believe 
such  power  rectification  would  show  a  decided  space — 
and  weight-saving  over  motor-generators. 

Other  possible  applications  are  voltage  regulators  for 
electric  generators,  leveling  devices  for  elevators,  electro- 
therapy in  ships'  hospitals,  sterilization  of  air  in  food 
storage  or  hospital  spaces,  electro-static  precipitation  of 

JANUARY     •      1941 

Page   81 

dust  or  smoke,  and  inter-office  communication. 

It  is  suggested  that  electronics  may  furnish  the  key  to 
direct  utilization  of  atomic  energy  in  ship  propulsion. 

^0. 5  -  Some  Factors  in  the  Use  of  Plastic 
Ship-Bottom  Paints  hy  the  Navy 

By  Daniel  P.  Graham,  Chemist,  Research  and  Standards 
Branch,  Navy  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Several  commercial  brands  of  plastic  paint  have  been 
investigated  by  the  Navy  during  the  past  50  years.  Out- 
standing in  the  early  tests  were  the  Moravian  paints 
manufactured  by  Veneziani  of  Trieste.  A  green  anti- 
fouling  paint  furnished  by  this  firm  passed  Navy  tests 
so  satisfactorily  that  in  1902  several  battleships  and 
cruisers  were  coated  with  it.  These  applications  proved 
very  satisfactory,  but  because  of  pressure  against  use  of 
foreign  paints  and  difficulties  in  procurement,  their  use 
was  discontinued. 

In  1909,  the  Navy  started  making  paints  on  its  own 
formula,  and  purchase  of  commercial  brands  was  stopped 
except  in  emergencies.  In  1921,  an  investigation  of  the 
fouling  of  ships  bottoms  led  to  an  appraisal  of  all  toxic 
substances,  and  the  Chemical  Warfare  Service  was  called 
into  consultation.  Under  the  guidance  of  Chemical  War- 
fare Service,  the  Navy  began  the  manufacture  of  hot 
application  plastic  paints.  In  1924  and  1927,  five  destroy- 
ers were  coated  with  these  plastic  compositions,  but  all 
were  failures  due  to  lack  of  adherence.  The  paint  dropped 
off  in  large  sheets  or  blistered  very  badly. 

Mare  Island  Navy  Yard  was  asked  to  carry  on  further 
investigations,  and  in  19.^1  reported  that  "all  Chemical 
Warfare  Service  paints  were  quite  eflfective  against  foul- 
ing and  furnished  good  protective  films."  In  1932,  the 
Navy  bought  sufficient  Moravian  paint  to  coat  twice  the 
bottoms  of  one  destroyer  and  two  cruisers,  and  after  ex- 
haustive tests,  the  experts  agreed  that  Moravian  was 
more  effective  than  Navy  Standard  against  fouling.  The 
Navy  then  started  out  to  find  a  formula  that  would  be 
equal  to  or  better  than  Moravian. 

Mare  Island  Yard,  Norfolk  yard,  and  Edgewood 
Arsenal  all  developed  and  manufactured  paints.  These 
paints  were  used  in  comparison  with  each  other  and  with 
Moravian  in  large-scale  tests  on  destroyers.  Eighteen 
months  of  these  tests  demonstrated  a  decided  advantage 
for  the  Mare  Island  hot  plastic  paint,  and  the  Navy's 
anti-fouling  paint  development  program  emphasized  this 
paint.  However,  the  need  for  a  paint  with  less  exacting 
application  requirements  led  to  the  development  of 
plastic  paints  for  cold  application. 

Navy  standard  designations  are:  15  H.P.  for  hot 
plastic;  105  and  143  for  cold  plastic  anti-fouling  used  on 
surface  vessels;  145  for  cold  plastic  for  submarines;  146 
for  cold  plastic  boot  topping. 

It  is  necessary  to  prepare  a  clean  metal  surface  for  the 
application  of  these  paints  and  the  Navy  has  standardized 
on  a  process  of  wet  sandblastmg  to  remove  everything 
down  to  the  clean  steel,  followed  by  a  wash  of  2% 

solution  of  phosphoric  acid  to  prevent  immediate  sur- 
face corrosion.  This  method  gives  a  better  surface  much 
more  economically  than  hand  chipping,  power  scaling, 
or  power  wire  brushing. 

For  application  of  hot  plastic,  the  Navy  has  developed 
a  system  of  melting  kettles,  electrically  heated  pressure 
kettles,  electrically  heated  pressure  hose,  and  electrically 
heated  spray  guns.  A  film  approximately  1/32"  thick  is 
sprayed  on  corresponding  to  approximately  2  pounds  of 
paint  per  square  yard. 

Cold  plastic  when  agitated  is  liquid  enough  for  spray 
application  at  ordinary  atmospheric  temperatures.  The 
best  spray  temperature  for  this  paint  is  70°  F.  After  dry- 
ing, its  film  melting  point  is  200°  F. 

This  paper,  after  an  exhaustive  statistical  analysis  con- 
cludes that:  (  1 )  Fouling  with  these  paints  is  negligible 
(only  10%  of  the  vessels  were  fouled  more  than  5%). 
Fouling  was  reported  as  often  on  intact  anti-fouling 
film  as  on  spots  where  A.  F.  film  was  missing,  which  in- 
dicates that  activity  of  vessel  has  much  effect  on  fouling; 
(2)  15  H.P.  has  better  adhesive  qualities  on  hand- 
brushed  steel  surfaces  than  the  cold  plastic  paints,  but  on 
sandblasted  surfaces,  the  adhesive  qualities  are  equal; 
(  3  )  anti-corrosive  properties  of  the  Navy  standard  paints 
are  equal. 

Aside  from  cost  of  application,  the  one  disadvantage 
of  plastic  paints  mentioned  in  the  paper  is  the  greater 
initial  skin  resistance,  as  compared  with  the  thinner, 
smoother  commercial  A.  F.  paints.  This  disadvantage 
may  be  greatly  increased  if  the  plastic  paint  is  applied 
without  strict  compliance  with  the  standard  technique 
worked  out  in  the  Navy. 

h.  6  -  n/lechanical  Reduction  Gears 

By  J.  A.  Davies  and  H.  W.  Semar,  respectively  Man- 
ager, Marine  Turbine  Engineering,  and  Superintendent, 
Quality  Control  Steam  Division,  Westinghouse  Electric 

During  World  War  II,  the  manufacturers  of  mechani- 
cal gears  for  ship  propulsion  machinery  worked  around 
the  clock  to  supply  the  demand. 

Reduction  gears  between  turbine  and  propeller  shaft 
were  first  introduced  about  40  years  ago.  Their  purpose  is 
to  allow  the  turbine  rotor  to  run  faster,  thereby  provid- 
ing a  more  economical  use  of  steam,  and  to  allow  the 
propeller  shaft  to  run  slower,  thereby  providing  a  more 
efficient  propeller.  Single  reduction  was  used  at  first,  but 
double  reduction  gearing  was  quickly  developed. 

Much  research  has  led  to:  development  of  better  ma- 
chinery for  cutting  and  finishing  gear  teeth;  the  use  of 
harder  and  stronger  steels  in  the  forgings;  the  convic- 
tion that  higher  stresses  can  be  safely  used  in  gear  teeth 
and  in  bearings. 

The  involute  form  of  tooth  is  at  the  moment  the  most 
generally  used  tooth  contour.  The  simple  characteristics 
of  its  engagement  and  the  relative  ease  with  which  it 
can  be  produced  indicate  that  it  is  likely  to  be  used  for 
marine  gearing  for  many  years  to  come. 

One  of  the  principal  problems  still  encountered  with 

Page  82 


this  rype  of  gearing  is  what  is  known  as  "pitting".  Little 
circular  pieces  of  steel  break  loose  from  the  surfaces  of 
the  engaging  teeth  and  leave  behind  small  crater-like 
depressions.  While  pitting  has  not  been  known  to  in- 
terfere with  the  continued  use  of  the  gear,  it  is  a  prob- 
lem to  which  much  attention  is  being  paid.  Recent  tests 
seem  to  prove  that  the  amount  of  pitting  is  directly  pro- 
portional to  the  relative  roughness  of  the  tooth  surface. 
In  other  words,  by  providing  a  smoother  finish  to  the 
flanks  of  the  teeth,  pitting  can  be  reduced  almost  to  the 
vanishing  point.  This  lends  support  to  the  theory  that 
pitting  ocurs  as  a  result  of  heavily  concentrated  loads 
on  the  prominences  which  are  present  on  the  flanks  of 
gear  teeth  when  a  finishing  operation,  such  as  "shaving" 
or  "lapping"  has  not  been  provided  after  the  gears  have 
been  formed  in  a  regular  tooth  cutting  machine. 

The  paper  gives  a  detailed  description  of  the  method 
adopted  to  determine  the  contact  stresses  which  are  en- 
countered in  gearing  of  this  type. 

this  control,  changes  of  water  speed  will  lead  to  deviations 
from  constant  pressure,  which  are  rapidly  corrected. 

^0. 7  -  Propeller  Tunnel  ^otes 

By  Prof.  Frank  M.  Lewis,  Massachusetts  Institute  of 

This  paper  discusses  technical  details  involved  in  the 
cavitation  testing  of  propellers  in  the  M.I.T.  propeller 
testing  tunnel,  and  presents  the  cavitating  test  results 
for  a  series  of  wide  blade  propellers  suitable  for  various 
types  of  high  speed  vessels. 

An  entire  cavitation  test  usually  is  made  at  a  single 
number  of  revolutions  per  minute,  1200  being  a  common 
figure  for  a  12-inch  propeller.  The  propeller  is  held  to  this 
fixed  number  of  revolutions  per  minute  by  a  tuning  fork 
control  acting  on  the  field  of  the  generator  which  sup- 
plies the  propeller  motor. 

The  revolutions  per  minute  can  be  determined  at  any 
time  by  a  counter-clock  arrangement,  and  the  deviation 
from  constancy  is  of  the  order  of  I/IOOO  or  less.  A  syn- 
chronism indicator  shows  the  operator  whether  the  fork 
and  motor  are  in  or  out  of  step. 

The  pressure  in  the  tunnel  is  held  constant  automati- 
cally by  a  water  leg.  A  3-inch  pipe  leads  35  feet  down- 
ward from  the  test  section  of  the  tunnel.  At  its  bottom 
a  pipe  is  connected  which  can  be  swivefled  in  a  vertical 
plane.  The  top  of  this  swivelled  pipe  is  open  to  the  at- 
mosphere. A  smaU  stream  of  water  is  fed  to  the  system 
continually  and  spills  out  the  open  end  of  the  swivelled 
pipe.  The  two  high  points  of  the  tunnel  where  air  tends 
to  collect  are  connected  to  a  vacuum  pump  through  float 
valves  which  will  pass  air  but  not  water.  The  tunnel  thus 
operates  completely  filled  with  water  and  the  pressure 
at  the  propeller  axis  is  equal  to  atmospheric  pressure 
minus  the  pressure  of  a  column  of  water  of  a  height 
equal  to  the  distance  from  the  open  end  of  the  swivel 
pipe  to  the  propeller  axis.  The  pressure  is  lowered  by 
lowering  the  swivel  pipe,  and  raised  by  raising  it.  While 
the  range  of  pressures  thus  obtainable  is  limited,  it  cov- 
ers the  usual  requirements  for  cavitation  testing.  With 

h.  1!  -  Aluminum  Alloys  in  Ship  Construction 

By  M.  Cj.  Forrest,  Asst.  Naval  Architect,  Gibbs  &  Cox, 

Experience  during  the  past  12  years  indicates  that  cor- 
rosion resistance,  physical  properties,  and  fabrication  of 
aluminum  alloys  as  used  extensively  in  secondary  ship 
structures  have  now  demonstrated  the  feasibility  of  de- 
signing and  building  ships  made  wholly  of  these  metals. 

It  is  now  considered  that  suitable  aluminum  alloys 
offer  greater  resistance  than  steel  to  marine  corrosion.  It 
saves  great  weight  for  equivalent  strength.  Total  saving 
in  weight  of  complete  ship  will  approximate  38' v. 

For  some  time  to  come,  aluminum  ships  will  be  all 
riveted.  The  deflection  of  an  aluminum  hull  will  be  twice 
that  of  a  steel  hull  under  sea  and  cargo  load  stress.  Tests 
are  needed  to  determine  what  effect  this  will  have  on 
watertightness  of  riveted  joints.  Experience  with  riveted 
aluminum  tank  cars  over  eight  years  of  service  indicate 
minimum  leakage  under  severe  rail  conditions.  Pre- 
liminary tests  indicate  that  aluminum  has  less  notch-sen- 
sitivity than  steel. 

In  a  normal  cargo  vessel  of  medium  size,  the  vertical 
center  of  gravity  of  the  aluminum  ship  will  be  6  inches 
lower  than  that  of  the  steel  ship  in  light  ship  condition. 

All  aluminum  structural  material  when  received  in  the 
stockyard,  should  be  thoroughly  cleaned,  treated  with  a 
water  solution  of  phosphoric  acid  and  grease  solvents, 
then  given  a  coat  of  zinc  chromate  primer.  During  fabri- 
cation, all  faying  surfaces  should  be  coated  with  zinc 
chromate  primer.  The  use  of  lead  pigment  primers  on 
aluminum  causes  corrosion  after  immersion  in  salt  water. 
Anti-fouling  paints  may  be  applied  only  over  zinc  chro- 
mate primer.  Connections  of  aluminum  to  steels,  to 
nickel  alloys,  or  to  copper  alloys  should  be  avoided,  or 
the  faying  surfaces  of  these  dissimilar  metals  be  electro- 
plated with  cadmium.  The  new  Argon-gas  tungsten-arc 
welding  process  shows  great  promise  of  making  satis- 
factory strength  joints  in  aluminum.  Tests  under  way 
seem  to  indicate  that  this  method  may  produce  satis- 
factory ship  joints. 

Aluminum  in  machinery  must  be  limited  to  applica- 
tions not  subject  to  temperatures  above  400°  F.  In  pipe 
valves  and  fittings,  temperatures  not  over  200°  F.  and 
pressures  not  above  50  p.  s.  i. 

Present  conditions  in  the  aluminum  industry  justify 
entire  vessels  of  this  metal  up  to  about  450  feet  in  length. 

h.  0  -  Design  of  Modern  Ships 

By  George  C.  Sharp,  Naval  Architect. 

The  purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  try  to  dissipate  some 
of  the  "inertia  of  tradition"  which  causes  so  much 
trouble  to  designers  of  modern  ships,  and  to  provoke 

JANUARY     •      I94i 

Page  83 




V   E    R    A   N     DA 


Fig.    I.     Application    of   Air-Light   Arrangements. 


discussion  with  that  end  in  view.  (  Probably  no  one  per- 
son in  these  United  States  is  more  qualified  by  experience 
and  by  temperament  to  accomplish  these  purposes — Ed. ) 

Passenger  accommodation  arrangement  is  the  first  fac- 
tor discussed.  We  are  always  striving  to  get  outside  rooms 
by,  in  effect,  bringing  some  part  of  the  room  to  the  out- 
side skin  of  the  ship.  Why  not  try,  in  effect,  bringing 
the  outside  skin  to  the  room?  Proposed  arrangements  to 
effect  this  are  shown  in  Fig.  1.  The  author  calls  these 
Air-Light  arrangements.  They  involve  large  windows  in 
the  ship's  side  and  either  a  stepped  vestibule  to  the  cen- 
tral passage  or  a  wide  court  running  right  across  the 
ship.  Rooms  opening  from  each  side  of  these  light-air 
ways  are  fitted  with  windows  so  that  each  room  has  a 
view  of  the  sea.  Table  I  gives  an  idea  of  the  value  of  this 
arrangement  as  applied  to  a  European  passenger  vessel 
built  in  the  19.t0s. 

In  machinery  arrangement,  the  paper  makes  a  strong 
plea  to  take  advantage  of  the  increasing  compactness  and 
decreasing  weight  of  modern  power  plants  by  giving  seri- 
ous consideration  to  single  screw  installations  for  vessels 
of  large  power.  Small  cross-section  up-takes  are  advocated, 
with  entire  separation  from  the  stack  or  stacks  which  can 
then  be  proportioned  for  the  best  streamline  effect,  or 

can  be  eliminated.  The  external  up-take  for  modern 
forced  draft  boilers  need  be  little  larger  than  a  king  post, 
and  can  be  made  to  serve  as  such. 

Air  conditioning  presents  serious  problems.  The  com- 
pactness of  passenger  accommodation  spaces  makes  the 
installation  of  air  conditioning  ducts  a  very  "complex 
business".  Insulation  temperature  control  and  drainage 
are  very  important.  On  a  medium  passenger  liner  at  sea, 
the  system  may  remove  10-15  tons  of  water  per  day  by 
dehumidification  of  the  air.  Consideration  should  be 
given  to  these  matters  in  the  design  stage  of  the  hull  and 
the  air  conditioning  experts  consulted. 

The  author  ( Chairman  of  a  Safety  of  Life  at  Sea  sub- 
committee, assigned  to  develop  proposals  on  fire  pre- 
vention for  a  new  International  Convention)  visualizes 
considerable  modification  of  the  rules,  particularly  in  the 
matter  of  heat  transmission  through  bulkheads.  He  feels 
that  a  "review  of  existing  requirements  would  indicate 
the  possibility  of  considerable  simplification  of  the  rules. " 

He  concludes:  "In  the  final  analysis,  I  feel  that  if  we 
give  the  necessary  attention  to  arranging  our  accommo- 
dations to  provide  a  maximum  of  air  and  light  to  aU 
rooms;  if  we  provide  them  with  conditioned  air,  where 
I  Please  turn  to  page  132i 

Page  84 



wiiE  mnmm  mwa 

By  N.  C.  BRKMEH, 
Cliief  Kngineer,  Morse  Cliiiiii  Caiiipaiiy 
Siihsidinry  nf  Borrf-WaniRr  Cnrporntinn 

During  the  war,  because  of  the  short- 
age of  helical-gear  and  electric  drives  for 
smaller  diesel-powered  ships,  transmission 
chain,  which  had  had  a  long  record  of  suc- 
cessful application  in  industry,  was  adopted 
for  marine  service.  In  1942,  after  the  Navy 
Department  Bureau  of  Ships  had  conduct- 
ed a  series  of  tests  on  chain  drive,  it  was 
fitted  on  65-ft.  and  1 10-ft-  harbor  tugs,  and 
the  Army  Transportation  Corps  FP  cargo 
vessels.  This  paper  points  out  the  advan- 
tages as  well  as  the  limitations  of  chain 
transmission  applied  to  ship  propulsion  and 
mentions  factors  which  contribute  to  effi- 
ciency, long  life,  quietness  and  low  main- 
tenance costs. 


TRANSMISSION  chain  has  been  successfully  used  on 
diesel-powered  equipment  for  many  years.  The  lati- 
tude in  design  permitted  by  its  accommodation  to  vary- 
ing centers  and  its  ability  to  carry  heavy  loads  under 
adverse  conditions  of  protection,  lubrication  and  align- 
ment, has  made  it  a  popular  drive  medium  on  many 
types  of  mobile  or  portable  equipment  where  saving 
in  space  or  weight  is  important. 

When  totally  enclosed  and  properly  lubricated,  the 
chain  drive  is  a  long-lived  piece  of  equipment.  His- 
tories of  from  10  to  25  years  of  service  can  be  exhibited 
for  high-capacity  drives  in  various  industrial  plants 
throughout  the  world. 

While  but  a  few  marine-propeller  drives  of  more 
than  100-hp  capacity  had  been  built  up  in  1942,  the 
performances  of  several  drives  on  small  dual-engine 
commercial  vessels  encouraged  the  Navy's  Bureau  of 
Ships  to  make  a  thorough  study  of  the  possibilities  of 
the  chain  drive  as  a  substitute  for  electric  and  helical- 

Prc-pared  for  presentation  b 
Power  Division,  Milwaui<ee, 

gear  drives  which,  at  the  time,  were  on  the  critical  list 
as  regards  availability. 

The  study  resulted  in  a  decision  to  equip  its  YT 
65-ft.  tugs  and  a  number  of  the  YT  1  lO-ft.  harbor  tugs 
with  dual  engines  and  to  compound  the  power  of  these 
by  chain  drives  to  drive  large  slow-turning  propellers. 

The  success  of  the  drives  in  these  boats  and  in  the 
Army  Transportation  Corps'  small  FP  cargo  vessels  has 
created  considerable  interest  in  this  new  marine  trans- 

Function  of  Chain  Drives 

The  primary  function  of  chain  drives  in  diesel-pro- 
pelled  vessels  should  be  considered  as  that  of  compound- 
ing or  transferring  power  from  two  or  more  engines  to 
a  single  propeller  shaft. 

While  chain  drives  are  efficient  speed  reducers  they 
will  not  commonly  be  adapted  to  the  function  of  speed 
and  torque  change  in  a  single-engine  single-screw  ves- 
sel, as  in  this  case  the  gear  drive  would  be  indicated 
because  of  its  inherent  compactness. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  design  possibilities  of  multiple- 
engine  plants,  especially  when  high-speed  engines  are 
to  be  used,  are  often  enhanced  by  combining  reduction 
gears  with  chain  drives  in  the  power  train. 

When  used  with  medium-speed  engines  the  speed 
reduction  accomplished  by  the  chain  transmission  in 
itself  is  usually  sufficient  to  allow  the  use  of  large  pro- 
pellers. Reversal  of  the  propeller  can  be  through  the 
use  of  separate  reverse  gears  on  each  engine  or  in  the 
output  train,  with  specially  designed  reversing  chain 
drives,  or  by  the  use  of  direct-reversing  engines. 

The  suggested  arrangements  shown  in  Figs.  1  to  6 
are  but  a  few  of  the  many  combinations  which  are  pos- 
sible and  which  open  new  opportunities  to  the  marine- 
power-plant  designer  wishing  to  utilize  the  advantages 
of  multiple  engines. 

Characteristics  of  Chain  Drives 

Pnicer-Cupacity  Ranges.  It  will  be  noted  that  many 
of  the  suggested  power  trains  incorporate  a  combination 
reverse  reduction  gear  between  the  engines  and  the 
chain  drives.  Preference  is  thus  implied  for  drives  de- 
signed for  the  lower  revolutions-per-minute  brackets 
which  incorporate  the  heavy-duty  series  of  manufacturers' 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

Page  85 

Fig.    \-i.    Typical 


Standard  steel-finished  roller  chain.  This  series  covers 
%  to  2V2  in.  pitch  chains  usually  made  up  to  quadruple 
width  as  standard  and  5  to  8  strands  wide  as  special. 

Reference  to  the  capacity  chart.  Table  1,  will  show 
that  capacity  up  to  nearly  2000  hp  per  engine  may  be 
handled  by  a  single  transmission  provided  that  input 
speed  is  sufficiently  low. 

Multiple-strand  chains  for  marine  drives  should  be 
constructed  with  the  center  plates  shaved  or  bored  to 
allow  a  heavy  press  fit  on  the  pins. 

While  this  type  of  roller-chain  design  requires  special 
tools  for  assembly  or  disconnection,  it  provides  a  "pre- 
loaded" condition  of  the  chain  side  bars  which  is  most 
conducive  to  maximum  load-carrying  capaciry. 

In  a  theoretical  sense  the  maximum  power-carrying 
capacity  of  a  chain  drive  is  determined  by  the  point  at 
which  excessive  sprocket  width  causes  dangerous  bend- 
ing deflections  to  occur  in  the  shaft  or  sprocket  because 
of  chain  pull.  In  this  discussion,  however,  the  conserva- 
tive upper  limit  of  horsepower  capacity  will  be  con- 
sidered as  that  of  rwo  6-strand  chains  sharing  a  common 
load  on  the  same  sprocket. 

Speed  Ranges.  It  must  be  emphasized  that  chain 
drives,  unlike  gears,  have  sharply  defined  upper  limits  of 
rotative  speed  for  any  given  pitch.  This  limit  is  usually 
established  by  the  ability  of  the  chain  roller  to  withstand 
the  impact  forces  created  by  the  chordal  action  of  the 

chain  as  it  engages  the  sprocket.  Here  again,  the  speed 
ratings  given  with  this  paper  are  conservative  and 
assume  all  elements  of  the  chain  will  have  unlimited 
endurance  capacity  under  continuous  service  conditions 
at  full  load. 

While  the  linear  speed  of  the  chain  is  not  a  critical 
factor,  good  practice  seems  to  dictate  a  range  of  from 
2000  fpm  to  .t500  fpm,  the  smaller  pitches  of  chain 
being  better  adapted  to  the  higher  speed. 

Chordal  Ac/ion.  Figure  7  shows  the  effect  of  the 
sprocket  polygon  causing  chordal  rise  and  fall  of  the 
chain.  It  will  be  noted  that  small  numbers  of  teeth  in 
the  sprockets  create  decided  variations  in  the  velocity 
of  the  chain.  The  practical  effect  of  this  is  to  create  undue 
noise  and  to  set  up  stresses  in  the  chain  which  reduce 
materially  its  endurance  capacity.  As  the  number  of 
teeth  in  the  sprocket  increase,  this  velocity  change  drops 
off  markedly  and  the  quietness,  smoothness,  and  load- 
carrying  ability  of  the  drive  increases. 

The  minimum  desirable  number  of  teeth  for  the 
small  sprocket  of  marine  chain  drives,  regardless  of 
pitch,  is  in  the  range  between  26  and  35. 

The  smallest  sprocket  in  the  marine  drives  illustrated 
in  this  paper  contain  30  teeth.  The  result  of  the  use  of 
this  relatively  generous  number  of  teeth  probably  con- 
tributes more  than  any  other  single  factor  to  the  success 
of  the  drives.  The  quietness  of  the  transmissions  at  all 

Page  86 


speeds  is  one  of  their  outstanding  characteristics. 

Ratio  Limitations.  Ratios  as  high  as  10  to  1  are  often 
used  in  industrial  drives.  In  these  cases,  however,  either 
speeds  or  loads  are  surticiently  low  to  allow  the  use  of 
very  small  sprockets. 

The  outside  limit  of  reduction  for  marine  drives 
should  probably  be  about  5  to  1.  Even  this  ratio,  assum- 
ing that  suitable  pinion  teeth  are  incorporated,  would 
necessitate  a  large  driven  sproci<et  which  is  seldom 
possible  because  of  limited  hull  clearance. 

When  very  slow-turning  propellers  are  to  be  used 
with  high-speed  engine,  a  good  practice  would  be  to 
choose  a  chain  drive  of  about  3  to  1  ratio,  using  reduc- 
tion gears  or  combination  reduction-reverse  gears  be- 
tween the  chain-drive  input  shafts  and  the  engine. 
Heavier,  more  rugged  chains  are  used  with  this  arrange- 
ment and  a  better  balance  of  power  train  design  is 

Factor  of  Safety.  The  load  tables  given  in  this  paper 
are  based  upon  a  minimum  working-load  to  chain- 
strength  ratio  of  about  1  to  .30.  As  this  high  factor  is 
necessary  only  because  of  rapidly  recurring  dynamic 
loadings  created  by  chordal  action,  it  is  obvious  that  the 
chain  has  an  enormous  capacity  for  resisting  momentary 
shocks  and  overloads.  The  well-designed  marine  chain 
transmission  can  withstand  the  effects  of  "rough  going" 
as  well  as  any  other  unit  of  the  propeller  drive. 

Elastic  Properties  of  Chain.  The  elastic  "stretch"  of 
a  roller  chain  due  to  application  of  the  working  load 
amounts  to  about  0.0006  in.  per  in.  of  its  length.  From 
this  it  is  apparent  that  the  natural  period  of  the  chain 
is  quite  high  and  little  need  be  feared  from  torsional 
resonance  with  either  the  propeller  shaft  or  the  engines. 

This  relative  lack  of  "rubber"  in  the  chains  makes  it 
necessary  that  where  two  or  more  chains  are  used  to  share 
a  common  load,  the  chains  must  be  carefully  matched 
for  pitch  to  insure  proper  distribution  of  chain  pull. 

It  is  also  obvious  that  housing  deflections  of  a  nature 
which  would  create  excessive  parallel  misalignment  of 
the  shafts  must  be  avoided. 

In  this  respect,  however,  the  chain  drive  is  con- 
siderably less  sensitive  than  a  reduction  gear,  and  chain- 
drive  housings  may  be  of  substantially  lighter  construc- 
tion than  gear  cases.  Installation  problems  are  also  simpli- 
fied especially  if  self-aligning  bearings  are  used. 

Pitch  Elongation — Chain  and  Sprocket  Life.  It  is 
quite  customary  to  set  up  the  usual  chain  drive  in  such 


HORSEPOWER  PEP  ENGINE                                  1 






















350-  1350 











650- 1050 























































Table  based  on  encihe  sprocket  having  30  teet, 
Table   I.     Main   chain-dri 

Ratios  up  to  4:t. 

a  manner  that  the  "slack"  caused  by  joint  wear  can  be 
taken  up. 

This  is  sometimes  accomplished  by  the  use  of  adjust- 
able idler  sprockets,  or  more  often  by  increasing  the 
center  distance  between  the  sprockets  with  sliding  motor 
bases  or  brackets. 

However,  the  usual  chain  drive  is  not  entirely  pro- 
tected from  the  effects  of  dust  and  moisture  and  seldom 
is  supplied  with  a  copious  bath  of  oil. 

Moreover,  it  has  long  been  established  that  a  roller 
chain  installed  and  operated  under  good  transmission 
conditions  develops  nearly  all  of  its  "stretch"  or  pitch 
elongation  during  the  first  few  hundred  hours  of  opera- 
tion, and,  once  it  has  been  "run-in,"  can  be  operated 
for  thousands  of  hours  without  further  elongation  of 
any  appreciable  degree. 

Repeated  tests  have  proved  conclusively  that  this 
tendency  to  stretch  at  the  start  due  to  the  constriction 
at  the  ends  of  the  holes  in  the  chain  bushings  caused 
by  the  heavy  press  fit  of  the  side  bars  which  does  not 
allow  full  utilization  of  the  total  bearing  area  of  the 
chain  joint. 

Development  of  grinding  and  honing  processes 
adapted  to  the  larger  sizes  of  chains  has  made  it  possible 
to  assure  full  seating  of  the  full  length  of  the  chain 
bushing  bore  at  the  very  start.  In  addition,  this  also 
allows  correction  of  inaccuracies  of  side-bar  hole  spacing 
and  bushing-bore  parallelism  which  would  cause  uneven 

For  this  reason  the  Navy  drives  were  designed  with- 
out any  provision  for  pitch-wear  take-up. 

The  chains  were  installed  with  an  initial  tension  of 
about  25  per  cent  of  the  working  load  on  both  strands. 
Under  this  condition  the  chain  drive  has  practically  no 
backlash  and  no  appreciable  looseness  developed  after 
prolonged  periods  of  operation.  Moreover,  the  drives 
set  up  with  this  minimum  amount  of  slack  were  quiet 
and  smooth  in  operation  from  the  very  start.  No  "break- 
in"  period  is  required  for  marine  chain  drives  and  full 
sustained  loads  may  be  applied   immediately. 

It  will  be  noted  that  separate  chains  are  used  from 
each  engine  to  the  main  sprocket.  With  this  system 
maximum  wrap  is  obtained  without  idlers,  and  the  drive 
retains  the  desirable  feature  of  ability  to  operate  with 
one  engine  in  case  of  accident  to  one  of  the  chains. 

Sprockets  in  marine  chain  transmissions  have  almost 
unlimited  life.  Steel  of  machinable  hardness  or  high- 
strength  cast  iron  is  often  used.  As  there  is  no  rubbing 
action  on  the  sprocket  teeth,  and  as  the  driving  forces 
are  distributed  over  a  relatively  large  number  of  teeth, 
very  little  sprocket  wear  occurs. 

Efficiency.  Chain  drives  for  marine  service  are  slightly 
more  than  99  per  cent  efficient  at  full  load.  This  high 
efficiency  is  due  to  the  low  velocities  of  the  journal 
elements  in  the  chain  joint  and  the  fact  that  with  large 
numbers  of  teeth,  impact  losses  are  very  low.  In  indus- 
trial drives  the  losses  do  not  fall  off  in  direct  proportion 
to  the  load  so  that  efficiency  at  say  ¥4  load  at  full  speed 
is  but  about  97.5  per  cent.  The  latter  condition  of  course 
cannot   occur   in   fixed-blade   propeller   drives. 

Chain-drive  losses  fall  off  rapidly  at  reduced  speed, 
however;  thus  it  may  be  stated  that  the  marine  chain 

JANUARY     •      1941 



Fig.  8.    Typical  heavy-duty  chain  dr 

Fig.    10.    Typical  chain  transmission  with   built-in   reduction  ge 
and  adjustable  centers. 


drive  is  very  nearly  99  per  cent  efficient  over  the  entire 
speed  range. 

Lubrication.  Chain  drives  are  not  critical  as  regards 
oil  viscosity.  Any  medium  oil  which  is  fluid  enough  at 
all  operating  temperatures  to  reach  the  joint  or  "heart" 
of  the  chain  is  suitable.  The  type  of  oil  used  for  the 
engine  lube  system  seems  to  be  ideal  for  the  marine 
chain  drive,  and  the  use  of  engine  lubricating  oil  in 
the  chain  housing  has  been  the  standard  practice  in  nearly 
all  installations. 

The  oil,  however,  should  never  be  taken  from  the 
engine  lube  system.  A  separate  sump,  strainer,  and  pump 
should  be  provided  for  the  chain  transmission,  prefer- 
ably driven  by  a  gear  or  chain  from  one  of  the  pinion- 
sprocket  shafts.  Spray  pipes  should  be  placed  to  dis- 
tribute the  oil  to  all  portions  of  the  chain. 

Cooling  of  oil  is  not  always  necessary.  When  chain 
speed  is  less  than  2500  fpm,  oil  temperatures  seldom 
exceed  130  F. 

Types  of  Housings.  The  drives  illustrated  were  con- 
structed at  a  time  when  horizontal-boring-mill  facilities 
in  the  country  were  critically  needed  for  work  on  helical 
gear  reducers  and  other  large  machinery.  For  this  reason 
the  transmissions  were  designed  to  utilize  standard  pillow 
blocks  with  self-aligning  roller  bearings.  The  bases  were 
weldments  of  1-in.  plate  well  ribbed  to  assure  stability. 
The  sheet-steel  tops  were  functional  only  as  enclosures. 

This  arrangement  worked  out  very  well  and  can  be 
recommended  as  lending  itself  to  economical  manufac- 
ture especially  where  the  drives  must  be  custom-built 
singly  or  in  small  lots. 

Standardized  units  may  be  constructed  along  the  lines 
shown  in  Figs.  8  to  10,  inclusive. 

Thrust  bearings  of  either  the  roller  or  slipper  type 
may  be  incorporated  into  the  transmission.  The  axial 
movement  of  the  propeller  shaft  resulting  with  the  use 
of  the  Kingsbury-type  bearing  is  easily  accommodated 
with  the  chain  drive  because  of  the  generous  clearances 
between  the  sprocket  faces  and  the  chain  side  bars. 

Rei'erse  Gears.  On  the  Transportation  Corps  FP  ves- 
sels a  reversible  chain  drive  has  been  used.  In  this  trans- 
mission an  arrangement  of  pneumatic  clutches  allows 
the  propeller  shaft  to  be  engaged  either  with  the  main 
forward  chains  or  with  a  pair  of  reverse  chains  which, 
through  the  use  of  idlers  and  a  follower  sprocket,  causes 
reverse  rotation  of  one  clutch  element.  In  these  transmis- 
sions the  forward  drives  were  on  fixed  centers  and  re- 
duction was  provided  in  both  forward  and  reverse  speed. 

In  these  ships  four  engines  were  used  with  two 
separate  chain-driving  twin  propellers. 

In  the  largest  series  of  the  Navy  tugs  direct-reversible 
engines  were  used.  Speed  reduction  by  the  chain  drive 
was  3  to  1. 

Gear-type  disconnect  clutches  allowed  operation  with 
either  or  both  engines.  Also,  on  some  of  these  tugs  this 
arrangement  made  possible  the  transfer  of  the  power 
of  the  starboard  engine  from  the  propeller  to  a  high- 
pressure  fire  pump. 

The  smaller  boats  used  unidirectional  engines  with 
combination  reverse  and  2  to  1  reduction  gears  between 
the  engines  and  the  chain  drive.  The  control  of  the 
reverse  gears  was  by  mechanical  linkage  to  a  common 
pneumatic  cylinder  which  in  turn  was  operated  by  re- 


mote  control  trom  the  pilot  house. 

The  simulcaneous  control  of  two  reverse  gears  has 
been  accomplished  on  other  vessels  with  hydraulic,  elec- 
trical, and  mechanical  linkage  in  each  case  with  excel- 
lent operating  characteristics. 

EcjiialiZiition  of^iiie  Output.  Inasmuch  as  the  en- 
gines are  locked  in  rotational  step,  it  is  easy  to  expect 
that  there  might  be  some  trouble  in  keeping  the  engines 
in  good  power  balance,  especially  on  craft  like  tugs 
where  frequent  starting,  stopping,  and  speed  change  are 
necessary.  However,  most  of  the  troubles  which  had  been 
anticipated  did  not  materialize. 

Pilot  house  adjustment  of  speed  has  been  successful 
with  both  pneumatic-  and  hydraulic-throttle-control  sy.s 
terns.  Once  the  usual  preliminary  adjustments  have  been 
made,  the  two  engines  remain  in  gotid  torque  relation- 
ship over  the  entire  speed  range.  Occasionally  the  ex- 
haust temperatures  are  checked  and  slight  adjustments 
of  the  governors  may  be  made  by  the  operator. 

At  no  condition  of  operation  has  there  been  noticed 
a  tendency  of  one  engine  to  "fight"  or  oppose  the  other. 
During  trial  runs  purposeful  unbalancing  of  the  engines 
seems  to  result  in  nothing  other  than  a  dropping  off 
in  speed  of  the  system. 

Hydraulic  Couplings.  Chain  drives  undoubtedly  re- 
spond to  the  smoothing-out  action  of  hydraulic  or 
magnetic  couplings  fully  as  much  as  would  a  gear  drive 
under  the  same  conditions. 

As  pointed  out  previously,  the  chain  is  not  to  any 
degree  elastic  nor  does  it  possess  damping  ability;  con- 
sequently, abnormal  engine  cyclic  variations  or  vibra- 
tions must  be  met  either  by  increasing  the  size  of  the 
chain  or  by  introducing  an  absorbing  device  between 
the  engine  and  the  drive. 

The  hydraulic  couplings  on  the  larger  of  the  Navy 
tugs  functioned  chiefly  to  permit  of  easy  starting  and 
to  allow  better  synchronization  of  engine  output.  Their 
contribution  to  the  success  of  the  chain  drive  is  not  too 
well  established  as  engine-output  characteristics  were 

The  hydraulic  couplings  used  on  these  tugs  were  of 
the  traction  type,  with  the  outer  and  heavier  elements 
supported  by  the  chain-drive  bearings. 

Scoop-type  hydraulic  couplings  or  excited  magnetic 
couplings  may  be  used,  making  it  possible  easily  to  dis- 
engage one  of  the  engines  for  light  operating  conditions 
or  in  an  emergency. 

Whether  or  not  a  reaction-type  coupling  is  used,  it 
is  advisable  to  incorporate  a  flexible  coupling  between 
the  engine  and  the  load. 

A  coupling  which  allows  of  easy  disconnection  is 
recommended  when  other  means  are  not  available  to 
disengage   one   of   the   engines. 

Advantages  of  Chain  Drives 

The  advantages  of  the  single  large  slow-turning  pro- 
peller are  best  utilized  on  workboats  such  as  tugs,  where 

I  Please  turn  to  page  132) 

JANUARY.      1948 

Dual   engine  3  to    I    propeller  drive  with   disconnect  clulclies  and 
emergency  fire   pump  drive. 

Heavy  duty  chain  drive  for  dual  engine  vesselt— 2  to  I  ratio. 

Page  89 


By  WILLIAM  A.  BAKER,  Assistant  to  Naval  Architect, 

Bethlehem  Steel  Company's  San  Francisco  Yard. 

Part  II 

Foundations  for   Modern  Practice 

Among  the  more  important  searchers  for  the  "form  of 
least  resistance"  and  one  who  helped  lay  part  of  the 
foundation  for  our  present  knowledge  of  ship  resistance 
was  John  Scott  Russell.  He  was  greatly  interested  in  the 
subject  of  waves  formed  by  ships  and  started  experiments 
in  1833;  in  all,  the  tests  numbered  nearly  20,000  includ- 
ing both  tests  of  models  in  tanks  and  full  sized  vessels 
in  canals.  The  first  mention  of  his  so-called  "wave-line" 
theory  came  in  1834  in  a  paper  on  the  "Mechanism  of 
Waves"  before  the  British  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science. 

He  found  through  his  experiments  that  ship  resistance 
was  the  sum  of  three  things — wave  making,  midship  area 
and  surface  friction.  While  appreciating  the  effect  of 
surface  friction  he  fell  back  on  the  accepted  practice  of 
using  the  midsection  area  as  a  measure  of  resistance.  In 
addition,  he  believed  that  the  waterlines  of  a  ship  should 
be  shaped  according  to  his  theory  for  minimum  wave 
making — those  in  the  fore  body  should  be  a  curve  of 
versed  sines  while  those  in  the  after  body  had  a  trochoidal 
form.  The  details  of  this  theory  were  fully  given  in  a 
paper  read  before  the  Institution  of  Naval  Architects  in 
1861  and  in  his  monumental  "The  Modern  System  of 
Naval  Architecture"  published  in  1864. 

Russell's  wave-line  theory  was  followed  by  a  number 
of  designers,  one  outstanding  example  being  Brunei's 
Great  Eastern  in  which  the  entrance  was  330  feet,  and 
the  run  220  feet.  The  dimensions  of  that  ship  built  in 
1859  are: 

Length  between  perpendiculars 680'0" 

Breadth  of  hull. _ 82'6" 

Depth  to  Upper  Deck 58'2" 

Load  draft 30'0" 

Displacement  at  30  ft.  draft 27,000   tons 

Horsepower  of  screw  engines 1600 

Horsepower  of  paddle  engines 1000 

Horsepower,  total  2600 

Speed  15  knots 

Contrasting  Russell's  theory  basmg  the  hull  form  on 
waterlines  and  a  buttock.  Lord  Robert  Montague  in  1853 
published  a  method  of  design  and  practical  drafting 
based  on  what  he  termed  "dividing  lines",  a  form  of  di- 
agonals. Later,  a  Norwegian  naval  architect  and  ship- 
builder, Colin  Archer,  concluded  that  Russell's  wave-lines 
did  not  represent  the  actual  path  of  water  around  a  ship's 
hull — that  the  path  was  nearer  that  of  Montague's  "di- 
viding lines" — and  proposed  in  a  paper  in  1887  that  the 
sectional  area  curve  to  the  load  waterline  follow  the  pro- 
portions of  Russell's  curves. 

Among  the  curiosa  of  the  period  are  two  papers,  one  in 
1854  and  the  other  in  1887,  concerning  the  relation  be- 
tween the  forms  of  fish  and  ships.  Plaster  casts  of  various 
fish  were  made  and  areas  measured  at  transverse  sections 
from  which  a  sectional  area  curve  was  plotted. 

Ail  modern  work  on  ship  resistance  is  based  on  the 
experiments  begun  by  William  Froude  and  continued  af- 
ter his  death  in  1879  by  his  son,  R.  E.  Froude.  William 
Froude's  many  friends  in  the  naval  and  shipbuilding 
fields  interested  him  in  some  of  the  theoretical  problems 
offered  by  naval  architecture.  His  early  work,  beginning 
about  1856,  was  on  the  rolling  of  ships;  later  he  turned 
to  resistance  experiments.  Some  of  the  first  resistance 
experiments  were  performed  on  a  river  using  small  self- 
propelled  models  for  which  he  constructed  clockwork 
mechanisms.  Later  he  tried  further  tests  using  a  tank  in 
which  the  models  were  towed  by  the  accepted  method 
of  a  falling  weight;  these  tests  proved  unsatisfactory. 

The  most  important  of  William  Froude's  early  resis- 
tance experiments  were  made  in  the  autumn  of  1867  with 
three  different  sized  models  towed  by  a  launch  in  the 
mouth  of  the  River  Dart  in  Devonshire.  The  following  is 
abstracted  from  a  report  of  the  British  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Science  in  1869: 

"In  verification  and  illustration  of  the  foregoing  views, 
I  tried  in  the  autumn  1867,  a  large  number  of  resistance 
experiments  on  a  pair  of  models  of  contrasted  forms,  6  ft. 
long,  by  towing  them  simultaneously  from  the  ends  of 
a  pair  of  10  ft.  scale-beams  connected  with  self-recording 

l?U5S£LL5     WAVE   LIME 

Page  90 


dynamometric  apparatus,  and  mounted  on  booms  pro- 
jecting sideways  from  the  nose  of  a  steam-launch  .  .  . 
One  was  of  the  wave-hne  type,  the  other,  having  the 
same  length,  form  of  midship-section,  and  displacement 
had  large  rounding  ends.  I  also  tried  similar  experiments 
with  a  pair  of  very  nearly  similar  models  of  twice  the 
dimensions  and  eight  times  the  displacement.  I  had  also 
previously  obtained  a  series  of  experimental  results  of 
the  same  kind,  but  with  less  successful  apparatus,  from 
a  similar  pair  of  models,  3  ft.  long.  These  data  enabled 
me  to  compile  for  each  model  a  diagram  of  resistance  in 
terms  of  velocity." 

The  general  agreement  of  the  results  were  sufficient  to 
justify  what  he  termed  the  Law  of  Comparison  which  is 
the  foundation  of  all  model  test  data;  it  is  stated  in 
Froude's  words  as  follows: 

If  the  ship  be  D  times  the  dimension'  ( as  it  is  term- 
ed )  of  the  model,  and  if  at  the  speeds  V,,  Vj,  V;  .  .  .  the 
measured  resistance  of  the  model  are  R,,  R-j,  R;,  .  .  .  then 
for  speeds  \/B  V,,  \/D  V,,  VD  V,  of  the  ship,  the 
resistance  will  be  D  R,,  D'R_.,  D'R;  ...  To  the  speeds 
of  model  and  ship  thus  related  it  is  convenient  to  apply 
the  term  corresponding  speeds'." 

In  1852  M.  Reech  published  "Cours  de  Mecanique" 
for  use  of  the  students  of  L'Ecole  d'Application  due 
Genie  Maritime  which  contained  a  law  of  comparison  for 
the  resistance  of  floating  bodies  based  on  Newton's 
theorem  on  "Similarity  of  Motions  ".  He  also  mentioned 
that  the  law  of  comparison  could  be  applied  to  the  com- 
parison of  mcxdels  and  ships,  but  held  only  when  frictional 
resistance  followed  the  same  general  law  as  the  other 
forces.  In  addition,  he  surmised  that  the  frictional  resis- 
tance probably  varied  as  the  square  of  the  speed.  As  far 
as  is  known,  Reech  did  no  experimental  work  to  substan- 
tiate his  complete  statement  of  the  law  of  comparison. 
William  Froude  worked  out  his  statement  of  the  law  on 
the  basis  of  the  streamline  theory  of  resistance  without 
any  knowledge  of  M.  Reech's  theory. 

The  British  Association  report  concluded: — "It  is  true 
that  the  circumstances  under  which  my  experiments  were 
tried  did  not  admit  of  such  exactness  as  to  render  them 
absolutely  conclusive  as  the  sole  basis  of  the  theory  of 
comparative  resistance  in  terms  of  dimension.  Nor  do  I 
by  any  means  pretend  to  be  certain  that  there  is  no 
element  of  resistance  other  than  I  have  taken  account  of 
in  my  theoretical  justification  of  it.  But  if  any  such  do 
exist,  they  can  be  detected  and  the  laws  of  their  opera- 
tion discovered  with  far  greater  facility  and  completeness 
by  small  scale  than  by  full-size  experiments  is  emphatical- 

ly disproved,  it  is  useless  to  spend  vast  sums  of  money 
upon  full-size  trials,  which,  after  all,  may  be  misdirected, 
unless  the  ground  is  thoroughly  cleared  beforehand  by  an 
exhaustive  investigation  on  small  scale." 

In  1868,  at  the  instance  of  Mr.  E.  J.  Reed,  'William 
Froude  forwarded  to  the  Admiralty,  at  first  proposals,  and 
later  detailed  estimates  for  the  construction  and  operation 
of  a  model  testing  tank.  In  1870  the  Admiralty  finally 
allowed  '..2000  tor  the  project  with  the  stipulation  that 
construction  and  testing  were  to  be  completed  in  two 
years;  rolling  experiments  as  well  as  those  pertaining  to 
resistance  were  to  be  undertaken.  The  tank  was  con- 
structed in  a  field  next  to  the  garden  of  Froude's  house 
and  is  referred  to  as  the  Torquay  Tank;  its  length  was 
195  feet  exclusive  of  starting  and  stopping  positions, 
surface  breadth  36  feet  and  maximum  depth  at  center 
10  feet.  The  towing  power  was  a  two-cylinder  stationary 
steam  engine.  Froude  served  as  tank  designer,  superin- 
tendent and  mechanic  making  much  of  the  appararus 
himself — he  even  constructed  a  machine  for  ruling  cross- 
section  paper  as  none  of  sufficient  accuracy  could  be  pur- 
chased. This  machine  was  still  in  operation  in  1941. 

From  his  experiments  with  various  sized  models, 
Froude  had  noted  that  at  corresponding  speeds,  similar 
forms  had  shown  geometrically  identical  wave  configura- 
tions. Curves  of  total  resistance  plotted  against  speed  for 
the  same  models  also  showed  similar  shapes  and  could 
be  brought  into  general  alignment  by  the  Law  of  Com- 
parison but  they  could  not  be  superposed.  Froude  be- 
lieved that  this  failure  to  superpose  was  due  to  the  fact 
that  skin  friction  did  not  follow  the  Law  of  Comparison 
while  wave-making  resistance  did.  The  first  projects  of 
the  Torquay  Tank  were  experiments  to  demonstrate  that 
if  the  frictional  resistance  of  surfaces  having  the  same 
lengths  and  wetted  surfaces  as  a  series  of  similar  ship 
forms  and  moving  at  the  same  speeds  were  deducted 
from  the  total  resistances,  the  remaining  resistances  fol- 
lowed the  Law  of  Comparison. 

In  August  and  September,  1871,  Froude  carried  out 
the  now  famous  experiments  on  the  H.  M.  S.  "Grey- 
hound", a  ship  having  a  length  of  172  feet  6  inches, 
breadth,  33  feet  2  inches  and  a  drafr  of  13  feet  9  inches, 
was  towed  by  H.M.S.  "Active "  from  the  end  of  a  45  foot 
boom  rigged  out  from  the  latter's  side  so  as  to  tow  the 
"Greyhound  "  in  undisturbed  water.  The  purposes  of  the 

^^  ^  y^ 


^^  ^^ 









y^  \ 



JANUARY     •      1941 

Page  91 

experiments  were  to: 

1.  Determine  the  total  resistance  of  a  full-sized  ship  at 
various  speeds,  unencumbered  by  the  extra  resist- 
ance caused  by  the  action  of  the  propeller  and  by 
the  friction  of  the  various  parts  of  the  ship's  engines. 

2.  Determine  the  loss  of  power  in  the  propeller  and 

3.  Test  the  scale  of  comparison  between  ships  and 

In  order  to  obtain  the  data  to  compute  the  loss  in  the 
propeller  and  machinery,  the  "Greyhound"  and  a  sister 
ship,  H.M.S.  "Murine"  were  run  at  two  speeds  over 
measured  mile  courses. 

During  the  same  period,  the  classic  surface  friction 
experiments  were  being  performed.  These  consisted  of 
towing  a  series  of  planks  of  varying  lengths  about  3/16 
inch  thick  and  1 9  inches  deep  to  determine  the  values  of 
f  and  n  in  the  following  equation  for  a  number  of  differ- 
ent surfaces: 

Frictional  Resistance=f  S  V" 
where  "V  is  in  knots.  The  surfaces  tested  were  varnish, 
paraffin,    tinfoil,   calico,    fine   sand,   medium    sand    and 
coarse  sand.  As  a  whole  the  experiments  showed: 

'1.  That  n  is  less  than  2  provided  the  surface  is  not 
too  rough. 

2.  that  for  a  given  type  of  surface  f  decreases  as 
length  increases. 

3.  that  at  a  given  length  the  degree  of  surface  rough- 
ness has  a  very  important  bearing  on  the  magni- 
tude of  f. " 

The  values  determined  by  the  experiments,  slightly 
modified  by  R.  E.  Froude  at  a  later  date  and  smoothed 
out  through  years  of  use,  were  adopted  for  use  by  the 
International  Congress  of  Model  Basin  Superintendents 
in  1935. 

Based  on  extrapolated  values  from  the  above  experi- 
ments Froude  was  able  to  bring  the  model  and  full-sized 
tests  of  the  Greyhound  into  reasonable  agreement.  But 
in  notes  made  at  the  time  he  states: 

"There  has  always  seemed  reason  to  surmise  that  a 
sensible  augmentation  of  the  Greyhound's  resistance 
might  have  arisen  from  the  comparative  shoalness  of  the 
water  in  which  the  trials  were  made,  the  depth  averaging 
about  nine  fathoms,  or  about  four  times  the  draughts  of 
the  ship.  ...  It  has  proved  that  the  surmise  is  correct, 
and  had  thus  not  only  incidentally  shown  that  the  excess 


















































































of  the  ships  resistance  as  compared  with  that  calculated 
for  the  ship  from  the  resistance  of  the  model  is  very 
sensibly  less  than  prima  facie  it  had  appeared  to  be,  but 
also  that  the  resistance  of  all  large  ships,  tried  for  in- 
stance on  the  Stokes  Bay  measured  mile,  is,  at  full  speed, 
more  than  10  per  cent  in  excess  of  its  true  value."" 

By  placing  a  false  bottom  in  the  tank  to  simulate  the 
actual  trial  course  of  the  Greyhound  it  was  shown  that  at 
1 1  V4  knots  the  increase  in  resistance  was  41/2  per  cent. 
"It  will  be  seen  by  a  reference  to  the  Greyhound  Report 
that  the  application  of  such  a  correction  to  the  curve  of 
resistance  calculated  for  the  ship  from  the  experiments 
with  the  model  would  considerably  improve  its  agreement 
with  the  actual  curve  of  resistance  of  the  ship." 

The  above  discussion  on  the  effect  of  shallow  water 
on  resistance  was  reported  to  the  Admiralty  after  the 
publication  of  the  paper  on  the  Greyhound  experiments 
presented  to  the  Institution  of  Naval  Architects  in  1874 
and  seems  not  to  have  been  published  until  1941. 

The  general  success  of  the  experiments  gave  confidence 
in  Froude's  methods  and  the  Torquay  Tank  remained  in 
use  for  fourteen  years — until  the  lease  on  the  land  ran 
out.  In  1887  the  present  Admiralty  Establishment  was 
opened  at  Haslar.  In  spite  of  Froude's  success,  the  advan- 
tages of  model  testing  took  hold  slowly  so  that  by  1900 
there  were  only  five  tanks  in  the  world.  At  present  there 
are  more  than  fifty  major  tanks  in  the  world  and  probably 
countless  small  ones. 

Apart  from  the  many  experiments  on  hull  forms,  struts, 
propellers,  etc.  performed  by  the  Froudes,  father  and  son, 
one  great  contribution  was  the  so-called  "constant"'  sys- 
tem— a  system  of  non-dimensional  coefficients  for  noting 
the  features  of  a  ship — and  allied  with  this  their  method 
■of  comparing  sectional  area  curves,  waterlines  and  mid- 
ship sections. 

R.  E.  Froude's  paper  before  the  Institution  of  Naval 
Architects  in  1888  stated:  ".  .  .  it  will  doubtless  be 
readily  understood  that  the  results  obtained  in  the  past 
with  all  miscellaneous  models,  form  a  storehouse  of  in- 
formation valuable  for  the  future;  and  further,  that  in 
order  to  serve  this  purpose  the  information  must  be  so 
presented  that  the  performances,  and  also  the  proportions 
(and,  as  far  as  may  be,  the  principal  characteristics  of 
shape),  of  the  several  forms,  may  be  directly  comparable; 
so  that  it  may  be  determined  at  sight  (  1 )  what  selection 
of  forms  previously  tried  are  qualified  by  their  general 
proportions  and  shape  to  be  brought  into  comparison 
with  any  new  design,  (2)  how  the  individuals  so  quali- 
fied compare  with  each  other  in  performance. 

"The  method  which  has  been  adopted  with  this  object 
at  the  Admiralty  Works  is  simple  in  principle,  and  may 
be  simply  described  as  follows:  ( 1 )  The  proportions,  and 
to  some  extent  the  lines,  of  the  hull,  are  characterized 
by  numerical  values  and  diagrams,  representing  not  abso- 
lute measurements  of  hull,  but  measurements  stated  in 
terms  of  a  unit  dimension  proportional  to  the  cube  root 
of  the  displacement.  (  2  )  The  performance  is  character- 
ized by  two  so-called  'constants',  designated  K  and  C,  of 
which  the  former  denotes  speed  in  terms  of  a  unit  speed 
proportional  to  the  sixth  root  of  the  displacement,  while 
the  latter  denotes  the  corresponding  resistance  ( or  horse- 
powers (  in  the  form  of  the  reciprocal  of  what  is  known 
{Please  turn  to  page  1S8) 

Page  92 


Editor's  Noth:  The  Marshall  Flan  looms  so  large  in  the  tutiire  of  American  ship- 
ping that  the  following  analysis  and  summary  of  the  statement  of  the  U.  S.  Chamber  of 
Commerce  will  be  of  interest  to  the  entire  industry.  The  summary  was  prepared  by  Stanley 
T.  Olafson,  Manager  of  World  Trade  Department  of  Los  Angeles  Chamber  of  Commerce. 




I — Situation  and  our  Interest 

The  urgency  of  the  world  situation  is  such  that  imme- 
diate decisive  and  constructive  action  to  aid  Europe  must 
be  taken  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States.  The  en- 
lightened self-interest  of  the  United  States  calls  for  a 
stable  world  composed  of  self-supporting  and  self-gov- 
erning people. 
II — Aim  of  Aid — Cooperation,  not  Charity 

Aid  to  be  extended  must  be  aimed  at  the  restoration 
in  each  of  the  sixteen  recipient  countries  of  an  economy 
of  sufficient  health,  in  a  favorable  political  climate,  that 
will  be  self-energizing,  through  the  initiative,  hard  work, 
and  self-reliance  of  the  people  themselves. 

Aid  to  be  extended  is  based  on  the  existence  of  a 
reasonably  founded  hope  that  all  Europe  needs  is  help 
from  us  to  help  itself  back  to  self-support. 
Ill — Responsibility 

The  restoration  of  production  in  Europe  by  EURO- 
PEANS is  a  iirst  esential  to  the  successful  outcome  of  any 
aid  extended — under  the  system  of  private  initiative. 
IV— The    Goal 

When  Europe's  standard  of  living  is  raised  to  a  satis- 
factorily self-supporting  basis,  then  we  can  ultimately  be 
relieved  of  the  burden  of  extending  aid. 

V — Recommendations — To    Accomplish 
Purposes    and    Objectives 

That  our  aid  should  be  difided  into  two  classes: 

The  first  type  of  aid,  not  included  in  the  European 
Recovery  Program,  is  for  immediate  relief,  by  supplying 
foodstuffs,  fuel,  fertilizers,  fibers,  and  medicines,  for 
the  destitute  and  suffering  peoples  of  Western  Europe 
during  the  interim  t>efore  the  long  term  European  Re- 
covery Program  is  inaugurated.  It  also  includes  aid  for 
the  purpose  of  increasing  the  production  of  foodstuffs 
and  fuel. 

Aid  to  be  extended  in  this  classification  should  be  in 
the  nature  of  sales  payable  in  local  currencies  for  such 
use  of  the  United  States  may  decide. 

Local  currency  proceeds  should  be  administered  by  the 
Board  of  Trustees  to  be  set  up  in  each  recipient  country. 

Final  use  decisions  to  be  controlled  by  United  States 
Domestic  Corporation  and  should  be  made  available  for: 

a.  The  purchase  of  needed  materials  for  stockpiling 
by  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

b.  Use  within  the  country  and  its  dependencies  for 
self-energizing  and  productive  enterprises. 

c.  Aid  in  the  stabilization  of  local  currencies. 

d.  Other  uses  as  may  be  decided  upon  by  agreement 
with  country  receiving  the  aid  and  the  United 
States  Domestic  Corporation. 

The  second  type  of  aid  is  exclusively  for  the  economic 
improvement  and  recovery  of  participating  European 
countries  by  increasing  their  production  for  domestic 
consumption  and  for  export,  thereby  increasing  their 
standard  of  living. 

Aid  to  be  extended  under  this  classification  is  the 
European  Recovery  Program  and  is  exclusively: 

a.  For  specific  purposes. 

b.  For  attainment  of  specific  results  within  definite 
time  limits. 

c.  For  non-political  purposes  of  a  direct  or  indirect 

d.  For  purchase  of  specific  materials. 

VI — Classifications    of    Loans 
TYPE  1 
By  the  Export -Import  Bank  for  raw  materials,  to  put 
into  operation  existent  productive  facilities. 

Loans  for  raw  materials  for  above-described  purpose 
could  be  granted  through  the  instrumentality  of  the 
present  Export-Import  Bank  authority,  expanded  as  may 
be  necessary.  Such  dollar  loans  shall  be  for  realistically 
adjudged,  economically  productive  purposes  and  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Export-Import  Bank  be  self-liquidating 
in  dollars. 

TYPE  2 
By  the  World  Bank  for  capital  goods  equipment,  to 
reconstruct,  maintain,  repair,  and  operate  productive  fa- 
cilities capable  of  economic  contribution  to  the  well- 
being  of  the  country  concerned.  These  are  to  be  self- 
liquidating  dollar  loans. 

I  Please  turn  to  page  136) 

JANUARY     •      1948 

Page  93 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month 



--With  The 


At  its  January  meeting,  held  January  7,  the  So- 
ciety of  Port  Engineers  at  Los  Angeles  Harbor 
voted  Pacific  Marine  Review  full  rights  to  attend 
business  meetings  and  full  photo  and  news  cover- 
age opportunities.  Members  of  Pacific  Marine  Re- 
view staff  are  already  members  of  other  Port  Engi- 
neer Societies  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  will  regu- 
larly report  all  meetings,  and  continue  to  publish 
the  technical  proceedings.  This  latter  feature  has 
been  commended  in  open  meeting,  and  the  mem- 
bers have  widely  praised  it. 

Fred  H.  Cordes,  vice  president  and  marine  superin- 
tendent of  Deconhil  Shipping  Company,  and  marine 
superintendent  and  assistant  operating  manager  for  Hill- 
cone  Steamship  Company,  was  born  in  New  York  City 
in  1896  and  came  to  San  Francisco  in  1915  where  he 
secured  employment  at  the  old  Union  Iron  Works,  now 
Bethlehem  Steel  Corporation  Ship  Building  Division, 
working  in  the  shop,  engineering  drafting  room  and 
estimating  department. 

In  1919  he  left  the  Union  Iron  Works  to  enter  the 
Marine  Department  of  the  Standard  Oil  Company  of 
California,  remaining  with  this  company  until  the  latter 
part  of  1927.  While  with  Standard  Oil  of  California,  he 
worked  in  the  Richmond  Long  Wharf  machine  shop  and 
also  as  a  draftsman  and  assistant  inspector  on  new  ship 
construction  and  repair  work.  He  later  quit  shoreside 
work  and  went  to  sea  as  an  oiler  on  Standard's  vessels, 
staying  with  it  until  he  received  his  unlimited  Chief 
Engineer's  license  for  steam  and  diesel  ocean-going 

The  latter  part  of  1927  he  resigned  from  the  Standard 
Oil  Company  of  California  and,  together  with  his  brother, 
John,  started  the  firm  of  Cordes  Bros.,  Marine  Surveyors 
and  Manufacturer's  Representative. 

He  opened  the  Southern  California  office  of  Cordes 
Bros,  at  Wilmington  the  latter  part  of  1930  and  was 
made  special  representative  for  Hillcone  Steamship  Com- 
pany February   1931.  As  HiUcone's  various  enterprises 

expanded,  he  devoted  more  and  more  time  to  their  in- 
terests until  he  became  marine  superintendent  and  assist- 
ant operating  manager,  and  in  1943  when  Deconhil  Ship- 
ping Company  was  formed,  he  was  made  vice  president 
and  marine  superintendent. 

Besides  the  above  activities,  he  still  represents  the 
Sandusky  Foundry  and  Machine  Company  of  Sandusky, 
Ohio,  and  the  Butterworth  System,  Incorporated, 
Bayonne,  New  Jersey  for  the  Southern  California  area. 

During  World  War  11,  Deconhil  Shipping  Company 
operated  approximately  sixty  vessels  as  general  agents 
and  sub-agents  for  the  War  Shipping  Administration, 
and  the  upkeep,  maintenance  and  repairs  of  this  large 
fleet  were  under  Cordes'  direction,  besides  being  in 
charge  of  all  company  operations  in  the  Southern  Cali- 
fornia area. 

He  feels  especially  fortunate  to  have  worked  under 
such  men  as  Al  Gunn,  Gene  Essner,  Charlie  Olson,  Lee 
Gogan  and  Frank  McCormick  while  at  the  old  Union 
Iron  Works,  and  J.  C  Rolfs,  Charlie  Robertson,  Jim 
Cronin,  Bob  Bennison,  William  Muir,  Herb  Hoy  and 
many  other  kind  and  helpful  friends  too  numerous  to 
mention,  who  were  always  ready  to  lend  a  helping  hand 
when  needed. 

Page  94 


Port  [ngineers  - 


Phil  Thearle,  Army 

Transport  .  .  .  President 

Charles  Wright,  Deconhil  .  .  Vice  President 

James  Reimers  .  . 

.  .  .  Secretary-Treasurer 



Frank  Smith  .... 

American  Mail 

Vincent  Foell  .  .  . 

U.  S.  Lines 

William  Billings  .  . 

Pope  &  Talbot 



BBWWBi<*^-  <r^'^ 


1     ' 






U:w  " 





Ed  Graff,   Port  Engineer  of  San   Fr. 

Port  Engineer  of  The  Month 



Born  and  raised  in  San  Francisco,  Ed  S.  Graff,  the 
smaller  of  the  Graff  boys  was  graduated  from  San  Jose 
High  and  joined  Panama  Mail  Line,  then  owned  by 
Grace,  as  a  junior  engineer  on  the  Venezuela  in  1929. 
In  1938,  he  advanced  to  Chief,  and  served  on  the  Condor. 
Capac.  Pacifico  and  Flying  Cloud.  He  brought  the  latter 
out  from  New  York  in  19.39 — one  of  the  first  steam  C-2's. 

Ed  came  ashore  in  1941  to  the  position  he  now  holds 
as  Port  Engineer  under  Marine  Superintendent  Ed 
Center,  to  which  gentleman  he  attributes  much  of  his 
engineering  knowledge.  That  he  is  recognized  as  a 
leader  m  his  profession  is  evidenced  by  his  election  to 
the  Board  of  Governors  of  the  Society  of  Port  Engineers 
at  San  Francisco. 

Ed  has  a  son,  John,  aged  12,  and  a  hobby  of  model- 
making  in  his  shop  which  includes  a  complete  machine 



Page  95 


LELAi  W.  CUTLEIi  MM  \}i 

President  of  the  World  Trade  Center,  Incorporated 
since  1944,  Leland  W.  Cutler  was  recently  sworn  in  as 
a  member  of  the  San  Francisco  World  Trade  Center 
Authorit}'  by  Superior  Judge  Albert  C.  Wollenberg.  The 
ceremony  took  place  in  the  Judge's  Chambers  at  the 
Hall  of  Justice,  Kearny  and  Washington  Streets. 

Present  at  the  ceremony  were  Thomas  A.  Maloney, 
Assemblyman  who  led  the  San  Francisco  delegation  in 
the  battle  for  the  establishment  of  the  World  Trade  Cen- 
ter Authority,  and  Alexander  von  Hafften,  Manager  of 
the  Legislative  Department  of  the  San  Francisco  Cham- 
ber of  Commerce.  Acting  for  the  Chamber  which  spon- 
sored the  World  Trade  Center  in  1944,  von  Hafften 
worked  closely  with  Cutler  and  the  San  Francisco  dele- 
gation during  the  recent  sessions  of  the  legislature. 

Cutler  was  appointed  to  the  authority  by  Governor 
Earl  Warren  early  in  December. 

Judge  Wollenberg,  as  an  Assemblyman  in  the  state 
legislature,  took  an  active  part  in  the  fight  to  secure  pas- 
sage of  the  bill. 


PACIFIC  FAR  EAST  LINE,  INC.,  announces  appoint- 
ment of  T.  Y.  Tang  to  the  post  of  adviser  on  Chinese 
affairs.  Mr.  Tang  previously  had  served  as  Chinese  agent 
but  the  new  post  was  created  to  meet  rapidly  growing 
economic  developments  in  China  which  will  require 
considerable  traveling  and  consultation. 

At  the  same  time  the  Company  named  Frank  W.  Chinn 
as  Chinese  general  agent  in  San  Francisco.  Mr.  Chinn 
will  open  separate  offices  in  Chinatown  as  soon  as  suit- 
able space  can  be  found,  but  meantime  will  work  out  of 
Company  headquarter  offices  at  141  Battery  Street.  The 
new  Chinese  agent  is  well-known  in  foreign  trade  cir- 
cles, having  been  connected  with  a  number  of  leading 
San  Francisco  export  houses  for  more  than  18  years.  He 
joined  Pacific  Far  East  Line  several  months  ago. 

Page  96 

Leland   W.   Cutler 


Governor  Earl  Warren  has  appointed  eight  public 
members  of  the  San  Francisco  World  Trade  Center 
Authority.  Named  by  Governor  Warren  were:  Leland 
W.  Cutler,  Vice  President  of  the  Fidelity  &  Deposit  Com- 
pany; Floyd  M.  Billingsley,  Business  Agent  of  the  San 
Francisco  Motion  Picture  Operators;  J.  A.  Folger,  Whole- 
sale Tea  and  Coffee  Dealer,  all  of  San  Francisco;  Paul  L. 
Davies,  San  Jose,  President  of  the  Food  Machinery  Corp.; 
L.  K.  Marshall,  Lodi,  President  of  the  Wine  Growers 
Guild;  Prof.  E.  T.  Grether,  Dean  of  Business  Adminis- 
tration, University  of  California,  Berkeley;  Charles 
Howard,  Oakland,  Howard  Terminal  Co.,  operator;  and 
George  Pollock,  Sacramento  contractor.  Public  Works 
Director,  Chas.  H.  Purcell;  Finance  Director,  James  S. 
Dean,  and  the  President  of  the  San  Francisco  State  Board 
of  Harbor  Commissioners  are  the  remaining  members  of 
the  1 1  member  Authority. 




1  have  a  painting  of  a  ship  which  I  prize  very  highly. 
It  is  a  small  three-masted  full  rig  ship  named  the  M/neg/w, 
my  fathers  last  ship.  I  think  that  it  was  about  1100  tons 
burden.  In  my  office  1  have  a  lovely  picture  of  this  ship, 
thanks  to  Mr.  Killion. 

Shortly  after  the  first  World  War  we  had  in  this  coun- 
try, to  say  nothing  of  other  countries,  men  who  said  that 
we  were  not  a  maritime  nation  and  that  we  could  neither 
build  nor  operate  ships.  And  judging  by  the  ridiculous 
statements  attributed  to  some  of  our  people  in  Congress 
and  their  actions,  there  are  still  some  in  this  country. 
Perhaps  if  they  were  to  go  through  this  magnificent  ship, 
they  would  be  like  the  bUnd  man  who  was  led  to  an 
elephant,  and  felt  its  trunk  and  ivory  tusks  and  then  said, 
"There's  no  such  animal".  It  seems  to  me  that  there  are 
too  many  Americans  who  are  still  ignorantly  isolationists. 
And  when  I  think  of  isolationists,  I  wonder  if  some  of 
them  really  think  that  they  can  be  just  a  little  bit  isola- 
tionistic.  It's  like  others  of  a  misguided  group  who  think 
they  can  be  a  little  pink. 

1  have  no  time  for  these  borderline  cases.  If  anyone 
wants  a  better  illustration  of  the  horrible  results  of  isola- 
tionism than  China,  I  do  not  know  where  he  will  find  it. 
Without  being  critical  of  a  condition  for  which  present- 
day  Chinese  are  not  responsible,  let  me  remind  you  that 
in  old  China  a  great  wall  was  built  around  the  country 
so  that  it  would  be  isolated  from  the  rest  of  the  world. 
And  inside  the  Great  Wall,  smaller  walls  and  moats  were 
built  to  isolate  cities  from  one  another.  And,  inside  those 
walls  were  the  compound  walls  behind  which  families 
isolated  themselves  from  other  families  similarly  walled 
in.  Many  of  us  who  have  lived  in  China  have  actually 
lived  within  compound  walls.  Now  then,  while  there  was 

communication  between  families,  there  was  practically 
none  between  cities.  And  furthermore,  China  wanted  no 
communication  with  nations  living  beyond  the  walls.  But 
history  tells  us  how  nations  on  the  outside  mounted  walls 
and  took  over.  The  dynasties  of  China  were  really  hardly 
more  than  outside  conquerors  going  over  the  walls.  Every- 
thing that  history  has  taught  us  about  isolationism  proves 
that  the  isolationist  is  vulnerable  and  has  always  been 
licked.  Thank  God  that  those  responsible  for  this  splendid 
vessel  have  over-ruled  such  short-sightedness,  but  what 
about  the  future? 

And  to  those  like  ourselves  here,  what  are  we  going  to 
do  about  it.  What  are  we  doing  to  force  our  Government 
to  accept  a  very  progressive  merchant  marine  policy? 
And,  while  I'm  asking  questions,  what  are  we  doing  to 
guarantee  that  this  vessel  and  all  other  vessels  of  our 
flag  be  assured  of  our  unwavering  support?  God  grant 
that  we  not  enter  another  war.  But  two  wars — across  the 
seas — certainly  should  tell  us  that  we  simply  have  no 
alternative  but  to  be  sure,  very  sure,  that  this  and  all 
other  American  ships  support  themselves.  Immediately 
this  gives  rise  to  that  other  subject  of  operations — sub- 
sidies. I  do  not  like  subsidies;  first  because  that  means  a 
taxpayer  contribution  and  we  have  enough  taxes  to  pay  as 
it  is.  Second,  subsidies  also  mean  more  government  con- 
trol and  1  don't  like  to  see  Washington  pencil-pushers 
push  us  around.  But  when  you  get  right  down  to  it,  you 
cannot  expect  the  man  who  pays  the  bills  to  simply  let 
the  other  fellow  run  the  show.  We  went  through  the  sub- 
sidies fakery  for  a  number  of  years. 

One  time  when  President  Harding  sent  for  me,  he 
asked  me  to  remain  in  Washington  to  assist  him  in  put- 
(Please  turn  to  page  136) 

iHe\ico  Further  ^justs  Import  Duties 

Mexico  has  raised  import  duty  rates  on  all  items  of 
Schedule  1  of  the  U.  S. -Mexican  Trade  Agreement  to  the 
level  of  1942  ad  valorem  equivalents  by  decree  published 
December  15  effective  5  days  therafter.  Goods  actually 
enroute  to  Mexico  on  December  15  will  be  admitted  at 
old  rates.  Action  was  taken  provisionally  pending  revision 
of  Schedule  1  to  be  undertaken  immediately  at  the  close 
of  the  Havana  ITO  Conference.  The  usual  public  an- 
nouncement of  opportunity  for  hearings  is  to  be  made  at 
the  appropriate  time.  The  United  States  has  consented  to 
this  provisional  action  in  recognition  of  Mexican  trade 
in  balance  and  also  the  need  for  more  reasonable  protec- 
tion. Mexican  duty  rates  on  the  items  affected  have  been 
at  a  specific  rate  per  unit  of  quantity,  which  with  increas- 
ing prices  has  resulted  in  declining  revenue  and  protec- 

A  schedule  of  the  new  rates  is  available  at  the  Depart- 
ment of  Commerce  Field  Offices. 

World  Trade  Week 

With  "World  Trade  Makes  Good  Neighbors"  as 
the  theme,  the  14th  annual  nationwide  observance 
of  World  Trade  Week  will  take  place  May  16-22. 




Page  97 

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mm  mm  mde  association  of  southern  mmm 

The  Sixth  Annual  Banquet  of  the  Junior  Foreign 
Trade  Association  of  Southern  California  was  held  on 
December  5  in  Los  Angeles,  and  had  a  very  fine  turnout. 
The  banquet  was  a  success  in  every  sense  of  the  word. 
Dr.  Bernard  F.  Haley  presented  an  exceptional  address, 
while  Ruth  Anne  Fleming,  as  Miss  Junior  Foreign 
Trade,  brightened  the  head  table  with  her  presence  and 
highlighted  the  occasion  with  her  singing. 

The  program  opened  with  a  salute  to  the  flag,  and  the 
assembly  was  led  in  song  by  Miss  Fleming,  followed  by 
the  introduction  of  speaker's  table.  There  were  four  de- 
lightful songs  by  Miss  Fleming  and  a  history  of  the  Jun- 
ior Foreign  Trade  Association.  Paul  Pauley,  toastmaster, 
introduced  the  speaker.  Dr.  Bernard  F.  Haley,  head  of 
the  Department  of  Economics  of  Stanford  University,  and 
Special  Consultant  to  the  U.  S.  Department  of  State  in 
Washington.  Dr.  Haley  was  much  in  attendance  at  the 
Geneva  Trade  Conference  last  October,  and  is  now  attend- 
ing the  Havana  Conference. 

Brae  Loveless,  of  Pacific  Far  East  Lines,  and  president 
of  the  association,  presided  at  the  banquet.  The  program 
committee  consisted  of:    George  Gmelch,  Transmarine 

Navigation  Co.,  who  was  chairman;  Paul  E.  Pauley,  U.  S. 
Department  of  Commerce,  toastmaster;  Doug  Friman, 
Lloyd  Shipping  Company;  James  Loudon,  Jr.,  Loudon  & 
Company;  Walter  Rabenston,  Sudden  &  Christenson; 
Robert  Ryan,  General  Steamship;  Robert  Ruth,  J.  B. 
Ruth  &  Company;  Max  Linder,  Transmarine  Navigation 
Co.;  and  George  Rowley,  Fireman's  Fund  Insurance  Com- 

Highlights  of  Dr.  Haley's  talk,  entitled  "International 
Negotiations  as  to  Trade  Barriers"  are  given  herewith: 
"The  present  effort  of  the  United  States  with  respect  to 
international  trade  policy  is  directed  to  the  achievement 
of  two  principal  aims:  (  1  )  the  restoration  of  the  conduct 
of  international  trade,  as  far  as  possible,  to  private  traders; 
and  (  2  )  the  reduction  of  the  multitude  of  barriers  to 
international  trade  that  have  developed  in  the  period  be- 
tween the  wars  and  since  World  War  II.  One  of  the  in- 
struments which  the  United  States  has  consistently  used 
to  obtain  a  reduction  of  trade  barriers  has  been  the  Trade 
Agreements  program,  based  on  legislation  iirst  enacted  in 
1934. — Consequently,  the  United  States  early  took  the 
lead  in  urging  upon  other  countries:    ( 1 )  the  necessity 

lit   ^Dl^: 

At   the    Speaker's    Table,    left   to    right:    Florence    Wright;    Paul    E.   Pauley,   Department  of  Commerce;   Mrs.   Brae   Lovele 
Fleming;  Dr.  Bernard  F.  Haley,  Speaker;  Brae  Loveless,  Pacific  Far  East  Line,  Inc.;  Mr.  Measday,  U.  S.  Dcpt.  of  Com 

Page  98 


for  a  broad,  united  effort  for  the  reduction  of  restrictions 
on  trade  and  the  elimination  of  discriminatory  practices 
in  trade;  and  (2)  the  disirability  of  establishing  an  In- 
ternational Trade  Organization.  Negotiations  for  both  of 
these  have  been  in  process  between  the  United  States  and 
sixteen  other  nations  for  two  years.  These  negotiations 
have  recently  culminated  in  the  announcement  of  a  multi- 
lateral agreement  signed  by  twenty-three  countries  at 
Geneva  on  October  30,  19-17,  for  the  mutual  rc*duction  of 
trade  barriers  and  trade  controls  of  all  kinds. 

".  .  .  The  multilateral  agreement  .  .  .  covers  tariffs. 
preferences,  quotas,  internal  controls,  customs  regulations, 
state  trading  and  subsidies.  It  is  undoubtedly  the  most 
comprehensive  international  instrument  ever  negotiated 
with  respect  to  trade  barriers,  quantitative  restrictions, 
and  discriminatory  practices  affecting  international  trade. 

".  .  .  The  Agreement  also  comprehends  general  rules 
with  respect  to  commercial  practice  in  the  conduct  of 
trade,  looking  toward  the  elimination  of  trade  discrimina- 
tions, quantitative  restrictions  on  trade,  and  the  unfair 
use  of  subsidies  in  the  promotion  of  exports. 

"These  same  matters  are  covered  in  a  similar  way  in 
the  proposed  Charter  for  the  International  Trade  Or- 
ganization which  is  under  consideration  by  a  much  larger 
number  of  nations  at  the  current  International  Conference 
on  Trade  and  Employment  at  Havana.  In  addition,  the 
Charter  requires  the  participating  nations  to  collaborate 
for  the  elimination  of  cartel  practices  that  are  restrictive 
of  trade  between  countries. 

"It  must  be  stressed  that  this  whole  program  is  essen- 
tially a  long-range  program  for  the  restoration  of  world 
trade.  It  cannot  be  expected  to  have  very  much  effect  in 
alleviating  the  seriousness  of  the  immediate  economic 
crisis  in  Europe.  The  process  of  breaking  down  the  bar- 
riers to  trade  is  likely  to  be  somewhat  slower  than  it 
otherwise  would  be,  because  of  the  fact  that  many  coun- 
tries need  dollars  so  desperately  that  they  must  retain 
quantitative  restrictions  on  their  imports  from  this  coun- 
try in  order  to  maintain  economic  stability." 



ight:     M 

s.  Me 

X   Lin 




ax  Li 

der,   Sr., 





on    Co.; 







F.    Diss, 





on    Co.; 






:    Ma 

X    Linder 


,    Trar 



n    Co 

:    Ro 





Lloyd    St 


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ug  Frimar 

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Stiipping  Co.; 



U.  S 


Export  Managers  [led  Officers  for  194}! 

At  the  .mnual  meeting  of  the  Export  Managers'  Asso- 
ciation of  San  Francisco,  the  following  officers  were 
elected  to  serve  during  1948: 

President:  Victor  A.  Indig,  Export  Manager,  Ameri- 
can Rubber  Mfg.  Co.;  Vice  President:  A.  E.  Ojeda,  For- 
eign Trade  Consultant,  Standard  Oil  Co.  of  California; 
Secretary:  William  D.  Jorres,  L.  H.  Butcher  Co.;  Treas- 
urer: Roy  Norton,  Export  Department,  Shell  Oil  Co. 

1300  ^ir  Cargo  Shipments  with  Latin  America 

A  new  all-time  record  for  air  express  shipments  to  and 
from  Latin  America  through  the  busy  Miami,  Florida, 
gateway  was  set  by  Pan  American  Airways  during  No- 
vember. A  total  of  1,267,6.31  pounds  of  cargo — making 
up  an  average  of  more  than  1,300  separate  shipments  a 
d.ay — were  flown  in  and  out  of  the  city  aboard  PAA 

The  unprecedented  tonnage  was  almost  double  the 
volume  handled  by  PAA's  Miami  express  office  in  No- 
vember 1946,  and  was  considerably  more  than  the  total 
for  the  entire  year  a  decade  ago. 

Table,    left   to    right: 
,    S.    Dept.    of   Comme 

;    Mrs.    Measday;    Mrs.    Slanle 
elcli;  George  Gmelcll,  Transm 

c  :  Rutti  Anne  Fleming,  Mi; 
fson;  Stanley  T.  Olafson,  L^ 
ligation.   Banquet  Committee 

JANUARY     •      1948 

Page  99 


Election  of  W.  J.  Gilstrap,  assistant  vice  president  and 
manager  of  the  Foreign  Department,  Wells  Fargo  Bank 
&  Union  Trust  Company,  as  1948  president  of  the  World 
Trade  Association  of  the  San  Francisco  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  was  announced  recently  by  the  Chamber. 

The  following  officers  were  elected:  First  vice  presi- 
dent, G.  A.  Gumbrecht,  resident  partner,  Henry  W. 
Peabody  &  Company  of  California;  Second  vice  presi- 
dent, Ralph  V.  Dewey,  export  manager,  Marsman  Com- 
pany of  California;  Third  vice  president,  Victor  B. 
Smith,  export  manager,  Sperry  Flour  Company;  Treas- 
urer, W.  L.  Guthrie,  assistant  vice  president.  Bank  of 
America,  N.  T.  &  S.  A.;  and  secretary-manager,  Alvin 
C.  Eichholz,  manager,  World  Trade  Department,  San 
Francisco  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Newly-elected  directors  are:  Victor  L.  Arenth,  John 
E.  Fields,  W.  L.  Guthrie,  Frank  Howland,  John  J.  Jacobs, 
T.  R.  Jamieson.  W.  I.  Nelson,  Victor  B.  Smith  and 
Robert  Taylor. 

Re-elected  directors  are:  Frank  Cook,  Ralph  Dewey, 
Harry  C.  Dunlap,  A.  Gemperle,  W.  J.  Gilstrap,  G.  A. 
Gumbrecht,  R.  H.  Kahman,  E.  Russell  Lutz,  H.  A.  Mag- 
nuson,  L.  I.  McKim,  James  C.  Morrison,  Daniel  Polak,  J. 
H.  Rogers,  Harry  R.  Sims  and  Richard  S.  Turner. 

Ex-officio  members  are:  Past  President  Fred  B.  Gal- 
breath  and  John  J.  Judge. 



The  following  shippmg  concerns  are  now  licensed 
by  SCAP  to  establish  agencies  in  Japan: 

American:  Pacific  Far  East  Lines,  Inc.;  American 
President  Lines;  U.  S.  Lines  Co. 

British:  Butterfield  &  Swire  (Japan)  Ltd.;  MacKin- 
non Mackenzie  &  Co.  (China)  Ltd.;  Comes  &  Co.,  Ltd.; 
Jardine  Matheson  &  Co.,  Ltd.;  Dodwell  &  Co.,  Ltd. 

Philippine:  C.  F.  Sharp  &  Co.,  Inc.;  Everett  Steamship 

These  companies  are  authorized  to  conclude  contracts 
for  carriage  of  freight,  mail,  and  pasengers  by  water  to 
and  from  Japanese  ports  and  to  maintain  in  Japan  facili- 
ties for  furnishing  services  and  supplies  necessary  to  these 
shipping  operations.  They  may  act  as  agents  for  other 


Customs  Districts  Exports  General  Imports 

(  Millions  Dollars  )    (  Millions  Dollars) 

1946  1947 

San  Diego 3..t  2.6 

Los    Angeles 17.8  3.4 

San  Francisco 32.9  3.6 

Oregon    9.2  .6 

Washington ...20.6  9.5 

Total  Pacific  Coast    83.8  19.7 










Left  to  right:    Bob   Hudson.    Pacific  Transport   Lines:  Joe   Del  Valle, 

Del   Valle-Kaliman  Co.;   Howard  Tobin,    Pacific  Far   East   Line;  John 

J.  Mulvehill.  Jr..  APL;   Frank  Novitzky.  APL. 

Left  to   right:    Norman    Iv^undy.   Connell    Bros.;    Nick   Andrews,    APL; 

Jack   Weese,    Blue    Funnel    Line;    Archer    l^azer.    APL,    at    recent   Jr. 

World  Wide  Trade  meeting. 

Pa'3e    100 


ymiralty  Decisions 

By   HAROLD   S.   DDBBS    «/  S^»  Francisco  Bar 

The  Longshoremen  8  and 
Harhor  Worker's  kt 

TONGKESS  SAW  PIT  TO  ENACT.  con,pen.non 
\J  statute  for  the  benefit  of  employees  engaged  in  and 
around  maritime  endeavors,  who,  although  concerned 
with  such  matters,  were  and  are  not  within  the  definition 
of  a  seaman.  The  act  is  entitled  "The  Longshoremen's 
and  Harbor  Workers'  Act. "  It  includes  the  worker  who 
goes  aboard  a  vessel  and  is  hurt  while  aboard,  whether 
he  be  employed  by  the  stevedore  or  a  ship  repair  com- 
pany, or  any  other  so-called  land  agency. 

The  most  important  exception  is  that  created  for  the 
seaman,  who  may  bring  suit  against  his  employer  under 
the  Jones  Act  in  either  the  state  or  federal  courts.  Of 
course,  the  seaman  is  required  to  prove  negligence.  How- 
ever, he  can  recover  maintenance  and  cure  provided  he 
has  not  been  guilty  of  misconduct.  The  only  reason  that 
the  seaman  was  not  included  within  the  Longshoremen's 
Act  was  because  of  the  pressure  of  lobbying  groups  who 
were  and  are  of  the  opinion  that  a  seaman  is  better  off 
suing  for  damages  under  the  Jones  Act  and  being  given 
the  right  thereby  to  recover  large  sums  in  d,amages  in- 
stead of  relying  upon  the  rights  of  a  compensation  sta- 
tute, which  necessarily  provided  a  much  more  limited 
opportunity  to  collect  damages  for  injuries.  Under  the 
Longshoremen's  and  Harbor  Workers'  Act,  and  most 
compensation  statutes,  the  worker  is  given  a  right  not 
enjoyed  under  the  Jones  Act  or  any  other  common  law 
action  for  damages;  namely,  the  right  to  collect  compen- 
sation without  being  required  to  prove  negligence  on 
the  part  of  the  employer.  If  you  have  had  any  experience 
with  proof  of  liability  in  negligence  cases,  you  will 
readily  appreciate  the  significance  of  the  right  given  to 
workers  under  the  Longshoremen's  and  Harbor  Workers' 
Act  as  well  as  other  compensation  statutes.  An  employer 
is  required  by  federal  law  as  well  as  state  law.  to  carry 
compensation  insurance  where  his  employees  are  neces- 
sarily required  to  subject  themselves  to  employment 
hazards  either  aboard  ship  or  on  land.  The  penalties  for 
failure  to  carry  such  insurance  differ  from  state  to  state. 
However,  in  general,  they  permit  the  employee  to  sue  the 
employer  in  the  state  courts  for  damages  without  limita- 
tion in  amount  wherein  the  employer  is  not  permitted 
to  prove  contributory  negligence  or  assumption  of  risk 
on  the  part  of  the  employee. 

The  federal  act  gives  almost  the  same  rights  to  the 
employee.  The  point  is  interestingly  handled  in  the 
recent  case  of  Willia??/  Thorneal  v.  Cape  Pond  Ice  Com- 
pany <5-  Another,  decided  by  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court 
of  Massachusetts,  in  which  the  plaintiff,  a  fisherman  by 
trade,  but  not  at  that  time  so  employed,  was  hired  by 

the  master  of  a  fishing  vessel  owned  by  the  defendant, 
Linquata,  to  "ice  up"  the  ves,sel  with  crushed  ice  to  be 
supplied  by  the  defendant,  Clape  Pond  Ice  Company,  at 
its  wharf.  On  that  same  day,  the  plaintiff,  while  upon  the 
vessel  which  was  in  navigable  waters  at  the  wharf,  and 
while  using  an  iron  chute  owned  by  the  defendant.  Cape 
Pond  Ice  Company,  to  convey  the  ice  into  the  hold  of 
the  vessel,  was  injured,  he  contended,  by  a  defect  in 
the  chute.  Plaintiff  obtained  judgment  on  each  of  four 
counts.  The  court  discu.ssed  the  questions  of  fact  at 
great  length  with  reference  to  the  manner  in  which  the 
icing  was  handled  and  the  condition  of  the  chute  and 
appurtenances.  The  jury  were  told  by  the  plaintiff  that 
he  was  a  "lumper  "  and  not  a  member  of  the  crew.  Ap- 
parently, the  jury  found  that  the  Cape  Pond  Ice  Com- 
pany, owner  of  the  chute,  and  the  defendant,  Linquata, 
knew  or  ought  to  have  known  of  the  ice  condition  which 
was  apparently  defective,  and  the  plaintiff,  on  the  other 
hand,  knew  nothing  of  its  condition  and  did  not  receive 
any  warning  from  either  of  the  defendants.  If  the  in- 
jury had  occurred  on  land,  under  general  principles  of 
law,  each  defendant  could  have  been  found  liable  for 
negligently  furnishing  a  defective  appliance  for  plain- 
tiff's use.  However,  as  the  court  pointed  out,  this  was  a 
maritime  case  since  the  cause  of  action  arose  on  navigable 
water.  Therefore,  the  plaintiff's  rights  are  governed  by 
the  applicable  maritime  law  and  not  by  state  law.  Where 
the  maritime  law,  however,  has  failed  to  develop  peculiar 
rules  of  its  own  for  the  definition  of  the  defendant's 
duty  or  the  determination  of  its  character,  as  was  the 
case  here,  the  maritime  law  has  been  accustomed  to  look 
to  the  common  law,  actually  if  not  expressly,  for  anal- 
ogies. Under  the  first  count,  there  is  jurisdiction  to  en- 
tertain the  action  in  the  state  court  because  the  remedy 
sought  is  merely  the  recovery  of  damages  and  the  ordinary 
civil  procedure  in  the  state  courts  is  competent  to  give 
that  remedy.  Cape  Pond  Ice  Company's  motion  for  di- 
rected verdict  under  count  No.  1  was  denied. 

Linquata  argued  that  a  verdict  should  be  directed  in 
his  favor  under  count  No.  2  because  plaintiff's  rights 
were  now  superseded  by  the  provisions  of  the  Long- 
shoremen's and  Harbor  Workers'  Compensation  Act.  The 
court  agreed  that  the  plaintiff,  although  for  some  pur- 
poses considered  to  be  a  seaman,  was  not  actually  a 
member  of  the  crew  of  the  vessel  and  therefore  came 
within  the  benefits  of  the  aforementioned  act.  But,  as 
explained  previously,  the  Longshoremen's  and  Harbor 
Workers'  Act  provides,  under  Section  905  that  the  ex- 
clusive character  of  the  remedy  by  compensation  under 
the  Act,  is  subject  to  the  exception  "that  if  an  employer 
fails  to  secure  payment  of  cohipensation  as  required  by 
this  chapter,  an  injured  employee  .  .  .  may  elect  to  claim 
compensation  under  this  chapter,  or  to  maintain  an 
action  at  law  or  in  admiralty  for  damages".  ...  In  such 
actions,  the  defendant  may  not  plead  as  a  matter  of  de- 

( Please  turn  to  page  128) 

J.ANUARY     •      1941 

Page    101 

Uarine  Insurance 

The  London  Letter 

By  Dur  United  Kingdom  Correspondent 

The  Priam  Case 

The  long  chain  of  marine  or  war  loss  litigation  has 
been  added  to — and  greatly  complicated — by  the  House 
of  Lords  judgment  in  the  Priam  case.  This  vessel  sailed 
from  Liverpool  for  Alexandria  in  December,  1942.  Be- 
cause the  Mediterranean  was  virtually  closed  to  us  at  that 
time,  she  took  the  Cape  route.  She  was  admittedly  on  a 
warlike  adventure,  and  carried,  among  other  cargo,  a 
heavy  bridge-layer  tank  weighing  21  tons,  and  two  crates 
of  aeroplanes,  the  tank,  at  any  rate,  being  stowed  on  the 
forecastle  head. 

She  encountered  exceptionally  heavy  weather,  in  which 
her  forward  deck  cargo  broke  adrift,  damaging  the  hatch 
of  No.  2  hold  which  was  flooded  and  the  cargo  in  it 
damaged.  The  vessel  was  insured  against  war  risks,  and 
the  owners,  the  Ocean  Steamship  Co.,  Ltd.,  claimed  on 
the  Liverpool  and  London  War  Risks  Insurance  Associa- 
tion, Ltd.,  on  the  grounds  that  the  stowage  of  the  deck 
and  other  cargo,  and  all  the  vessel's  manoeuvres  through- 
out the  voyage  were  warlike  operations,  and  that  the 
damage  to  the  vessel  was  a  consequence  of  warlike  opera- 

In  the  court  of  first  instance  the  damage  was  held  to 
attach  to  the  war  risk  insurance  policy,  with  the  exception 
of  some  damage  to  a  gun  mounting.  In  the  Court  of  Ap- 
peal this  judgment  was  confirmed,  although  in  that  court 
the  gun  mounting  seems  to  have  disappeared  from  the 

Now,  in  the  House  of  Lords,  judgment  has  been  given, 
the  effect  of  which  is  that  the  decision  of  the  Court  of 
Appeal  has  been  varied  by  holding  the  shipowners  liable 
in  respect  of  all  the  ship  damage  other  than  that  of  No.  2 
hatch  and  hold. 

London  Insurance  Market 
^equate  For  Postwar 

Addressing  the  Insurance  Institute  of  London  on  the 
subject  of  "Looking  Around  the  Marine  Market ",  Mr.  R. 
J.  M.  Merrett,  an  underwriting  member  of  Lloyd's,  said 
that  the  marine  market  must  never  be  complacent,  but 
there  were  some  reasons  for  satisfaction.  "Our  capacity 
for  absorbing  huge  values  is  greater  today  than  ever, "  he 
said,  "and  is  much  larger  than  before  1939.  Despite  every 
diflSculty  we  satisfied  our  international  customers  during 

the  war,  and  today  they  turn  to  us  for  those  things  which 
they  rightly  expect — complete  integrity  and  fair  and  im- 
partial dealing,  resourcefulness  to  deal  with  new  prop- 
ositions, and  a  bias  towards  generosity  when  the  Claims 
Department  takes  over."  The  marine  market,  Mr.  Mer- 
rett said,  which  included  both  Lloyd's  and  the  Companies, 
was  an  international  market  offering  its  experience  to  the 
whole  world.  It  must  be  as  free  as  possible  for  many 
reasons,  and  in  this  changing  world  it  must  adjust  itself 
to  such  new  conditions  as  obtained  in  the  new  order 
which  was  emerging.  Though  there  were  admitted  differ- 
ences in  organization  between  Lloyd's  and  the  Companies, 
it  should  be  recognized  that  there  was  room  for  both  and 
sufficient  for  all.  He  advocated  a  continuance  of  the 
greatest  degree  of  cooperation  possible  on  the  under- 
writing level  for  the  common  good  while  admitting  those 

One  fundamental  requisite,  which  the  present  time 
seemed  to  demand  especially,  was  as  ^reat  stability  in  the 
matter  of  rating  as  possible.  Unjustifiable  reductions  in 
premiums;  heavy  and  unwarranted  reductions  because 
the  market  was  weak,  did  no  good  in  the  end,  for  the 
day  of  reckoning  came  when  the  pendulum  swung  vio- 
lently the  other  way,  and  increases  had  to  be  asked  for  as 
the  underwriting  community  sought  recompense  for  its 
losses.  In  some  quarters  it  was  regarded  as  an  axiom  that 
profitable  years  must  be  followed  by  years  of  depression 
and  loss,  but  he  challenged  that  view.  Certainly,  the  wide- 
spread interests  of  the  market  ensured  that  almost  any 
disaster  anywhere  in  the  world  would  find  its  repercus- 
sions in  the  London  marine  market,  but,  in  his  view, 
nature  should  be  allowed  to  take  its  course  without  active 

Two  important  instruments  making  for  market  sta- 
bility, Mr.  Merrett  continued,  were  the  Joint  Hull  Un- 
derstanding and  the  Combined  Marine  Surcharge  Agree- 
ment. The  machinery  of  the  Understanding  ran,  on  the 
whole,  very  smoothly  and  fairly,  and  the  case  for  it  was 
unanswerable.  Without  it,  the  market  would  lose  money; 
with  it,  such  a  thing  was  much  less  likely  to  happen.  On 
the  other  hand,  it  would  be  quite  unethical  if  the  British 
shipowner  were  to  remain  subject  to  it  while  foreign 
shipowners  were  given  an  advantage  of  better  conditions. 

There  had  been  suggestions  for  a  complete  abolition 
of  the  additional  premiums  represented  in  the  C.M.S. 
scale  and  that  complete  freedom  in  cargo  rating  should 
take  its  place.  Therein,  Mr.  Merrett  said,  would  lie  heavy 
losses  for  the  market  in  the  national  and  international 
field  if  that  advice  was  followed.  Were  it  possible  for 
the  present  basic  rates,  many  of  which  had  been  steadily 
reduced  during  the  last  few  years,  to  be  amalgamated 
with  the  current  CMS.  ratings,  a  reasonable  way  out 
could  be  found. 

Mr.  Merrett  concluded  as  follows:  "The  figure  of 
i'20,000,000  a  year  is  generally  taken  as  the  average  net 

t  Please  turn  to  page  131) 

Page    102 







IM  a  rule  was  made  to  circumvent  such  a  happening  in 
the  future.  Some  of  the  rules  had  to  be  changed  several 
times  but  in  the  main  the  original  set  of  rules  promulgat- 
ed by  G.  Bruce  Newby,  William  Lambie  and  the  writer 
held  up  remarkably  well.  On  occasion  a  delegation  of 
brokers  and  owners  have  importuned  the  underwriters 
to  relax  one  or  the  other  of  the  rules  to  countenance 
carelessness  on  the  part  of  the  fishermen  but  sooner  or 
later  the  same  disaster  happened  again  and  as  one  fisher- 
men expressed  it — the  whole  industry  has  to  be  penalized 
for  the  negligence  of  one  fisherman.  Bear  in  mind  that  in 
the  case  of  the  tuna  vessels  the  insurance  covers  not  only 
the  fortuitous  perils  of  the  sea  but  inexperience  and 
lack  of  knowledge  upon  the  part  of  the  fishermen  of  the 
salient  facts  pertaining  to  the  fishing  industry. 

In  the  following  discussion  of  rules,  the  numbers  refer 
to  the  latest  arrangement  of  the  Safety  Requirement 

No.  1  Hatches 
Hatches  on  the  bait  wells  to  have  a  perma- 
nent coaming  at  least  18"  above  the  deck  or 
higher,  if  the  surveyor  considers  it  necessary, 
and  fitted  with  covers.  ( Covers  may  be  insulat- 
ed is  desired. ) 
Originally  the  hatches  were  raised  to  24"  as  required 
by  the  American  Bureau  of  Shipping  and  in  some  cases 
to  }2".  The  fishermen  complained  that  the  high  coam- 
ings caused  additional  work  for  a  group  of  men  already 
exhausted  from  the  effort  of  hoisting  all  the  fish  obtain- 
able from  a  school  of  fish  before  it  left  for  parts  unknown. 

As  stability  was  the  governing  factor  and  the  pocketing 
of  air  in  the  bait  wells  was  causing  concern,  an  effort 
was  made  to  circumvent  the  trouble  by  raising  the  height 
of  the  hatches  to  reduce  the  free  surface  area  when  a  bub- 
ble of  air  released  itself  from  the  well  and  lowered  the 
height  of  the  water  in  the  well  to  the  point  where  it  ran 
out  of  the  hatch. 

During  the  early  period  of  brine-well  fishing  the 
fishermen  were  pumping  a  well  on  one  side  of  the  ves- 
sel to  clean  it.  This  caused  an  excessive  list  and  if  the 
hatch  was  too  low  the  air  in  the  upper  corner  of  the  well 
released  itself  and  added  an  additional  moment,  tending 
to  overturn  the  vessel.  The  remedy  was  to  issue  an  In- 
struction to  the  Master  not  to  empty  a  well  on  one  side 
without  emptying  a  well  on  the  other  side  and  as  long  as 
the  fishermen  observed  the  Instruction  it  was  not  neces- 
sary to  have  the  hatch  coaming  on  the  bait  well  higher 
than  18". 

No.  2  Hatches 
Hatches  on  the  brine  wells  where  flush  to 
have  metal  covers.  ( May  be  insulated  if  desired 
by  the  owner. ) 

These  wells  are  filled  and  the  water  is  kept  circulating 
to  cool  the  fish.  Once  the  fish  are  cooled  down  to  M  de- 
grees the  water  is  pumped  overboard  or  into  another  well 
and  the  fish  are  cooled  dry  down  to  zero.  The  fish  are 
dropped  into  the  water  in  the  well  as  they  are  caught 
and  the  excess  water  spills  overboard  as  the  fish  dis- 
place the  water,  thereby  eliminating  free  surface.  The 
trouble  here  was  that  it  was  necessary  to  carry  fuel  in 
some  of  these  wells  for  the  voyage  outbound  and  the 
fishermen  were  not  careful  to  empty  a  well  on  the  other 

JANUARY     •      194 

Page    103 

side  when  a  well  on  one  side  was  emptied  for  cleaning. 

No.  3  Hatches 
Alleyway  hatches  to  have  a  coaming  at  least 
24"  above  the  deck  and  fitted  with  a  water- 
tight cover. 
There  is  considerable  coming  and  going  through  this 
hatch  and  if  the  water  gets  below,  it  floods  the  alleyway, 
and  as  the  door  to  the  engine  room  is  usually  open  the 
engine  room  will  be  flooded  too.  The  only  remedy  to 
avoid  flooding  is  to  raise  the  height  of  the  hatch  coaming. 

No.  4  Hatches 
All  other  openings  in  the  deck  to  be  fitted 
with  watertight  metal  covers. 
In  some  cases,  to  save  expense,  some  of  the  boats  were 
fitted  with  a  2"  coaming  and  a  wood  cover  dropped  in 
with  the  inevitable  result  that  water  went  below  into 
spaces  needed  for  flotation. 

No.  5  Scuppers 
Scuppers  to  be  cut  through  the  bulwark  be- 
tween every  frame  where  possible,  from  a  point 
forward  of  the  galley  to  a  point  not  less  than 
14  feet  from  the  stern.  Length  of  scuppers  to 
be  75' (  of  the  distance  between  frames  and 
of  the  following  heights. 

Boats  65  feet  long  over  all 2"  high 

Boats  65  to  100  feet  long  over  all IVt."  high 

Boats  100  to  125  feet  long  over  all 3"  high 

Boats  over  125  feet  long  over  all '^Vt."  high 

Conflicting  stories  about  the  fishing  were  received 
from  the  fishermen.  The  technical  men  wanted  the  boats 
fitted  with  freeing  ports  having  openings  ]2"xl2"  that 
would  open  and  close  easily.  The  fishermen  objected  and 
as  a  lesser  of  two  evils  accepted  the  scuppers.  The  ves- 
sels fish  with  the  deck  very  close  to  the  water  so  the 
iPlease  turn  to  page  132) 


The  crab  boat  Six  Brothen.  recently  completed  at  the 
Genoa  Boat  Building  Company,  San  Francisco,  is  32 
feet  long  by  9  foot  beam,  and  draws  3'  6".  This  par- 
ticular boat  is  quite  typical  of  the  San  Francisco  crab 
fleet  and  there  are  hundreds  of  others  of  about  the  same 
dimension,  but  this  one  has  many  new  features  that  are 
not  present  on  the  older  boats. 

The  boat  has  been  powered  with  a  Model  2071,  55  H. 
P.  General  Motors  Series  "71"  Diesel,  with  which  the 
propeller  is  driven  through  a  3  to  1  reduction  gear.  The 
boat  is  now  using  a  27"  diameter  by  a  26"  pitch  propel- 
ler, and  with  this  combination  the  engine  provides  more 
power  that  can  be  used  in  the  boat.  This  permits  the 
maximum  boat  speed  of  8V2  knots  at  very  conservative 

engine  loads. 

During  the  past  year  there  has  been  a  great  deal  of 
interest  in  this  new  General  Motors  Diesel,  as  the  fish- 
ermen are  discovering  that  they  can  replace  their  old 
heavy-duty  gas  engine  with  a  modern  high-speed  diesel. 
In  making  this  change,  they  not  only  save  weight  and 
space  but  they  also  improve  their  boat  speed  materially. 
In  the  same  sense,  the  new  engine  is  much  cleaner  and 
has  far  less  vibration  than  experienced  with  the  old 

It  is  thought  that  a  trend  toward  General  Motors 
Diesels  has  been  started  in  the  San  Francisco  Crab  Fleet, 
and  that  many  more  installations  will  follow  these  initial 
key  installations. 

General  Motors  Powered 
Crab  Boat  "Six  Brothers" 

Page    104 



louRSE  TO  nDunniEmEnT 
h'^  "The  Skipper" 

Questions  Welcomed.    Just  Address  "The  Skipper,"  Pacific 
Marine  Review,  500  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  California 


IN  A  PREVIOUS  ARTICLE,  the  parts  and  construc- 
tion of  the  compass  and  binnacle  were  discussed.  Let 
us,  in  this  issue,  make  a  study  of  the  earth's  magnetism 
as  it  affects  our  ship  and  compass,  thus  preparing  for  our 
discussion  of  practical  compensation  in  a  future  article. 
We  will  first  review  a  few  of  the  terms  used  in  this 
article,  so  that  we  all  will  interpret  these  terms  to  mean 
the  same  thing. 

1 .  A  magnet  is  a  body  or  substance  having  the  prop- 
erty of  attraction  and  repulsion  of  other  magnetic 
materials  and  polarity. 

2.  Magnetic  Lines  of  Force  are  imaginary  lines  passing 
from  one  pole  of  a  magnet  to  the  other. 

r  Magnetic  Field  is  the  area  through  which  magnetic 
lines  of  force  are  assumed  to  pass. 

i.  Line  of  Demarcation  is  an  imaginary  plane,  per- 
pendicular to  the  lines  of  force,  midway  between 
the  poles. 

5.  The  Poles  of  a  magnet  are  points  which  have  the 
greatest  attracting  or  repelling  power.  (For  con- 
venience we  may  assume  that  all  magnetic  lines  of 
force  enter  and  leave  these  points.) 

6.  The  Names  of  the  Poles.  That  end  of  a  magnet 
which  seeks  North  is  said  to  be  the  North  or  Red 
end.  The  South  or  Blue  end  is  the  end  which  seeks 

In  this,  navigators  can  easily  get  an  argument  from 
physicists  or  electricians.  They  contend  that  the  North 
Magnetic  Pole  is  in  the  .southern  hemisphere.  Why  argue? 
Neither  can  win.  So  let  us,  as  navigators,  consider  the 
poles  named  by  colors  and  refer  to  the  north-seeking  end 

of  a  magnet  as  the  Red  end. 

The  Basic   Laws  of  Magnetism 

(  1  )    Every  magnet  will  have  at  least  two  poles  of  op- 
posite polarity, 

(2)  Like  poles  repel  one  another  and  unlike  poles 
attract  one  another. 

( 3 )  The  magnetic  force  exerted  between  two  poles 
varies  inversely  as  the  square  of  the  distance. 

The  Magnetism   of  the  Earth 

Too  much  is  not  known  about  the  earth's  magnetism; 
however,  we  do  know  that  it  has  the  characteristics  of 
any  other  magnet.  The  Magnetic  Poles  of  the  earth  are 
located  in  latitude  71°  north  and  longitude  96°  west 
(approximately)  in  the  northern  hemisphere,  and  lati- 
tude 73°  south  and  longitude  1'56°  east  in  the  southern 
hemisphere.  The  polarity  of  these  poles  ( keeping  in 
mind  the  basic  law  of  magnetism  that  likes  repel  and  un- 
likes  attract,  and  that  the  north-seeking  end  of  a  magnet 
is  said  to  be  the  red  end)  is  blue  in  the  northern  hemis- 
phere and  red  in  the  southern. 

The  earth's  total  magnetic  force  has  two  components, 
namely:  ( 1  )  Horizontal  Lines  of  Force  which  flow  in  a 
horizontal  plane  over  the  earth's  surface  from  the  red  to 
the  blue  pole.  These  are  the  lines  of  force  which  give 
the  magnetic  compass  its  directive  determining  power. 
Though  these  lines  are  not  straight,  they  do  not  cross 
one  another  and  are  considered  as  magnetic  meridians. 
The  angle  at  which  these  horizontal  lines  of  force  inter- 
sect the  true  meridians  of  the  earth's  surface  is  known  as 
Variation,   or   Magnetic   Declination.   The    intensity   of 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

Page    105 


^«etch     No.  ^• 

Sketches   I    to  3,  illustrating  points  covered  in  the  tc«t 

ATO/^S   fii  LICihfEti 

these  lines  of  force  is  greatest  at  the  magnetic  equator 
and  zero  at  the  poles.  Realizing  this  fact,  we  can  easily 
see  how,  when  at  the  magnetic  equator,  our  compass  has 
a  greater  tendency  to  align  its  north-south  axis  with  the 
magnetic  meridians,  and  thus  is  affected  to  a  lesser  ex- 
tent by  the  subpermanent  magnetism  of  the  vessel  itself. 
(  2  )  Vertical  Lines  of  Force  flow  at  an  angle  to  a  hori- 
zontal plane  at  any  point  which  is  equal  to  the  angle 
subtended  at  the  center  of  the  earth  between  the  magnetic 
equator  and  that  point.  This  angle  is  referred  to  as  Dip 
or  Magnetic  Inclination.  The  intensity  of  these  lines  of 
force  is  greatest  at  the  poles  and  zero  at  the  equator. 

For  convenience  and  to  picture  more  easily  in  our  mind 
their  effects  on  the  vessel,  we  will  study  these  two  com- 
ponents as  if  they  were  distinct  separate  lines  of  force 
or  powers,  which  is  not,  in  reality,  the  truth.  They  are 
both  a  part  of  the  same  magnetic  lines  of  force  which 
affect  materials  in  different  ways.  In  our  study,  let  us 
keep  in  mind  the  fact  that  lines  of  force  travel  in  parallel 
lines  and  that  each  piece  or  mass  of  magnetic  material 
is  a  potential  magnet.  All  that  is  required  in  order  to  con- 
vert a  mass  of  magnetic  material  into  a  magnet  is  to  sub- 
ject the  mass  to  some  sort  of  violence  while  it  lies  in  a 
magnetic  field,  thus  causing  the  millions  of  minute  atoms 
or  molecules  which  have  both  Red  and  Blue  ends  to 
align  themselves  in  one  direction,  as  indicated  in  Figure 

This  violence  allows  the  atoms  to  change  their  direc- 
tion and  the  blue  magnetism  of  the  magnetic  field  at- 
tracts the  red  ends  of  the  atoms  so  that  they  all  align 
themselves  within  the  metal.  This  is  what  occurs  to  the 
steel  of  our  ship  while  being  built,  thus  causing  the  en- 
tire ship  to  become  a  magnet. 

Magnetism   in   the   Vessel 

We  have  two  types  of  magnetism  in  the  vessel,  sub- 
permanent  and  transient.  These  names  are  not  necessarily 
given  because  of  peculiar  characteristics  of  the  magnet- 
ism, but  rather  of  the  metal.  Sub-permanent  rnagnetisni 
is  magnetism  which  is  found  present  in  hard  iron — hard 
iron  being  a  term  which  is  applied  to  iron  or  steel  hav- 
ing the  ability  to  retain  magnetism.  Transient  magnetism 
is  magnetism  which  is  found  present  in  soft  iron — soft 

iron  being  a  term  which  is  applied  to  iron  which  has  the 
ability  to  become  instantly  magnetized  when  placed  in  a 
magnetic  field,  and  to  lose  this  magnetism  when  removed 
from  the  magnetic  field.  In  soft  iron,  the  atems  have  the 
ability  to  change  their  direction  instantly  as  the  direction 
of  the  iron  is  changed  in  relation  to  the  magnetic  lines 
of  force.  We  shall  deal  with  these  two  types  separately 
as  they  affect  the  vessel. 

Sub-permanent  Magnetism  of  the  Vessel  is  that  mag- 
netism which  is  built  into  the  vessel  and  remains  with  it 
through  the  life  of  the  vessel.  It  is  found  only  in  hard 
iron.  Each  plate,  angle,  beam,  stanchion,  etc.,  is  either  a 
potential  magnet  or  a  magnet  before  it  is  assembled;  then 
as  the  vessel  is  assembled  these  parts  become  a  part  of  a 
single  magnet,  just  as,  when  we  take  two  small  magnets 
and  place  them  together,  they  become  one  magnet.  When 
the  vessel  is  completed,  it  becomes  on  huge  magnet.  The 
permanency  of  this  magnetism  is  dependent  on  the 
amount  of  violence  to  which  the  materials  were  sub- 
jected while  the  vessel  was  being  constructed.  The  great- 
er the  violence,  the  more  permanent  the  magnetism.  Sub- 
permanent  magnetism  will  be  present  in  both  horizontal 
and  vertical  hard  iron. 

Horizontal  Hard  Iron  is  affected  only  by  the  horizontal 
component  of  the  earth's  total  force.  The  intensity  of  the 
magnetism  in  the  horizontal  hard  iron  of  the  vessel  is 
dependent  on  the  magnetic  latitude  of  the  place  of  build- 
ing of  the  vessel  and  the  amount  of  violence  suffered  by 
the  material  in  construction. 

The  Polarity,  Line  of  Demarcation  and  Distribution 
of  the  red  and  blue  magnetism  in  the  horizontal  hard  iron 
are  dependent  on  the  angle  the  vessel's  keel  made  with 
the  magnetic  meridians  while  being  built. 

Vertical  Hard  Iron  is  affected  only  by  the  vertical 
component  of  the  earth's  total  force.  The  intensity  of  the 
magnetism  in  vertical  hard  iron,  as  in  horizontal  hard 
iron,  is  dependent  on  the  magnetic  latitude  of  the  place 
of  building  and  the  amount  of  violence  suffered  by  the 
materials  in  the  construction  of  the  vessel.  However,  it 
differs  in  this  respect.  The  intensity  of  the  magnetism  in 
horizontal  hard  iron  is  greater  if  the  vessel  is  built  near 

(Please  turn  to  page  130) 

Page    106 


U<m\  (h4rUim&  Gn&wVUcL 

by  "The  Chief" 

"The  Chief's"   department  welcomes   questions — Just   write   "The   Chief,"   Pacific   Marine   Review. 


5iMMt  root  ^>t  lit  -^f 

e*tr*.<'i  sdii^fc  root 


4     I  =%+!(,+<, 

Blackboard  figures   I   to  ( 

ed  in  the  tert. 


IT  MAY  SEEM  A  LITTLE  too  much  like  a  high  school 
mathematics  class  to  discuss  the  procedure  for  extract- 
ing the  square  root  for  marine  engineers,  but  much  ex- 
perience has  shown  that  the  process  is  not  used  very 
much  in  the  everyday  duties  of  standing  a  watch  or  taking 
the  daily  fuel  tank  soundings,  and  is  difficult  to  remember. 
But  there  comes  a  day  for  every  one  of  us  when  we  wish 
we  could  do  it.  Incidentally,  we  can  estimate  it  pretty 
closely  for  the  first  two  or  three  figures  by  guessing  the 
square  root  and  then  multiplying  the  guessed  root  by 
itself  to  see  how  close  to  the  number  we  come.  If  too 
high,  lower  the  guess  a  little  and  multiply  again.  If  too 
low,  raise  it  and  multiply.  But  do  not  try  this  in  the  ex- 
aminations, as  the  inspectors  want  to  see  that  you  know 

the  correct  procedure,  must  see  the  work,  and  will  not 
accept  guesses.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  long  division  and 
extracting  square  root  are  really  systems  of  educated 
guessing  and  somewhat  alike.  The  systems  permit  us  to 
guess  only  a  little  at  a  time  and  prove  the  correctness  of 
the  guess  before  we  proceed  any  further.  Notice  that  the 
steps  are  a  guess  as  to  a  divisor  and  a  multiplication  to  see 
if  it  is  enough  or  too  much. 

First,  a  few  general  statements  about  squares  and  roots. 
Sec  Fig.  1.  Note  that  we  can  indicate  the  square  of  a 
number  by  drawing  a  line  over  it  and  adding  a  figure  2  at 
the  end  of  the  line.  A  ^  shows  a  cube  and  any  number 
shows  a  POWER  to  which  the  base  number  is  to  be 
raised  or  multiplied  by  itself.  If  letters  are  used,  as  in  al- 

JANUARY     •      1948 

Page    107 

gebra,  the  line  may  be  used  or  omitted.  The  number  de- 
noting the  power  is  written  a  size  smaller  and  at  the  up- 
per right  hand  corner  on  the  base  number  or  letter. 

Fig.  1  also  shows  the  geometry  of  the  square  indicat- 
ing whence  the  process  got  its  name.  If  the  number  rep- 
resents a  linear  dimension  or  measurement  then  the 
square  of  the  number  is  necessarily  an  area.  Conversely, 
the  square  rcxjt  of  an  area  is  the  dimension  of  a  side  of  a 
square  of  the  same  area.  But  the  square  root  of  a  number 
which  has  no  meaning  as  an  area  has  no  meaning  either, 
and  is  just  a  number — nothing  more. 

Fig.  2  of  the  Blackboard  Sketches  is  shown  to  indicate 
the  geometry  of  the  square  of  the  sum  of  two  numbers 
such  as  4  or  2  or  a  total  of  6.  Note  that  the  square  of  the 
sum  is  the  square  of  the  first  plus  twice  the  product  of 
the  first  by  the  second  plus  the  square  of  the  second. 

Fig.  3  shows  that  while  the  square  root  of  36  is  6,  the 
square  root  of  360  is  not  60,  but  18.9737  .  .  .  and  we 
must  go  to  3600  before  the  square  root  is  60.  The  rule, 
then,  is  that  to  move  the  decimal  point  one  place  in  a 
number  moves  it  two  places  in  the  square  and  in  the 
same  direction.  This  explains  why  we  handle  the  number, 
whose  square  root  we  want,  in  sections  of  two  places  in 
each  direction  from  the  decimal  point. 

Fig.  4  is  an  attempt  to  show  geometrically  the  several 
steps  in  the  step-by-step  guessing  process  of  extracting 
the  square  root.  Using  the  simple  number  529,  we  sec- 
tionalize  it  to  5'  29!  We  handle  the  5  first,  which  really 
is  500.  (Note  that  any  number  is  really  a  sum;  for  in- 
stance, 7845  is  actually  7000,  plus  800,  plus  40,  plus  5.) 
We  guess  at  the  largest  root  it  contains,  3  squared  is  too 
much;  2  squared  is  about  right — a  little  small,  but  the 
largest  root  we  can  use.  This  2,  then,  is  20  because  20 
squared  is  400.  It  is  represented  by  the  large  area  in  the 

There  remains  529  minus  400,  or  129  which  must  still 
be  factored.  This  129  represents  the  area  of  the  two  rect- 
angles and  the  area  of  the  small  square.  Of  these  three 
areas,  we  know  only  the  one  dimension — that  of  the  long 
side  of  the  rectangle,  or  20  in  this  case.  We  can  guess 
at  the  other  dimension  by  taking  half  of  the  129  and 
dividing  it  by  20 — but  this  is  the  same  as  dividing  the 
whole  129  by  2  times  20  or  40.  This  accounts  for  the 
rule  of  doubling  the  root  so  far  obtained  before  dividing. 
So  we  divide  the  40  into  the  129  and,  of  course,  get  3. 
Note  also  in  the  figure  that  these  three  areas  if  laid  end 
to  end  would  make  one  long  rectangle  whose  long  side  is 
43,  and  whose  short  side  is  3.  We  know  that  the  total 
area  of  the  group  is  1 29,  so  we  add  the  3  in  the  root  to 
the  40  to  give  43  as  a  divisor.  It  goes  evenly  with  no  re- 
mainder, and  the  original  number  was  a  perfect  square. 
This  we  prove  by  multiplying  the  3  times  the  43  to  give 
us  the  129.  There  is  a  more  nearly  perfect  proof  of  this 
process  but  it  involves  more  than  we  need  to  take  up 

Fig.  5  is  a  demonstration  of  the  process  with  a  larger 
number  which  is  not  a  perfect  square  and  also  has  a  deci- 
mal. The  letters  located  at  the  several  places  refer  to  the 
following  paragraphs,  step  by  step. 

A — Write  the  number,  plenty  of  space  below,  large 
decimal  point,  check  mark  over  the  decimal,  check  mark 
over  every  other  space  from  the  decimal  and  draw  a  line 
over  the  entire  number. 

Page    108 

B. — Write  the  square  root  of  the  left  hand  pair  or 
single  as  the  case  may  be.  This  must  be  guessed.  Write 
the  square  of  this  guess  below  also  at  B.  Draw  a  line  and 
subtract,  giving  us  in  this  case,  1. 

C. — Draw  a  slanting  line  here  and  bring  down  the 
next  pair  of  numbers,  41  here. 

D. — Multiply  the  answer  or  root  above  the  line,  what- 
ever it  may  be,  by  2  and  write  it  here. 

E. — Cover  the  last  figure  here  with  the  finger,  leaving, 
in  this  case,  only  the  numbers  14  visible. 

F. — Divide  the  figure  2  at  D  into  this  14  and  write 
the  answer  above  the  next  pair  as  at  F  in  the  answer,  and 
write  it  beside  the  2  also  at  F.  This  is  only  a  trial  or  guess 
and  in  this  case  the  figure  7  was  too  much,  so  also  is  6, 
and  we  fall  back  to  5,  proving  by  multiplication,  the  5  by 
the  25. 

G — Here  the  proof  is  multiplied  out  and  the  subtrac- 
tion shows  16  remainder. 

H. — Draw  the  line  again. 

J. — Bring  down  the  next  pair,  65  in  this  case. 

K. — Again  double  the  answer — in  this  case  the  num- 
bers at  B  and  F,  or  15,  giving  30. 

M. — Cover  the  5  in  the  1665  and  divide  the  30  into 
the  166  now  visible.  Write  up  the  answer  5  as  shown. 
Also  write  the  5  at  K.  Multiply  the  5  at  M  by  the  305  at 
K,  writing  the  answer  at  N. 

N. — Subtract,  getting  140  remainder. 

P. — Bring  down  the  pext  pair,  also  draw  the  slanting 

Continue  through  as  before  with  the  numbers  getting 
larger  with  each  step.  There  is  still  a  remainder  and  we 
might  continue  on  indefinitely,  always  getting  a  remain- 
der, but  our  answer  becoming  more  and  more  accurate. 
Having  as  many  numbers  at  the  right  of  the  decimal  as 
was  in  the  original  number  should  be  accurate  enough. 
The  student  should  go  over  this  many  times  with  other 
numbers  proving  the  correctness  of  the  root  by  squaring 
it.  The  root  given  in  Fig.  5  is  155.45,  and  squaring  this 
we  have  a  number  24164.7025.  This  is  less  than  the 
square  we  started  with,  and  subtracting  we  find  a  differ- 
ence of  .6575.  This  is  the  error  in  our  calculations. 

In  the  final  analysis  there  is  a  graphical  solution  for 
every  mathematical  problem.  By  this  is  meant  that  with- 
out recourse  to  figures,  multiplication  and  division,  it  is 
possible  to  get  an  answer  by  drawing  the  problem  out 
on  a  board  or  otherwise  constructing  it.  For  example,  by 
trigonometry  we  know  that  the  diagonal  of  a  square  is 
1.41  times  a  side.  But  we  could  have  found  this  out  by 
constructing  a  square  and  measuring  the  side  and  di- 
agonal. We  could  avoid  division  by  drawing  the  side 
one  unit  of  length  long  and  then  measuring  the  diagonal 
as  1.41  units.  Of  course,  to  find  the  number  of  feet  of 
lumber  in  a  house  we  may  have  to  build  it  and  then 
measure  the  lumber.  But  we  would  have  avoided  mathe- 
matics. So  mathematics  can  be  as  much  help  to  us  as  we 
will  make  use  of  it. 

An  interesting  illustration  of  the  construction  solution 
is  to  find  the  square  root  of  a  number  by  using  a  straight 
edge  and  compass  only.  Fig.  6  shows  this  and  gives  a 
rough  proof.  The  length  of  the  line  BS  is  the  square  root 
of  the  length  of  the  line  AB.  Draw  AB  of  a  length  to  be  a 
measure  of  the  number  whose  root  is  wanted.  Extend  the 

(Please  turn  to  page  130) 


^cumi^  ^ca^t^ 




Manager  of 

Marine   Sales 


Bethlehenn   Steel 

Bay   Area  Yards 

(See  Page  110) 

JANUARY     •      I  941 

Page    109 

Harvard  P.  Stewart 
Appointed  by  Bethlehem 

Announcement  has  just  been 
made  of  the  appointment  of  Har- 
vard Paul  Stewart  as  Manager  of 
Marine  Sales  for  Bethlehem's  Bay 
Area  Yards.  Stewart  succeeds  John 
T.  Greany  who  died  recently  follow- 
ing a  short  illness.  The  announce- 
ment was  made  by  W.  M.  Laughton, 
District  General  Manager  of  Beth- 
lehem's Shipbuilding  Division,  'West 
Coast  Yards. 

Stewart  is  a  native  of  Alameda 
and  a  graduate  of  the  University  of 
California,  Class  of  1934,  where  he 
received  a  BS  Degree  with  honors  in 
engineering.  He  took  post-graduate 
work  in  ship  model  testing  at  the 
same  university  and  assisted  in  the 
establishment  of  U.  C.'s  first  ship 
model  test  basin.  In  1934  he  started 
work  at  Bethlehem's  San  Francisco 
Yard  as  mold  loftsman.  In  1935  he 
was  transferred  to  the  Estimating 
Department,  and  a  year  later  to  the 
Sales  Department. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Naval  Architects  and  Marine  En- 
gineers and  a  member  of  the  Execu- 
tive Committee  of  the  Northern 
California  section  of  the  Society,  of 
which  he  is  also  a  former  secretary- 
treasurer.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Na- 
tional Engineering  Honor  Society, 
Tau  Beti  Pi  and  an  associate  mem- 
ber of  the  National  Physical  Honor 
Society,  Sigma  Zi. 

Currently,  Stewart  is  House  Com- 
mittee Chairman  of  the  San  Fran- 
cisco Propeller  Club.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  San  Francisco  Junior 
Chamber  of  Commerce  and  is  rep- 
resentative of  the  Junior  Chamber 
on  the  Bay  Area  Maritime  Commit- 
tee. His  hobbies  include  skiing, 
mountaineering  and   photography. 

King's  Point  Alumni 

All  graduates  of  the  U.  S.  Mer- 
chant Marine  Academy  at  King's 
Point,  N.  Y.,  now  living  in  the  San 
Francisco  Bay  Area  are  requested 
to  register  at  the  newly  opened  of- 
fices of  the  Academy's  Alumni  as- 
sociation. The  Bay  Area  chapter 
now  maintains  offices  at  room  1101, 
De  Young  Bldg.,  690  Market  St., 

Page    I  10 

W.   A.    Harrington 


San    Francisco.    Warren    Boone    is 
president  of  the  group. 

Over  300  graduates  of  the  Acade- 
my are  now  members  of  the  local 
chapter,  although  three  times  that 
number  are  believed  to  be  living  in 
the  bay  region.  California  is  second 
only  to  New  York  in  the  number  of 
graduates  from  the  national  Mer- 
chant Marine  Academy. 

W.  A.  Harrington  Heads 
San  Pedro  Yard 

W.  A.  Harrington  has  been 
named  Manager  of  the  San  Pedro, 
California,  yard  of  Bethlehem  Steel 
Company,  as  announced  by  W.  M. 
Laugliton,  General  Manager  of  Beth- 
lehem's "West  Coast  Yards.  San 
Pedro  Yard  is  on  Terminal  Island 
in  Los  Angeles.  Harrington  succeeds 
E.  C.  Rechtin  who  has  been  trans- 
ferred to  an  executive  position  with 
the  company  in  the  East. 

Harrington  is  well  known  in  ship- 
building and  ship  repair  circles  on 
the  West  Coast,  where  he  has  lived 
since  1916.  On  moving  to  the  West 
Coast,  he  became  a  loftsman  and  an 
Inspector  of  ships  for  the  U.  S.  Ship- 
ping Board.  He  came  to  the  San 
Pedro  Yard  in  1923  as  chief  estima- 
tor, was  later  made  general  yard 
foreman  and  sales  manager,  becom- 
ing assistant  manager  in  1944. 


Russell  R.  Sweeny  Becomes  Manager 
of  Bethlehem -Alameda  Repair  Yard 

ell   R.   Swe 
r   of    Belhli 

Scintilla  Magneto 
Division  Appoints 
Ceorge  M.  Anger 

Announcement  has  just  been 
made  of  the  appointment  of  George 
M.  Anger  as  Western  States  Repre- 
sentative for  Scintilla  Magneto  Di- 
vision of  Bendix  Aviation  Corpora- 
tion, Sidney,  New  York.  The  com- 
pany is  planning  to  establish  an 
office  in  San  Francisco,  where  Anger 
will   maintain  his  headquarters. 

Ray  Perin  Heads 
Materials  Handling 

Ray  Perin,  of  the  Ira  G.  Perin  Co., 
west  coast  representative  for  Elwell- 
Parker  Trucks  for  35  years,  has  been 
elected  president  of  the  14-year  old 
Materials  Handling  Association  of 
Northern  California. 

Perin  is  a  graduate  of  Stanford 
University,  class  of  1930.  He  served 
with  the  Goodyear  Rubber  Com- 
pany at  the  British  plant  during  the 
war,  and  upon  his  return  joined  the 
Ira  Perin  Company.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  American  Society  of  Me- 
chanical Engineers. 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

Georqe     M       Ange 

H.  M.  Cahill  Appointed 

According  to  a  recent  announce- 
ment by  R.  W.  Bayerlein,  Vice  pres- 
ident of  the  Heavy  Machinery  Di- 
vision, Nordberg  Manufacturing 
Co.,  H.  M.  Cahill  has  been  appoint- 
ed as  Sales  Manager,  Small  Engine 

Cahill  has  had  extensive  sales  en- 
gineering experience  in  the  smaller 
four-cycle  Diesel  engine  field.  Be- 
fore coming  to  Nordberg,  he  was 
Assistant  to  the  Sales  Manager  of 
National  Supply  Co.,  of  Springfield, 

Russell  R.  Sweeny,  formerly  as- 
sistant to  the  general  superintendent 
at  Bethlehem's  San  Francisco  Yard, 
has  been  appointed  manager  of  the 
company's  Alameda  Repair  Yard, 
according  to  a  recent  announcement 
by  W.  M.  Laughton. 

Sweeny  is  a  native  of  Antiixh, 
California,  and  came  to  work  for 
Bethlehem  in  1916  as  a  shipfitter 
apprentice  at  what  was  then  the 
Union  Iron  "Works.  In  1931  he  be- 
came Hull  Department  Foreman  at 
the  Alameda  Repair  Yard,  and  in 
1939  was  appointed  assistant  to  the 
general  superintendent  at  that  yard. 
He  returned  to  the  San  Francisco 
Yard  in  1940  where  he  was  placed 
in  charge  of  conversion  work  on  the 
Presichnf  Lincoln.  He  was  made 
assistant  to  the  general  superintend- 
ent in  194Z 

Ohio.  He  has  also  been  associated 
with  the  Buda  Company,  Harvey, 

Cahill  will  have  charge  of  sales  of 
Nordberg  four-cycle  41/2",  9"  and 
13"  boreDiesel  engines.  L.  L.  Peter- 
son, Sales  Manager,  Large  Engine 
Dept.,  is  responsible  for  sales  of  the 
1 6"  bore  size  four-cycle  engine  and 
the  larger  Nordberg  2 -cycle  Diesel 
engines.  Foreign  sales  of  all  Nord- 
berg products  is  directed  by  B.  T. 
Eagerton,  Export  Sales  Manager. 

Page    I  I  I 

LlNITrn   STAtFis 

^t  The  KINGS  POINT 

Vice  Admiral  William  W.  Smith,  USN  (Ret.),  Chairman,  Maritime 
Commission,  accepting  bronie  plaque  presented  to  the  Merchant 
Marine  Academy  by  the  Society  of  Naval  Architects  and  Marine 
Engineers  honoring  the  distinguished  wartime  achievements  of  the 
late  Vice  Admiral  Howard  L.  Vickery.  Left  to  right:  Vice  Admiral 
Edward  L.  Cochrane,  USN  (Ret.),  president.  Society  of  Naval 
Architects  and  Marine  Engineers;  Admiral  Smith;  Lt.  Comdr.  Hugh 
B.  Vickery,  USN,  son  of  Admiral  Vickery,  Rear  Admiral  Telfair 
Knight,   Chief   of   Training    Division,    Maritime   Commisson. 

Vice  Admiral  Edward  L.  Cochrane,  USN  (Ret.). 
President,  Society  of  Naval  Architects  and  Ma- 
rine Engineers,  making  introductory  address 
during  ceremonies  attending  presentation  of 
bronze  plaque  honoring  the  distinguished  war- 
time achievements  of  the  late  Vice  Admiral 
Howard  L.  Vickery,  USN  (Ret.),  creator  of  the 
famous  "Bridge  of  Merchant  Ships"  which 
assured  victory  in  the  recent  world  conflict. 
Left  to  right  in  the  above  picture  are:  Vice 
Admiral  William  W.  Smith,  USN  (Ret),  Chair- 
man, Maritime  Commission,  Mrs.  Howard  L. 
Vickery,  Mrs.  Barbara  Vickery  Bowie,  Admiral 
Cochrane,  Mrs.  Edward  L.  Cochrane,  Rear  Ad- 
miral Telfair  Knight,  USMS,  Chief,  Training 
Division,  Maritime  Commission,  Lt.  Comdr.  R. 
E.  Salman  and  members  of  the  Society  of  Naval 
Architects  and   Marine   Engineers. 

Grounds  and  buildings  of  the  U.  S.  Merchant 
Marine  Academy  on  the  shore  of  Long  Island 
Sound  at  Kings  Point,  N.  Y.  View  looks  east. 
Hague  Basin  and  Mallory  Pier  in  foreground. 
Academic  Buildings  left  side  of  campus  (pro- 
gressively from  west  to  east).  Department  of 
Nautical  Science,  Dept.  of  Engineering  and 
Department  of  Ship  Management.  Center. 
Wiley  Hall  (former  Walter  P.  Chrysler  resi- 
dence); Regimental  Barracks  (right  of  Wiley 
Hall,  reading  counter-clockwise).  Palmer,  Mur- 
phy, Delano,  Cleveland,  Rogers,  Jones  and 
Barry  Halls.  Center  background,  O'Hara  Hall 
and  Furuseth  Barracks.  Left  center  background. 
Tomb  Memorial  Drill  Field  and  Roosevelt 
Athletic  Field. 

Additional    photo  on    page    118, 

Page    I  12 



ips  heini;  huilt  u  Bethlehem-Sparrows  Point  Shipyard. 


Main  Particulars  oj  the  Reefer 

S.  S.   Yaque 

ength,   betueeu  perpendiculars.  ^65  ft 

earn,  molded 56// 

^epth,  molded 36  // 

rajt,  loaded 2€  ft 

eadweight 5,000  tons 

trgo  capacity 195,000  cu  ft 

assenger  capacity 12 

?a  speed 16  knots 

lachinery geared  turbine 

corporating  advanced  design  fea- 
ires  resulting  from  Bethlehem's  long 
xperience  as  a  builder  of  ships  of  all 
^pes,  the  S.S.  Yaque  is  the  first  of  a 

fleet  of  nine  combination  cargo-pas- 
senger, fully-refrigerated  sister  ships 
which  the  Bethlehem-Sparrows  Point 
Shipyard  will  deliver  to  the  United 
Fruit  Company  during  1947. 

A  model  of  postwar  shipbuilding 
craftsmanship,  this  trim  vessel  has 
been  designed  and  constructed  to 
meet  the  special  requirements  of  the 
operator's  trade. 

It  is  an  example  of  the  excellent 
results  obtainable  through  close  col- 
laboration between  the  owner  and  the 
builder.  In  all  details,  it's  Bethlehem- 
Built    for  the  job. 



Quincy,  Mass. 

Staten  Island.  N.  Y. 

Sparrows  Point.  Md. 

San  Francisio,  Calif. 

Alameda.  Calif. 

Terminal  Island.  San  Pedro.  Calif. 

SHIP  ntPAlK    YAkDS 


Atlantic  Yard 

Simpson  Yard 

Brooklvn  27th  Street  Yard 

Brooklyn  56th  Street  Yard 

Hoboken  Yard 

Staten  Island  Yard 



San  Francisco  Yard 
Alaiiied.T  Yard 



GENERAL     OFFICES:     25     BROADWAY,     NEW     YORK     CITY 


JANUARY     •      1948 

Page    113 

n  E  UJ  S    F  I  R  S  H  E  S 


American  President  Lines'  president,  George  Killion,  announces  plans  under 
consideration  for  converting  the  P-2  type  liners  General  W.  H.  Gordon  and 
General  M.  C.  Meigs  to  the  luxury  status  of  the  President  Cleveland  and  Presi-.... 
dent  Wilson.  The  latter,  sister  ship  of  the  Cleveland,  will  be  completed  during 
the  spring. 

Up      H:      i^       i[:      ^ 

THE  V-2000 

Bids  on  the  proposed  five  V-2000' s  for  American  President  Lines  are  still 
under  consideration  by  both  APL  and  Maritime  Commission.  These  are  to  be  cargo- 
passenger  vessels  and  are  somewhat  between  the  C-3  and  P-2.  Indications  are  that 
they  will  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $50,000,000.  Newport  News  was  low  bidder. 


Organization  of  Coastwise  Bulk  Carriers,  Inc.,  to  operate  tankers  in  the 
domestic  trades  was  announced  December  23  by  William  T.  Sexton,  Sr. ,  president. 
A  contract  for  operation  of  the  tankers  will  be  negotiated  with  Coastwise  Line, 
he  said. 

Coastwise  Line  currently  maintains  a  Pacific  coastwise  service  as  well  as 
a  world-wide  tramping  operation.  In  addition,  it  does  extensive  general  agency 
work.  Tankers  acquired  by  Coastwise  Bulk  Carriers,  Inc.,  will  be  operated  in 
coastwise,  intercoastal  and  Gulf  services. 

:{c   :{;   :1c   :]e   ^ 


Merger  of  the  Skinner  &  Eddy  Corp.  with  the  Alaska  Steamship  Company  "to 
simplify  the  overall  corporate  structure  of  the  Alaska  Steamship  Company  and  to 
broaden  and  further  strengthen  its  financial  position,"  was  announced  this  week 
by  G.  W.  Skinner,  president.  The  corporation  has  owned  Alaska  Steamship  Company 
since  1944.  Plans  include  acquisition  of  new  freight  and  passenger  ships  suit- 
able for  needs  of  the  territory.  Skinner  said. 


The  San  Francisco  Yard  of  Bethlehem  Steel  Company,  Shipbuilding  Division, 
has  just  been  awarded  contracts  totaling  approximately  $7,000,000  for  the 
modernization-conversion  of  two  C-3  type  Army  troop  transports,  the  Frederick 
Funston  and  James  O'Hara,  and  the  "saf ety-at-sea"  conversion  of  the  Army  Hospi- 
tal Ship  Comfort ,  a  C-1  type  vessel. 

Type  of  work  to  be  preformed  on  the  Funston  and  O'Hara  is  very  similar  to 
that  which  Bethlehem's  San  Francisco  Yard  is  now  doing  on  two  other  Army  trans- 
ports, the  Shanks  and  Ainsworth,  in  that  they  are  being  converted  from  100% 
troopship  to  combination  troop  and  passenger. 

:f:   :{(   :fc   :jc   :^ 


Brigadier  General  N.  H.  McKay,  Port  Commander  at  the  San  Francisco  Port 
of  Embarkation,  announces  that  contracts  have  been  awarded  by  the  Chief  of 
Transportation  for  conversions  on  nine  additional  passenger  vessels  of  Trans- 

portation  Corps  registry  with  home  port  here.  They  will  enter  the  shipbuilding 
yards  at  various  times  before  March  1  for  work  expected  in  most  instances  to 
require  90  working  days. 

The  vessels  and  the  yards:  Hospital  Ship  Comfort  and  transports  O'Hara  and 
Funs ton,  Bethlehem  Shipbuilding  Corp. ,  San  Francisco  ;  Generals  Collins  and 
Freeman,  Todd  Yards,  San  Pedro;  Generals  Hodges  and  Hase,  Todd  Yards,  Seattle; 
Kenerals  Patrick  and  Morton,  Pacific  Ship  Repair,  San  Francisco. 

A  third  phase  of  the  Transportation  Corps  ship  modernization  program  is 
Hearing  completion.  Four  P-2  transports  assigned  to  San  Francisco  are  in  the 
Newport  News  Shipbuilding  Corporation  yards  on  the  Atlantic  Coast  being  given 
final  conversion  to  fit  them  for  permanent  peacetime  passenger  service  for  the 
Army.  They  are  the  USAT's  Admirals  Eberle,  Hughes,  Capps  and  Benson.  First  of 
them  is  expected  to  be  completed  by  mid-February. 


Morris  Sayre ,  president  of  Corn  Products  Refining  Company  of  New  York, 
will  be  the  new  president  of  the  National  Association  of  Manufacturers.  Retiring 
president  Bunting  asserts  that  most  conservative  estimates  for  rehabilitation 
of  worn  out  machines  and  inefficient  factories  is  $6,000,000,000  a  year  over  the 
next  five  years. 


A  $7,500,000  construction  program  to  expand  and  modernize  its  Bakersfield 
refinery  was  announced  today  by  Standard  of  California.  New  units  planned  in 
the  program  will  include  the  latest  in  crude  distillation  and  cracking 
facilities,  an  office  building  and  laboratory,  and  modern  auxiliary  equipment. 
Capacity  of  the  plant  will  be  increased  to  a  crude  run  of  20,000  barrels  daily, 
practically  double  the  present  capacity. 


During  the  month  of  November,  15  new  factories  were  established  in  Los 
Angeles  county  with  a  total  investment  of  |593,000,  and  creating  257  new  jobs 
for  factory  workers.  Thirty-eight  existing  plants  were  expanded,  calling  for  an 
additional  investment  of  |6, 411, 000,  and  creating  694  new  industrial  jobs. 

Total  investment  in  the  53  new  and  expanded  units  was  |7, 004, 000,  creat- 
ing a  total  of  951  new  jobs. 

For  the  year  to  date,  200  new  factories  were  established  with  a  total 
investment  of  $68,261,000,  and  creating  7,321  new  jobs;  382  existing  plants  were 
expanded,  calling  for  an  additional  investment  of  $51,560,500  and  creating 
12,650  new  industrial  jobs. 


Purchase  of  11  tankers  from  the  Maritime  Commission  was  confirmed  in  a 
recent  announcement  by  Standard  Oil  Company  (New  Jersey).  Assignment  of  the  ships 
to  the  Esso  fleet  will  be  material  help  to  the  company  in  its  efforts  to  meet 
the  unprecedented  demand  for  petroleum  products. 

All  vessels  are  the  Maritime  Commission  T2  type,  with  turbo-electric 
propulsion.  Four  of  the  ships,  Esso  Allentown,  Esso  Asheville,  Esso  Everett  and 
Esso  Worcester,  were  built  at  the  Kaiser  Shipbuilding  Company's  yard,  Portland, 
Oregon,  four  Esso  Binghamton,  Esso  Bridgeport,  Esso  Burlington  and  Esso  Wheel- 
ing, at  the  Alabama  Dry  Dock  &  Shipbuilding  Company's  plant.  Mobile,  Alabama, 
and  three,  Esso  Greenboro,  Esso  Linden  and  Esso  Shreveport,  by  the  Sun  Ship- 
building &  Dry  Dock  Company,  Chester,  Pennsylvania. 



J.  Lester  Perry,  president  of  the  Columbia  Steel  Company,  A  U.  S.  Steel 
subsidiary,  confirmed  a  statement  of  War  Assets  Administration  announcing  the 

JANUARY     •      1948  Page    115 

proposed  purchase  of  a  surplus  property  located  in  Los  Angeles,  adjoining  the 
town  of  Torrance. 

Columbia  Steel  Company  has  offered  to  buy  a  surplus  property  owned  by  the 
War  Assets  Administration  located  at  Los  Angeles.  This  property,  consisting  of 
land,  improvements  and  buildings,  originally  was  a  part  of  an  aluminum  reduction 
plant  built  during  the  war. 

The  property  acquired  will  be  utilized  to  house  the  new  cold  reduction 
sheet  mill  which  Columbia  Steel  Company  recently  announced  it  would  build  in  the 
Los  Angeles  area.  The  new  mill  will  further  process  hot  rolled  steel  coils  pro- 
duced at  other  existing  plants  into  the  sheet  steel  so  greatly  needed  in  the 
Western  states. 


The  Board  of  Directors  of  American  President  Lines  has  approved  the 
purchase  of  four  17-knot  Victory-type  cargo  ships  from  the  total  of  21  Victories 
which  the  Company  is  now  chartering  from  the  Maritime  Commission.  The  Board's 
favorable  action  to  buy  the  vessels  indicates  the  Company's  faith  in  the  growth 
of  commerce  between  the  United  States  and  countries  in  the  Far  East  where  in- 
dustrial and  economic  development  is  taking  place. 


Ships  calling  at  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  Harbor  averaged  nearly  10  a  day 
during  1947,  a  sharp  increase  over  1946,  according  to  a  survey  by  the  Marine 
Exchange  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

The  1947  total  of  3,995  vessels  using  the  metropolitan  area's  harbor 
facilities  was  a  36  per  cent  increase  over  the  2,930  recorded  during  1946.  Total 
tonnage  was  up  38  per  cent,  from  10,916,093  to  15,063,983.  Only  Russia  sent 
fewer  ships  to  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  docks  last  year  than  in  1946,  the  Marine 
Exchange  report  revealed. 


San  Francisco-Bay  Area  industrial  expansions  during  1947  continued  to 
hold  nation-wide  attention  with  new  industries  and  expansions  amounting  to  600 
projects  with  investments  of  100  million  dollars.  Nearly  2,000  industrial 
projects  have  been  announced  for  Northern  California  since  V.  J.  Day  with  total 
outlays  of  325  million  dollars. 

During  the  year  the  Ford  Motor  Company  and  the  General  Motors  Corporation 
offered  to  purchase  more  than  100  million  dollars  worth  of  car  parts  a  year  from 
California  manufacturers,  and  a  number  of  plants  in  the  Bay  Area  have  already 
signed  contracts.  Of  200  of  the  largest  industrial  projects,  46  expected  to  in- 
vest 1  million  dollars  or  more  on  their  individual  projects;  whereas  34  expected 
to  expend  between  500  thousand  and  1  million  dollars  ;  and  90  others  planned 
programs  ranging  from  100  to  500  thousand  dollars.  More  than  one-quarter  of  the 
major  projects  are  related  to  the  food  industry. 

Plant  expansions  and  equipment  costing  |70,000,000,  authorized  by  the  U. 
S.  Steel  Corporation  in  the  Western  states  since  the  end  of  the  war,  were  re- 
cently announced  to  supply  an  increased  demand  for  steel  by  the  widespread  and 
diversified  expansion  of  industries  in  the  West.  Geneva  Steel  Co.,  Utah,  has  a 
program  for  production  of  85,000  to  95,000  tons  of  steel  ingots  per  month; 
approximately  50,000  tons  of  steel  plate  are  made  from  these  ingots,  11,000 
tons  for  structural  shapes  and  6,000  tons  for  steel  billets  monthly.  There  are 
5,600  persons  employed  at  the  Geneva  Works.  Included  in  this  giant  steel  pro- 
gram is  a  new  $25,000,000  cold  roll  reduction  mill  at  Pittsburg  to  make  sheet 
steel  and  tin  plate.  About  800  men  will  be  required  to  run  the  new  mill  at 
Pittsburg  in  addition  to  the  3,000  already  employed  there  by  Columbia  Steel  Co. 

Page  116  P  A  C  I  P  I  C  MARINE  REVIEW 


S.  L.  (ROY)   KUYKENDALL.  General  Manager  and  Partner 

12th  and  Grand  Avenues 




24  Hour  Service 


OFFICE   PHONE:  Terminal  2-7567 

NIGHT  PHONES:  Terminal  2-8140 

Terminal   3-1585 



140  h.p.  at  3200  r.  p.  m.  furnished  for  direct 
drive  or  with  reduction  gears  in  following  ra- 
tios: -  2.03  to  1  -  3. 1  7  to  1  -  4.48  to  1 


ALSO   AVAILABLE  .  .  . 


Model  R-6602 

6  cylinder,  4  cycle  165  h.p.  at  2200  r.p.m.,  salt 
water   cooling,  equipped   with    reduction    gear 

•  •  •  WRITE   -  WIRE   -    PHONE    •  •  • 


ISZS       9265  E.  MARGINAL  WAY  •    LANDER    6000   •    SEATTLE    8,  WASH. 


I  948 

Page    117 


The  San  Francisco  Propeller  Club  was  given  an  earnest 
talk  on  the  operation  of  the  California  Maritime  Acad- 
emy at  its  November  meeting,  by  Commodore  Russell 
M.  Ihrig,  new  superintendent. 

Commodore  Ihrig's  shore  duties  during  his  29  years 
of  active  Naval  service  have  been  almost  entirely  along 
lines  which  gave  him  special  background  experience  for 
his  duty  as  superintendent.  Well  known  in  the  Bay 
Area,  he  was  associate  professor  of  Naval  Science  and 
Tactics  at  the  University  of  California  during  1934-36, 
and  had  charge  of  the  R.O.T.C.  unit  on  its  two  annual 
battleship  cruises  to  Hawaii. 





U.    S,     Marilimc    Commissioner    Richard     Parkhurst 

addressing     the     graduating     class     at    the     U.     S. 

Merchant    Marine    Academy.     Kings    Point.    N.    Y.. 

when    258   officers   from    forty    states    of   the    nation, 

and     Alaska.     Hawaii    and    the    Canal    Zone    were 

graduated    with    their    commissions    as    Ensigns    in 

the   Naval    Reserve   and   their   licenses   as   deck   and 

engineering  officers  of  the  Merchant  Marine.    L.  to 

r.:   Capt.    H.   A.   Andrews;   Chaplain    Harpole;   Col. 

Jerome    B.    Crowley,    Sec-Treas.    American    Bureau 

of  Shipping;  Capt.  H.  V.  Nerney,  Executive  Officer; 

Rear    Admiral    E.    H.    Smith.    USCG,    Commander, 

Third    Coast    Guard    Dist.;     Rear    Admiral    Telfair 

Knight,   Chief,   Training    Div.,    U.   S.    Maritime   Com-i 

mission;    Rear   Admiral    Richard    R.    McNuUy,    Supt.  | 

of    Academy;    Commissioner    Parkhurst;    Lt.   Comdr. 

R.    H.   O'Connell;   Capt.   Wm.    McGuire.   Officer-in- 

Charge,     Marine     Inspection.     Port    of     New    York; 

Vice  Admiral   Herbert   E.    Leary.   USN    (Ret.);   Capf. 

w    R.    Mack,    USN.    Chief    of    Staff,    Third    Naval    District; 

Baker,   Pres.,   Board  of   Underwriters  of  New  York;   Henry 

orn,     Past    Pres.,     Board    of    Underwriters    of    New    York; 

Leonard    Frisco,    USNR,    Naval    Reserve    Officer,    Third 

District;    and    Oliver    D.    Colvin,    Pres..    Cargocaire    En- 

ering  Co. 

Left    to    right:     George    Swett.    W.    C.    (Bill)    Markey,    and    Henry 
Wickert.  at  the  November  Propeller  Club   Meeting. 

Captain  R.  C.   Owye 
Lloyd    Fleming,   Ci 

,  Hugh  Gallaghe 
rl  MacDowell.    C 

Ihrig,  Lewis  Lapham,  Capta 
Ig  was  speaker  of  the  day. 

Page    118 


Ray  Sanders 
ilppointed  General 
Manager  of  Pacific 
Chemical  Company 

Ray  Sanders,  closely  identified 
with  the  industrial  chemical  field  for 
the  past  twenty-five  years,  has  been 
appointed  general  manager  of  the 
Pacific  Chemical  Company,  Los  An- 
geles, a  division  of  the  American- 
Marietta  Company,  according  to  a 
recent  announcement. 

The  appointment  of  Mr.  Sanders 
coincides  with  the  company's  an- 
nounced plans  to  expand  its  activi- 
ties. A  pioneer  in  the  field  on  the 
!  Pacific  Coast,  Pacific  Chemical  not 
only  produces  a  large  line  of  indus- 
trial chemical  compounds  and  proc- 
esses but  such  popular  consumer 
brands  as  Hypro  Bleach  and  Pronto 
Bowl  and  Drain  Cleaner. 

In  addition  to  its  main  offices  and 
two  plants  in  Los  Angeles,  the  Pa- 
cific Chemical  Company  has  offices 
in  principal  West  Coast  cities  and 
a  third  plant  in  Waco,  Texas. 

Atlas  Paint 
Widens  Distribution 

Upon  completing  an  extensive 
tour  of  the  East,  E.  W.  Whittemore, 
Sales  Manager  and  General  Partner 
of  the  Atlas  Paint  and  Varnish  Com- 
pany of  Los  Angeles,  announced  the 
establishment  of  five  new  distribu- 
te irs  for  Atlas  Marine  Paints.  North- 
ern distribution  will  be  handled  by 
the  Maxwelton  Company  of  Mystic, 
Connecticut.  Powers  Outboard  Mo- 

Alfred  P.  Wheeler  Elected 
President  of  Northern 
California  Industrial 
Editors  Association 

Alfred  P.  Wheeler,  Editor,  "Mat- 
sonewo."  Matson  Navigation  Com- 
pany, has  been  elected  president  of 
the  Northern  California  Industrial 
Editors  Association.  Wheeler  suc- 
ceeds Norman  S.  Jones  of  the  Friden 
Calculating  Machine  Company  who 
served  as  president  during  1947. 

Others  elected  included  Lloyd 
Harris  Paraftine  Companies,  vice 
president;  Jean  Wagner,  Cutter 
Laboratories,  secretary.  Martin  Dep- 
per.  Federal  Reserve  Bank  and  Em- 
mett  Fitzpatrick,  Southern  Pacific 
Company,  were  elected  to  the  execu- 
tive committee. 

The  organization  is  composed  of 
editors  of  house  publications  of  the 
leading  industries  of  Northern  Cali- 

E.  W.  Whittemore 

tor  Sales  of  Richmond,  Virginia, 
will  cover  the  Virginia  and  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  territory.  Mount 
Pleasant  Boat  Building  Company, 
Mount  Pleasant,  S.  C,  has  been  as- 
signed to  South  Carolina.  Bruns- 
wick Marine  Construction  Company 
of  Brunswick,  Ga.,  will  represent 
Atlas  in  Georgia  and  North  Florida, 
and  the  Phillips  Hardware  Com- 
pany of  Miami,  Florida,  will  han- 
dle the  line  in  southern  Florida. 

The  success  of  Atlas  Marine 
Paints  on  the  Pacific  Coast  leads 
Atlas  to  believe  that  their  introduc- 
tion to  the  Eastern  Seaboard  may  be 
likewise  successful.  One  of  the  lead- 
ers in  the  Atlas  Marine  Line  is  their 
Gold  Label  Copper  Compound  for 
wooden  boat  bottoms. 





TELEPHONE      SUTTER      1-2131 


Helicoid  Gage  Division  of  Ameri- 
can Chain  &  Cable  Co.,  Inc. 

Helicoid  Pressure  and  Vacuum 

Trimount  Instrument  Company 

Manometers.  Flow  Meters.  Draft 
Gages.  Electronic  Level  Controls. 
Tank  Level  Gages. 

Paxton  Mitchell  Company 

Metallic  Packing.  Pump  and  Cyl- 
inder Liners. 

Paxton  Diesel  Engineering 

Bearing  Watchdogs.  Valve  Spring 
Depressors,  other  Diesel  Spe- 

W.  C.  Dillon  &  Co.,  Inc. 

Strain  Gages  and  Dial  Thermom- 


A  complete  stock  of  Marine,  In- 
dustrial and  Dial  types. 

Instrument  Repairing 

All  types  of  instruments  repaired, 
calibrated,  rebuilt  and  serviced. 
All  work  guaranteed. 


I  948 

Page    119 




H  E  ATE  D^^^l 
TO    2250°   ^^^1 

Brlckseal  provides  a  crackproof, 
vitrified   armor   /or   furnace  lin- 
ings. The  small  firebricks  shown 
in  the  furnace  were  bonded  and 
painted  with  Brickseal  and  heated 
to  2250°.  Directly  from  the  fur- 
nace they  were  plunged  into  cold 
water  as  shown  below — a  test  for 
any  material  subject  to  expansion 
and  contraction. 

Brickseal  is  semi-plaslic  when 
hot,   yet   hard  and  tough   when 
cold.  Brickseal  is  made  in  grades 
suitable   to   heats   ranging   from 
1400°  to  more  than  3000°.  It  will 
make  any  furnace  last  longer  by 
giving  new  life  to  your  refrac- 
tories. Write  or  call  local  dealer 
for  a  demonstration. 




PUnts  at 

5800  S.  Hoover  Street 

Los  Angeles  44,  Calif. 

158  -  14th  St..  Hoboken.  N.  J. 


New  Equipment  and 
Literature  for  Yard, 
Ship  and  Dock 

Drum  and  Barrel  Tilt 

PANY, 16031  Fullerton  Avenue, 
Detroit  27,  Michigan,  has  just  an- 
nounced a  new  drum  and  barrel  tilt. 
Designed  to  simplify  materials  han- 
dling and  eliminate  hand  dumping, 
this  new  drum  and  barrel  tilt  is  a 
proven  timesaver  for  any  modern 
industrial  plant.  Excellent  for  con- 
trolled dumping  of  chemicals,  liq- 
uids,  plastics,    molding    powder, 

scrap,  glass,  etc.  Unit  illustrated  is 
1000-lb.  capacity  for  standard  55 
gallon  drum  or  barrel.  Special  sizes 
or  capacities  can  be  built  to  suit 
individual  requirements.  Equipped 
with  two  safety  style  locking  devices 
that  hold  barrel  securely  without 
slippage.  Barrel  can  be  turned  360 
degrees.  Turning  mechanism  incor- 
porates the  worm  drive  principle 
and  is  available  in  hand  chain  mod- 
els. Entire  assembly  is  constructed 
of  heavy  structural  steel,  completely 
welded  throughout.  Weight  is  ap- 
proximately 125  lbs. 

Kew  Clamp  Provides  Safe 
Easy  Way  to  Handle 
Awbard-Shaped  Article 

peth,  N.  Y.,  are  the  manufacture 
of  a  new  clamp,  known  as  the  Me 
rill-Volz  Positive  Grip  Clam 
which  provides  a  simple,  rapid  ar 
safe  method  of  raising  or  lifting  im 
place  such  items  as  large  tank 
flanged  heads,  and  similar  articL 
which  are  usually  difficult  to  g 
securely  attached.  The  clamp  wi 
lift  anything  that  has  sufficient  fl 
surface  for  its  jaws  to  grip,  and 
is  said  that  once  the  grip  is  estal 
lished,  no  amount  of  pulling  ( 
weight,  even  if  the  surface  is  oil( 
or  greased,  will  cause  the  jaws  : 
lose  their  grip.  The  clamp  is  mac 
in  y2-ton,  1-ton,  3-ton  and  6-tc 

\m  Slide-Rule  Selecto 
Provides  Fingertip 
Information  on  Inco  ^ 
Kickel  Alloys 

No  more  wading  through  a  who 
library  of  metal  information  evei 
time  you  need  a  fact  or  two  aboi 
a  particular  alloy.  The  new  "Im 
Nickel  Alloys  Selector"  kit  can  pn 
vide  all  the  important  facts  abcx 
any  metal  you  are  likely  to  be  usin 
in  a  matter  of  seconds.  The  bookli 
in  the  kit,  "Properties  of  Son 
Metals  and  Alloys,"  tabulates  repor 
from  twenty-two  metal  producers  c 


The  details  of  new  equipment  or  the  new  literature  announced   in  this  department  will 
be  furnished  without  obligation  on  your  part.    For  quick  service,  please  use  this  coupon. 


500  Sansome  Street 
Send  me  descriptive  data   of  the  followi 

San  Francisco 
ew  equipment  or  literature  as  reviewed 

(Identify   by   name  of  manufacturer  and   catalog) 


Page    120 


the  composition,  mechanical  prop- 
erties and  pliysical  constants  of  1 04 
of  their  alloys. 

With  this  Selector,  you  simply 
push  the  slide  and  turn  the  dial.  Any 
fact  needed  on  this  important  fami- 
lly  of  "white"  metals  can  instantly 
'be  read  at  a  glance.  The  Selector 
■also  includes  a  listing  of  available 
'forms  and  an  index  to  ASTM,  Fed- 
leral  and  Navy  specifications  for  each 

The  Selector  and  booklet  come  in 
;a  handy  filing  case  that  will  fit  any 
desk  file.  You  can  obtain  these  by 
dropping  a  note  to  your  nearest 
branch  of  the  International  Nickel 

Steam  Jet  Ejectors 

i TURING  COMPANY  has  just  is- 
isued  a  new  catalog,  No.  1462,  en- 
titled "Steam  Jet  Ejectors."  It  con- 
jtains  36  pages  and  includes  30  sec- 
tional drawings — also  flow  dia- 
, grams,  engineering  data,  installa- 
tion guide,  formulae,  curves  and 
tables.  It  covers  the  theory  and 
operating  characteristics  of  steam  jet 
ejectors  for  all  classes  of  vacuum 
service,  including  single,  two,  three, 
four  and  five  stage  types.  Non-con- 
densing and  condensing  types,  with 
barometric  inter-  and  after-con- 
densers for  vacuum  requirements  in 
chemical  plants,  food  plants,  sugar 
refineries,  oil  refineries,  power 
plants,  etc.,  are  fully  covered.  The 
;  catalog  also  contains  information  re- 
garding steam  jet  vacuum  refriger- 
ation for  water  cooling  requirements 
of  air  conditioning  and  process  ap- 

Radiomarine  Introduces 
New  30-watt 
Radiotelephone  at 
Motor  Boat  Show 

A  new  cuiiipact  30 -watt  radio- 
telephone, known  as  the  ET-8037 
and  engineered  specifically  for  re- 
quirements of  pleasure  craft  and 
work  boat  owners,  was  viewed  for 
the  first  time  at  the  National  Motor 
Boat  Show  in  New  York.  It  com- 
bines a  4-tube  30-watt  transmitter, 
an  8-iube  receiver  plus  a  rectifier 
tube,  a  built-in  loudspeaker,  a  push- 
to-talk  modern  handset  and  a  com- 
pact power  unit,  in  a  cabinet  13"^ 

JANUARY     •      I  948 

wide,  20"  high  and  XAYz"  deep.  It 
operates  from  a  boat's  power  supply 
of  either  12,  32,  115  volts  D.C.  or 
1  1  5  volts  A.C.  and  has  six  crystal 
controlled  channels. 

The  manufacturer  claims  small 
power  consumption,  adequate  off- 
shore range,  quick-heating  mini- 
ature tubes,  smaller  crystals,  im- 
proved noise  limiter,  filtered  power 
supply,  permanently  pretuned  cir- 
cuits, antenna  trimming  control  and 
integral  power  unit. 

The  ET-8037  is  easy  to  install, 
operate  and  service.  Maintenance 
and  service  are  simplified  by  the  de- 
sign of  the  cabinet. 

Radiomarine  also  displayed  Mod- 
el ET-8028-A,  a  10-watt,  4-channel 
2-way  radiotelephone  with  small  re- 
mote control  unit,  standard  tele- 
phone handset  and  built-in  loud- 
speaker; Model  ET-8012D,  75-watt, 
lO-channel,  for  offshore  duty  aboard 
craft  equipped  with  either  32  or 
1 10  vclt  electrical  systems. 

The  LOng  RAnge  Navigation  in- 
strument —  Loran  receiver,  model 
LR-8801 — was  also  exhibited.  It  is 
being  used  successfully  on  larger 
ocean-going  pleasure  craft,  fishing 
vessels  and  merchant  ships. 

Raytheon  Radar  Popular 

Since  the  end  of  the  war,  Ray- 
theon, through  its  marine  affiliate, 
Submarine  Signal  Co.,  has  sold  over 
300  Mariners  Pathfinder  radar 
equipments.  The  volume  amounts 
to  more  than  2%  million  doUars. 
Installations  have  been  made  on 
ocean  passenger  and  cargo  ships, 
oil  tankers,  colliers,  ferries,  whalers, 
tuna  clippers,  pleasure  craft,  ships 
in  the  Great  Lakes  and  Inland  Wa- 
terways, and  vessels  in  such  special 
services  as  geophysical  survey,  har- 
bor patrol,  cable  laying,  as  well  as 
foreign  navies  and  maritime  agen- 
cies of  the  world. 

Swett  Company  will 
Manufacture  Heater 

The  uidustrial  dcpartnicnr  of 
George  E.  Swett  Company,  San 
Francisco,  has  entered  into  a  million- 
dollar  contract  with  Production  En- 
gineering Company  of  Berkeley  for 
the  manufacture  of  the  Watrola 
Heat  Generator.  Grinnell  Company 
will  be  the  distributor. 

This  device  was  developed  under 
the  supervision  of  Jim  Swett  and  has 
aroused  much  favorable  commcni 
from  those  who  have  seen  it. 




JANUARY  15-30 

Please  send  your  gift 
to  the  Chairman  of 

your  local 





There    is    but    one    genuine 

Self-Lubricating  Rope  made  and 
placed  on  the  market  by  FITLER, 
patented  by  FITLER  and  easily 
identified  as  a  FITLER  product 
by  the  Self  -  Lubricating 
"Green  Yarn  Center^^ 

Insist  on  ■■LUBRICORE"— Be- 
ware of  imitations — Don't 
accept  substitutes.  Ask  for 
'■LUBRICORE^^.  the  Self-Lubri- 
cating Green  Yarn  Center  Pure 
Manila  Rope  made  by  FITLER. 

The  [dwin  H.  Fitter  Co. 


ROPE  SINCE  1804 

Albert   R.    McMullen 

John  T.  Greany 

John  T.  Greany,  59,  Manager  of 
Marine  Sales  at  Bethlehem  Steel 
Company,  Shipbuilding  Division, 
San  Francisco  Yard,  passed  away 
December  11,  following  a  short  ill- 
ness. Mr.  Greany  had  been  with  the 
company  for  more  than  40  years, 
and  was  a  well-known  figure  in  Bay 
Area  marine  affairs.  Before  coming 
to  Bethlehem  Steel,  he  was  associ- 
.ited  with  the  original  Cramp  Ship- 
yard :n  Philadelphia,  of  which  city 
he  was  a  native.  He  was  a  resident 
of  Ross,  Marin  County. 

Mr.  Greany  is  survived  by  his 
widow,  Mrs.  Marie  Greany;  a  son, 
John  T.  Greany,  Jr.;  a  daughter, 
Mrs.    Elliott    Bordfeld;    a    brother, 

i\lbert  R.  McMullen 

Albert  R.  McMullen,  retired  ofii- 
cial  of  the  Federal  Shipbuilding  and 
Dry  Dock  Company,  died  suddenly 
at  his  home  in  Maplewood,  New 
Jersey,  on  November  24. 

Mr.  McMullen  was  born  in  Can- 
ada, and  began  his  career  as  an  ap- 
prentice in  a  small  machine  shop  in 
Nova  Scotia.  When  he  came  to  this 
country,  he  was  employed  by  the 
Worthington  Pump  &  Machinery 
Corp.  and  the  Terry  Steam  Turbine 
Co.  for  short  periods  and  came  to 
Federal  Shipbuilding  at  Kearny, 
New  Jersey,  in  1919. 

At  Kearny,  Mr.  McMullen  had 
charge  of  construction  and  installa- 
tion of  many  new  types  of  marine 
propulsion.  Under  his  direction 
hundreds  of  exacting  tests  were 
made  on  a  great  variety  of  propel- 
ling plants  and  associated  ship  ma- 
chinery. He  gained  recognition  from 
outstanding  ship  designers  for  his 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Society 
of  Naval  Architects  and  Marine  En- 
gineers, and  the  Marine  Square  Club 
of  New  York  City. 

William  Greany  of  Detroit;  and 
two  sisters,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Larkin 
and  Mrs.  Nellie  Roney,  both  of 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  he  was 
a  member  of  the  following  clubs: 
The  Olympic  Club,  Propeller  Club, 
Commercial  Club,  Mariners  Club, 
and  the  Meadow  Club  in  Marin 
County.  He  was  also  Treasurer  of 
the  San  Francisco  Marine  Exchange. 

Page    122 


l!obert  G.  l\llen 
\nnounces  [\pansion 
to  the  West  Coast 

;  Announcement  has  jusr  been 
nade  by  Robert  G.  Allen,  President 
jf  the  Robert  G.  Allen  Co.,  502 
Third  Avenue,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y., 
marine  and  industrial  chemical 
manufacturer,  of  the  expansion  of 
[lis  company  and  production  of  his 
products  on  the  West  Coast  under 
the  name  of  the  Robert  G.  Allen 
Pacific  Co.,  Inc.,  located  at  8460  So. 
San  Pedro  Ave.,  Los  Angeles. 

The  officers  of  the  newly-formed 
company  include  men  who  are  well- 
known  to  the  industry  as  chemical 
consultants  with  engineering  back- 

I  Ralph  V.  Scott  is  president;  Wil- 
liam Rudy,  1st  vice  president;  John 
Cordes,  2nd  vice  president;  Joe  Cos- 
tello,  director  and  Joe  Bachand,  sec- 
retary and  treasurer. 

Scott  will  be  in  charge  of  sales 
and  advertising,  and  will  assist  his 
distributors  in  each  port  on  the 
Pacific  Coast.  The  J.  M.  Costello 
Supply  Company,  Wilmington,  Cal- 
ifornia; Cordes  Bros.,  San  Francisco; 
and  the  John  H.  Marvin  Company 
in  Portland  and  Seattle  will  augment 
their  sales  and  service  facilities. 
William  Rudy  is  in  charge  of  the 
industrial  chemical  department,  and 
Joe  Biichand  is  the  head  chemist. 

While  Allenite  and  Allencote 
continue  to  be  shipped  from  the 
Robert  G.  Allen  plant  in  Brooklyn, 
all  other  products  of  the  firm,  in- 
cluding Scaletex,  Mulsivex,  Dualene, 
and  Vaptex  are  being  produced  at 
the  newly -constructed  plant  in 
southet-n  California.  This  firm  holds 
the  exclusive  sales  and  export  rights 
for  the  eleven  Western  States,  west- 
ern Canada,  Alaska,  the  Far  East  and 

„n..K  j^e^^  Quick  Aip 

emblem  of  protection 

Whatever  your  fire  hazard,  QUICK-AID  FIRE  GUARDS  con- 
veniently placed  throughout  your  ships  are  your  assurance 
of  safety  from  the  menace  of  fire. 

There  are  two  types  of  QUICK-AID  FIRE  GUARDS 
particularly  recommended  for  marine  installations: 
carbon  dioxide  and  foam.  Each  is  engineered  to  do 
the  job  of  fighting  fire  quickly,  safely,  and  eco- 
nomically. Foam  type  snuffs  out  fire  with  22 
gallons  of  tough  foam.  Carbon  dioxide  quickly 
extinguishes  electrical,  chemical,  oil,  gasoline, 
flammable  liquid  and  paint  fires;  equally  effective 
in  all  temperatures. 

Your  nearby  GENERAL  dealer  can  help  you  select  the 
right  QUICK-AID  FIRE  GUARDS  for  your  needs.  Write 
today  for  his  name  and  your  FREE  copy  of  our  new 
file  folder. 

FREE  This  handy  file  refer- 
ence folder  tells  all  you  need 
to  know  about  fire  extinguishers. 
Write  now  for  your  copy.   ^ 


General  Offices  and  Factory 

The  Ce'iera(  Oelr. 

1501    E.  Washmqto 

Ivd,,  Los  Angele 


JANUARY     •      1948 

Page    123 

^ywecLcLauafterd    at    the    ^Jwarbor  I 



"On  Deck  and  Below" 

I  cci  ic  t^nt       i  Pr«l»ure  Ragulatinq  Valves 
LtiLIt  OU.      j  "Tyfon"  Whistles 


CO.— Air,  Fire.  Water  and  Steam 



J  &  L  STEEL  CORPORATION,  Wire  Rope 



KOMUL   Anti-Corrosive   Coating 

PAXTON   MITCHELL  Metallic  Packing 
ENSIGN    Products 

J.  M.  CosTELLO  Supply  Co. 


221  No.  Avalon  Blvd.,  Wilmington.  Calif.         Phone  Terminal  47291 


steamer  Service  to  Cafalina 


TUGBOAT  OFFICE:  Berth  82,  San  Pedro,  California 
TELEPHONE  NUMBERS:  Terminal  2-4292;  Terminal  2-4293;  Long  Beach  636-563 

WHISTLE  CALL  FOR  TUGS:  1  long  —  3  short 

GENEIIAL  OFFICE:  Catalina  Terminal,  P.  O.  Box  847,  Wilmington,  Calif. 

Phones:  Terminal  4-5241;  Nevada  615-45;  Long  Beach  7-3802 

Member  —  >1nierican  Waterways  Operators 

Shipyard  Bought  by  Lung  Beach 
Marine  Bepair  Company 

A  new  name  has  come  into  being 
in  Long  Beach  with  the  purchase  of 
the  former  Hodgson-Greene-Halde- 
man Shipyard  by  three  partners. 
The  name  is  LONG  BEACH  MA- 
is  a  California  corporation;  the  three 
partners  are  David  F.  Maxwell,  who 
is  president;  George  A.  Robinson, 
vice  president;  and  Frank  L.  Mansuy, 

H-G-H  built  ten  tuna  clippers,  and 
Long  Beach  Marine  will  carry  on  the 
same  work,  plus  any  small  craft  up 
to  150  feet.  The  new  yard  plans 
also  to  do  dockside  repair  and  voy- 
age repair.  Long  Beach  Marine  Re- 
pair Company  has  purchased  all  re- 
maining buildings,  including  ware- 
houses and  marine  railways,  and  will 
be  able  to  handle  drydock  work  up 
to  capacity  of  160  feet,  or  up  to 
1,000  tons  weight.  Since  Long  Beach 
Marine  has  taken  over,  they  have 
completed  repairs  on  8  ships,  as  well 
as  62  other  marine  jobs. 

Maxwell  hails  from  Washington 
where  he  gained  his  vast  experience 
in  welding  and  welding  equipment. 
His  early  career  was  spent  learning 
construction  joiner  work  and  wood- 
working. He  was  for  three  years  a 
letterman  at  Loyola  College  in  foot- 
ball. He  first  worked  for  the  Lake 


Left  to  right:  FranK 
L,  Mansuy.  secre- 
tary-treasurer; Da- 
vid F.  Maxwell, 
president;  George 
A.  Robinson,  vice 

Seen  in  the  back- 
ground  is  the  Flying 
Kate,  which  has  just 
recently  completed 
12,000  miles  in  the 
Arctic,  and  which 
was  used  for  loca- 
tion as  the  killer 
boat  in  the  new  pic- 



Page    124 


In  1948 

The  Port  of  Long  Beach  will  present  for 
your  information,  the  continuing  progress 
in  the  construction  of  port  facilities  that 
go  to  keep  this  — 

Americans   Most   Modern   Port 

Union  Drydock  Company  in  Seattle, 
then  went  into  business  in  Long 
Beach,  in  a  machine  shop  with  his 
father.  He  worked  there  for  five 
years  before  going  with  Hodgson- 
Greene-Haldeman  in  1942  as  shop 
foreman.  His  next  job  with  H-G-H 
was  mechanical  superintendent,  af- 
ter which  he  went  from  superin- 
tendent of  repairs  to  general  super- 
intendent of  all  new  construction 
and  repairs.  During  the  entire  war. 
he  worked  on  Army,  Navy  and  W. 
S.  A.  vessels. 

The  vice  president  of  the  new 
firm,  George  A.  Robinson,  comes 
from  an  old  shipping  family.  His 
father  is  now  an  official  of  the  Cali- 
fornia Ship  Service  Company.  Rob- 
inson is  a  mighty  well-known  figure 
about  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  Har- 
bor, and  was  September  Port  Engi- 
neer of  the  Month  in  Pacific  Marine 

Frank  L.  Mansuy,  as  secretary- 
treasurer,  will  handle  the  office  detail 
as  he  has  a  background  of  experi- 
ence as  general  manager  under  H- 
G-H,  and  was  for  three  years  comp- 
troller for  Calship.  Before  joining 
Calship,  he  spent  ten  years  in  public 
practice  in  Washington,  D.  C,  as  a 

The  Long  Beach  Marine  Repair 
Company  should  have  some  mighty 
successful  years  ahead,  since  not  only 
is  the  yard  located  for  easy  accessi- 
bility to  Long  Beach  Harbor,  but  it 
has  behind  it  the  excellent  back- 
ground and  experience  of  its  three 
young  and  energetic  new  owners. 

Donald   V.    Briqqs 
right;   William    P. 

y.  2i.  Lines 
Announces  Changes 

Donald  V.  Briggs,  formerly  dis- 
trict passenger  manager  at  San 
Francisco,  has  been  appointed  Pa- 
cific Coast  passenger  manager  at 
San  Francisco. 

William  P.  Burns,  who  had  been 
assigned  to  the  Washington  office, 
has    been    appointed    assistant    to 

JANUARY     •      1948 

Page    125 


Ship  Chandlery 


Prompt  Service  —  Experienced  person- 
nel, offers  choice  of  right  equipment 
for  every  need  on  all  Deck,  Engine  i 
Steward  Supplies. 

Distributors  for 
Pabco   Marine    Paint 


Complete  Ship  Chandlery  Service 
1705  N.W.  14th,  PORTLAND  9.  ORE. 

Company  (California) 


George  A.  Horton  Jr. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Board  of 
Directors  following  the  annual  meet- 
ing of  the  stockholders  of  Interna- 
tional Paint  Company  (California) 
Inc.,  George  A.  Horton,  Jr.,  was 
elected  vice  president. 

Horton  joined  the  company  in 
New  York  in  October,  1945,  upon 
completion  of  four  years  of  Navy 
duty  and  spent  some  time  studying 
in  the  laboratory  at  the  New  Jersey 
plant,  learning  the  know-how  of 
paint  manufacturing  before  coming 
to  the  San  Francisco  factory  in 
March,  1946.  Here  again  he  spent 
some  time  in  the  factory,  working 
with  the  chemists.  A  little  over  a 
year  ago  he  joined  forces  with  the 
late  Fred  Shingle,  as  his  assistant,  in 
drydock  work  and  the  soliciting  of 
marine  business.  He  has  been  a 
director  and  general  sales  manager 
for  some  time,  and  retains  these 
duties  in  his  new  position. 

Wm.  F.  Horn  is  Sperry 
Western  Manager 

William  F.  Horn  has  been  ap- 
pointed manager  of  the  Pacific  Cen- 
tral District  of  the  Sperry  Gyroscope 
Company,  announces  George  S. 
Starke,  vice  president  and  general 
sales  manager.  He  succeeds  J.  F.  Mc- 
Conkey  who  has  left  the  company. 

Horn  is  a  native  of  Islip,  Long 
Island,  New  York.  In  19.iO  he  joined 
Sperry  as  a  service  engineer.  He 
became  a  marine  sales  engineer  in 
1938,  and  in  1941  moved  to  San 
Francisco  where  he  advanced  to  as- 
sistant district  manager  in  1944. 
Before  joining  Sperry,  Horn  attend- 
ed Pratt  Institute  in  Brooklyn  and 
served  four  years  in  the  Navy. 

The  district  ofifice  is  located  at  525 
8th  Street,  San  Francisco.  From  this 
point  Sperry  serves  northern  Cali- 
fornia, northern  Nevada,  Utah, 
Wyoming,  Colorado  and  Hawaii. 
Horn's  residence  is  at  1559  43rd 
Avenue,  San  Francisco. 

George  A.  Horton,  Jr 

John  MacKichol 
pointed  by  Pacific- 
Marine  Supply  Company 

The  Pacific  Marine  Supply  Co., 
Seattle,  pioneer  west  coast  and 
Alaska  marine  supply  firm,  an- 
nounces that  John  I.  MacNichol  has 
rejoined  the  company  as  manager  of 
their  engine  department. 

Prior  to  his  naval  service  during 
the  war,  MacNichol  had  been  with 
the  Pacific  Marine  Supply  Co.  in  the 
engine  department  and  the  fire- 
fighting  division.  His  past  two  years 
as  marine  engine  salesman  (diesel 
and  gas),  covering  the  coast  and 
Puget  Sound  area  from  Blaine  to 
Grays  Harbor,  have  given  him  a 
wide  acquaintance  among  boatbuild- 
ers,  fishermen,  canners  and  others 
connected  with  the  marine  trade  in 
this  area. 

In  addition  to  Universal  100*^; 
Marine  Motors,  which  Pacific  Ma- 
rine Supply  has  handled  in  the 
Northwest  and  Alaska  for  over  25 
years,  the  engine  department  dis- 
tributes such  well-known  marine 
lines  as  Bendix  Marine  Depth 
Sounders,  Goodrich  Cutless  Rubber 
Bearings,  Champion  Spark  Plugs 
and  a  representative  line  of  equally 
familiar  marine  accessories  required 
by  both  commercial  and  pleasure 
boat  owners  and  operators. 

Moran  Joins  Interocean 

A.  A.  (Andy)  Moran,  who  has 
been  prominent  in  Pacific  Coast 
Shipping  for  many  years,  has  been 
appointed  Vice  President  of  Inter- 
ocean Steamship  Corporation  as  of 
January  1,  1948.  His  headquarters 
will  be  at  San  Francisco. 

Moran  has  had  a  colorful  and  ac- 
tive career,  his  most  extensive  experi- 
ence being  in  the  Oriental  and  other 
offshore  trades,  where  between  1918 
and  1927  he  was  Freight  Traffic 
Manager  for  the  Dollar  Lines.  As 
such  he  was  instrumental  in  promot- 
ing a  round-the-world  service  based 
on  fixed  sailing  dates  from  each  port 
of  call  which  at  that  time  was  a 
unique  feature  and  contributed 
much  to  the  success  of  that  pioneer 
venture  which  later  developed  into 
what  is  now  the  American  President 

From  1942,  all  through  the  war, 
Moran  was  Manager  of  the  Port  of 
Redwood  City,  located  at  the  most 
southerly  part  of  San  Francisco  Bay 
where  he  developed  a  modern  ma- 
rine terminal  which  was  selected  by 
the  Navy  as  a  center  for  shipment 
of  vast  quantities  of  packaged  petro- 
leum products  required  in  the  Pa- 
cific Island  operations.  His  love  for 
actual  steamship  operations  has  lur- 
ed him  back  to  California  Street, 
the  hub  of  Pacific  Coast  shipping, 
and  by  coincidence  he  will  be  lo- 
cated in  the  same  building  where 
he  previously  spent  so  many  years. 

Moran  will  participate  in  the  In- 
terocean management  and  activities 
for  the  liner  services  represented  by 
this  Corporation,  including  coor- 
dination of  the  newdy  announced  ex- 
tension of  the  Salen-Skaugen  Line  to 
operate  betweec  the  Atlantic  Coast 
and  the  Orient  via  the  Panama  Can- 
al in  addition  to  their  present  Pa- 

cific  Coast-Orient  Line  now  main- 
tained with  five  new,  modern  motor- 
ships.  Other  services  agented  by  In- 
terocean  are  the  Interocean  Line,  in- 
augurated in  1930  to  France,  Bel- 
gium and  Holland;  the  Knutsen  Line 
to  United  Kingdom  and  to  West 
Coast  of  South  America;  and  the 
Intercoastal  Services  of  Weyerhaeu- 
ser Steamship  Co. — Pacific  Coast  Di- 
rect Line,  Inc.  Andy's  many  friends 
will  welcome  his  return  to  a  terri- 
tory where  he  is  so  much  at  home. 

Marine  Exchange  Elects 
Officers  for  1948 

In  the  recent  election  of  members 
to  serve  for  a  two-year  term  on  the 
executive  committee  of  the  San 
Francisco  Marine  Exchange  begin- 
ning January  1,  1948,  the  following 
were  chosen: 

William  E.  Cathcart,  Vice  Presi- 
dent-General Mgr.,  Marine  Electric 

Thomas  J.  Cokeley,  Vice  Presi- 
dent-Operations, American  Presi- 
dent Lines. 

J.  Harding  Jensen,  General 
Terminals  Manager,  Matson  Navi- 
gation Company. 

A.  E.  Kihn,  Assistant  Manager, 
Marine  Dept.,  Standard  Oil  Com- 
pany of  California. 

Joseph  A.  Moore,  Jr.,  President, 
Moore  Dry  Dock  Company. 

Roy  C.  Ward,  Vice  President, 
Cosgrove  &  Company. 

Holdover  members  of  the  execu- 
tive committee  who  will  continue 
to  serve  throughout  1948  are: 

John  E.  Gushing,  President,  Mat- 
son  Navigation  Company. 

John  Parker,  President  and  Man- 
ager, American  Marine  Paint  Com- 

H.  H.  Pierson,  Traffic  Manager, 
States  S.  S.  Company. 

K.  C.  Tripp,  Pacific  Coast  Man- 
ager, Moore-McCormack  Lines,  Inc. 

R.  V.  Winquist,  Vice  President  in 
charge  TraiSc,  General  S.  S.  Corp., 

The  members  of  the  executive 
committee  have  selected  the  follow- 
ing ofScers: 

President,  A.  E.  Kihn;  1st  Vice 
President,  J.  A.  Moore,  Jr.;  2nd 
Vice  President,  K.  C.  Tripp;  3rd 
Vice  President,  R.  V.  Winquist; 
Treasurer,  J.  Harding  Jensen. 


70  Jobs  In 




for  the 



Half  a 




•      • 




Every  Type  of 




Lnnq  Beach  Marine 

Repair    Cumpany 

1409  W.  Seventh  St.    •  Long  Beach  13,  California               | 

felephone:    Long  Beach  6-6433 

Bahcock  &  Wilcox  to  WeReallyHaven'tRoomforThese 

Build  High  Pressure  Test 

Vessel  for  Navy 

A  high  pressure  test  vessel  wiU  be 
built  by  The  Babcock  &  Wilcox 
Company  for  the  Navy's  Underwater 
Sound  Reference  Laboratory,  Or- 
lando, Florida.  The  unit  is  similar 
to  the  one  now  being  completed  by 
the  company  for  the  Naval  Ord- 
nance Laboratory  at  White  Oak, 
Maryland,  but  is  designed  specifical- 
ly for  Sonar  measurements. 

The  vessel,  which  has  an  inside 
diameter  of  100  inches  and  an  over- 
all straight  length  of  25  feet,  8 
inches,  will  have  a  1,000-pound 
working  pressure.  It  will  be  fabri- 
cated of  4-inch  steel  having  an  ulti- 
mate tensile  strength  of  70,000 
pounds  per  square  inch.  The  vessel 
will  weigh  approximately  77  tons. 

Designed  with  two  quick-opening 
nozzles  for  the  introduction  of  test 
equipment,  the  unit  will  be  used  to 
test  operation  of  instruments  and 
fittings  under  actual  conditions  of 
pressure  and  temperature. 

An  Optimist  on  Pessimists 

If  it  wasn't  for  the  optimist  the 

pessimist   would   never   know   how 

happy  he  isn't. 

Taxi  Driver  (to  wealthy  fare): 
"Your  son  tips  me  more  generously 
than  you  do,  sir." 

Fare:  "That's  quite  possible.  He 
has  a  wealthy  father — I  haven't." 

Some  of  us  could  well  take  a  tip 
from  an  acrobat.  He  turns  a  flop 
into  a  success. 

Sometimes  there  are  several  ways 
to  do  a  specific  job — and  yours  is 
only  one  of  them. 



Sharp  received  from  his  friend 
MacGreen  a  letter  which  bore  no 
stamp,  and  he  had  to  pay  postage 
due.  The  letter  concluded:  "You  will 
be  delighted  to  hear  that  I  am  enjoy- 
ing the  best  of  health,  old  chap. 
Yours,  MacGreen. " 

Sharp  wrapped  a  large  stone  and 
without  paying  postage,  sent  it  to 
MacGreen  with  the  following  reply: 
"This  great  weight  rolled  off  my 
mind  when  I  heard  the  good  news." 

Page    127 

Admiralty  Decisions 

[Continued  from  page  1(11 ) 
fense  either  tlie  negligence  of  a  fellow  servant,  the  as- 
sumption of  risk,  or  contributory  negligence.  The  court 
correctly  concluded  that  the  employer's  failure  to  secure 
payment  of  compensation  gives  the  employee  an  elec- 
tion to  pursue  any  rights  that  he  deems  proper,  including 
the  right  to  bring  under  the  Jones  Act  an  action  which 
by  the  very  words  of  that  act  is  described  as  "an  action 
for  damages  at  law."  Recent  decisions  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  the  United  States  indicate  that  the  exclusive 
character  of  the  remedies  under  the  Compensation  Act 
could  not  have  been  intended  to  weaken  the  clause  sav- 
ing the  former  rights  of  the  employees  in  instances  in 
which  the  employer  has  failed  to  secure  payment  of  com- 
pensation as  required  by  the  act. 

It  might  be  interesting  to  know  that  defendant's  mo- 
tions for  directed  verdicts  under  count  No.  3  for  main- 
tenance, care  and  cure  were  granted  upon  the  ground 
that  plaintiff  was  not  entitled  to  the  same  benefits  that 
a  seaman  might  enjoy  who  requires  maintenance,  care 
and  cure  in  foreign  ports  and  cities  other  than  his  own 
home,  while  one  such  as  the  plaintiff  in  this  case,  would 
not  suffer  any  of  those  difficulties  and  therefore  would 
not  and  should  not  receive  maintenance,  care  and  cure. 
Justice  Cardoza,  when  he  was  sitting  on  the  New  York 
Court  of  Appeals  in  the  year  1928,  indicated  that  it 
would  be  highly  improper  to  provide  a  stevedore  with 
maintenance,  cure  and  wages  in  addition  to  his  damages, 
because  of  the  nature  of  his  employment. 

Man  Overboard 

In  a  case  entitled  Cappy,  decided  by  the  United  States 
Circuit  Court  of  Appeals,  Sixth  Circuit,  in  which  Gene 
C.  Hutchinson,  owner  of  the  Cappy,  petitioned  for  exon- 
eration from  or  limitation  of  liability,  and  in  which  the 
executrix  of  the  estate  of  the  man  who  fell  overboard 
joined  as  a  damage  claimant,  the  question  of  the  rights 
and  liabilities  of  an  owner  of  a  pleasure  yacht  are  re- 
viewed, and  the  rights  of  the  parties  appropriately 

On  a  September  afternoon  in  the  year  1943,  Mr. 
Hutchinson,  the  owner  of  the  pleasure  cabin  cruiser 
Cappy.  invited  Messrs.  Dickie,  Barry  and  Smith  to  accom- 
pany him  on  a  pleasure  cruise  on  Lake  Erie.  During  the 
the  cruise,  Dickie  was  drowned.  Hutchinson  sought  by 
a  petition  for  limitation,  which  is,  by  way  of  explanation, 
a  right  afforded  under  the  admiralty  law  which  permits 
a  shipowner,  provided  he  can  prove  his  vessel  seaworthy 
prior  to  the  accident  or  damage,  to  turn  over  his  ship 
through  the  mechanics  of  court  proceedings,  to  the 
claimants,  and  thereby  be  released  from  any  personal 
liability  regardless  of  the  size  or  total  of  the  claims.  The 
court  denied  the  Hutchinson  claim  for  limitation  of 
liability  and  found  that  Dickie  lost  his  life  by  drowning 
through  the  fault  and  negligence  of  Hutchinson,  and 
therefore  concluded  that  the  executrix  was  entitled  to 
the  sum  of  thirty  thousand  dollars  and  costs.  The  facts, 
briefly  stated,  are  as  follows: 

Hutchinson,  whom  I  will  refer  to  hereafter  as  Peti- 
tioner, met  the  decedent  at  a  restaurant  in  downtown 
Cleveland  and  invited  him  and  two  other  men  to  accom- 
pany him  on  a  cruise.  They  had  a  number  of  drinks  be- 
fore they  reached  the  boat.  However,  they  finally  left 
the  Lakeside  Yacht  Club  and  proceeded  out  of  the  harbor 
entrance  into  the  open  lake.  The  boat  rolled  considerably 
due  to  a  northeast  wind  and  a  running  sea.  Decedent 

was  sitting  in  the  cockpit  in  the  stern  of  the  boat  and 
about  a  half  mile  out.  Petitioner  decided  to  head  for  a 
particular  lagoon  area,  at  which  time  it  was  noticed  that 
decedent  had  disappeared  over  the  Cappy's  side.  The 
petitioner  was  a  rather  young  man.  However,  he  was 
burdened  by  a  steel  brace  on  his  body  which  restricted 
his  movements.  Prior  to  the  time  decedent  went  over- 
board, the  petitioner  had  removed  the  brace  and  was 
operating  the  controls  of  the  Cappy  without  its  support. 
The  other  man  on  the  boat  was  an  elderly  person  who 
was  hard  of  hearing  and  could  not  swim.  The  petition 
to  limit  liability  was  denied  on  the  ground  that  the 
cruiser  Cappy  was  unseaworthy  in  that  /'/  was  not  fully 
manned  on  the  particular  voyage  because  of  the  in- 
adequacy of  petitioner  and  the  other  gentleman  along  to 
function  as  a  competent  crew. 

The  Circuit  Court  reviewed  the  evidence  in  respect 
to  the  efforts  of  the  petitioner  to  rescue  the  decedent 
after  it  was  discovered  that  he  was  overboard  and  in  the 
water,  even  though  the  lower  court  had  found  by  express 
findings  that  the  efforts  which  were  made  were  inade- 
quate and  therefore  negligent.  The  Circuit  Court  was 
impressed  with  the  argimient  that  there  was  no  evidence 
that  the  decedent  was  caused  to  disappear  from  the 
cruiser  by  any  act  of  negligence  by  the  person  who  was 
steering  the  cruiser  at  the  time,  or  by  any  defect  of  the 
construction  of  the  cruiser.  The  Circuit  Court,  in  re- 
viewing the  evidence,  found  that  petitioner,  as  soon  as 
he  learned  that  decedent  was  overboard,  immediately 
reversed  the  motors,  looked  back  and  within  a  matter  of 
a  few  minutes,  he  saw  a  person's  head  on  the  surface  of 
the  water.  He  backed  the  Cappy  full  speed  astern  and 
two  life  rings  were  thrown  into  the  water  for  decedent's 
use.  The  rings  fell  within  a  few  feet  of  the  decedent  who, 
if  he  saw  them,  paid  no  attention  to  either.  As  the 
cruiser  approached  decedent,  he  disappeared  under  the 
water.  The  Circuit  Court  rightly  concluded  that  it  was 
not  negligent  for  petitioner  to  act  in  the  manner  in 
which  he  did.  As  one  of  the  witnesses  said,  when  one  is 
dealing  with  a  tragedy,  an  emergency,  the  cry  "Man 
Overboard"  and  the  excitement  incident  thereto,  any 
action  taken  is  intended  to  be  effective,  where  as  here 
there  was  complete  absence  of  opportunity  for  mature 
consideration.  It  becomes  more  apparent  as  the  Circuit 
Court  reviews  the  evidence,  that  petitioner  did  every- 
thing that  any  reasonable  person  would  have  done  under 
similar  and  like  conditions,  and  there  was  no  showing 
that  anything  he  did  or  left  undone,  caused  his  efforts  at 
rescue  to  fail.  It  is  quite  possible,  as  many  of  the  expert 
witnesses  for  the  damage  claimant  contended,  that  there 
were  many  more  effective  ways  of  proceeding  to  rescue 
a  drowning  man.  However,  such  methods  and  procedures 
are  not  necessarily  in  one's  mind  when  confronted  with  a 
situation  such  as  that  described  here.  Even  though  each 
of  the  men  aboard  had  quite  a  few  drinks  before  they 
left  the  dock  landing,  there  was  no  evidence  that  drinking 
interfered  in  any  way  with  the  maniptilation  and  oper- 
ation of  the  boat.  The  same  is  true  of  the  facts  that  peti- 
tioner had  removed  his  body  brace,  which  reduced  his 
support  to  some  extent,  but  did  not  restrict  his  acts  to 
rescue  decedent. 

The  Circuit  Court  found  that  the  decree  in  favor  of 
the  damage  claimant  had  no  substantial  support  in  the 
evidence  and  rested  upon  mere  speculation  and  con- 
jecture. The  court  recognized  the  correctness  of  the  rule 
that  due  weight  should  be  accorded  to  the  findings  and 
judgment  of  the  lower  court,  but  pointed  out  that  where 
they  appeared  to  be  in  error,  the  Circuit  Court  could 
not  be  bound  by  them. 

Page    128 














20       KW  120V  DC  30  HP  GM  2  cyl.   1200  RPM. 

100     KVv'  3/60/450AC    150  HP  GM   3  cyl.   1200  RPM. 

200     KW  3/60/450AC  450  HP  GM   8  cyl.    1200  RPM. 

1200  KVv'  525V   DC    1700  HP   GM    16  cyl.  750  RPM. 


225     HP  GM  2100  RPM  6  cyl. 

1800  HP    Fairbanks-Morse   800    RPM    10   cyl.   O.P. 

1700  HP  GM    16  cyl.   750   RPM. 


00  Gross  Tons,  L.S.T.;  900  Gross  Tons,  L.S.M.;  400  Gross  Tons,  L.C.I 


30-ton   Plymouth    1940.    Standard   gauge,   gas  driven   LeRoi   RXI-S 
6  cyl.  6y4x7  engine. 






Attractively  Priced  Immediate  Delivery 





LOS  ANGELES:  NEvada  6-2571 

Cable:    NACOR 


ATLAS    PAINT    &    VARNISH    CO. 

SAN   FRANCISCO   •    Ha 

SEATTLE     •      ►.(.iritlme 

I     1922   bast   Gage  Ave..    Phone   Kimball   6214 
Dor  Supply  Co.,  821    Folsom  St..   Phone   EXbrook  2-4500 
acific   Supply  Co.,    1917   First  Ave.,    Phone   ELiot   146! 
225    No.    Avalon    Blvd.,    Phone   TErminal   4-3251 

GALVESTON  and  HOUSTON.  TEXAS     •     Galveston  Ship  Supply  Co. 

MOBILE,    ALABAMA     •     Seaboard   Supply   Co. 

NEW   ORLEANS.    LOUISIANA     •     Gulf   Engineering   Co.,    Inc. 

JANUARY     •     1948 

Page    1^9 

Development  of  Square  Root 

iCnnlinuL'd  frciri/  pa^e  108) 

line  to  C,  making  BC  equal  to  unity  in  the  scale  you  are 
using.  With  a  compass,  construct  a  semicircle  on  AC. 
Erect  a  perpendicular  at  B,  giving  BS  equal  to  the  desired 
root.  The  proof  is  based  on  the  proposition  that  any  tri- 
angle constructed  within  a  semicircle,  having  a  diameter 
as  a  side  and  the  other  sides  meeting  in  the  circumference, 
is  a  right  triangle.  If  so,  then  the  perpendicular  BS  forms 
two  right  triangles  which  are  similar.  And  the  sides  of 
similar  triangles  have  equal  ratios.  The  remainder  of  the 
proof  is  shown  in  the  figure.  This  would  not  be  a  very 
accurate  method,  particularly  for  very  large  numbers. 

Our   next   article   will   deal    with   an   analysis   of    the 
horsepower  of  the  engine  formula  and  its  variations. 

The  Earth's  Magnetism  and  its  Effect 
on  the  Ship  and  Compass 

(Contniiieil  jrom  page  IO61 

the  magnetic  equator,  while  the  intensity  in  vertical 
hard  iron  is  greater  if  the  vessel  is  built  near  the  poles. 

The  Polarity,  Line  of  Demarcation  and  Distribution 
of  red  and  blue  magnetism  in  the  vertical  hard  iron  of 
the  vessel  is  also  dependent  on  the  magnetic  latitude  of 
the  vessel  while  under  construction.  The  poles  of  sub- 
permanent  magnetism  of  the  vessel  are  assumed  to  be  in 
about  the  central  point  of  either  extremity  of  the  vessel 
and  in  line  with  the  magnetic  meridians  which  pass 
through  the  vessel.  The  Line  of  Demarcation  of  sub- 
permanent  magnetism  is  at  right  angles  to  these  meridians 
and  midway  between  the  poles.  Figure  No.  .i  will  illus- 
trate the  distribution  of  red  and  blue  magnetism  in  the 
horizontal  and  vertical  hard  iron  of  a  vessel  built  on  a 
N.  E.  magnetic  heading  in  a  magnetic  latitude  of  about 
60°  north  (near  San  Diego). 

The  intensity  of  sub-permanent  magnetism  diminishes 
quite  rapidly  at  first  after  launching,  then  diminishes 
very  slowly  until  the  vessel  is  settled  down  ( sometimes 
taking  as  long  as  two  years )  and  then  remains  steady  un- 
less the  polarity  is  changed  by  some  unusual  occurrence, 
such  as  being  struck  by  lightning,  having  a  severe  fire, 
etc.  Sub-permanent  magnetism  is  the  chief  contributor 
to,  but  not  the  only  cause  of,  semi-circular  deviation. 
Semi-circular  deviation  which  is  due  to  sub-permanent 
magnetism  is  compensated  for  by  means  of  fore  and  aft 
and  athwartship  permanent  magnets. 

Coefficients  B  and  C  are  coefficients  of  semi-circular 
deviation  due  to  sub-permanent  magnetism. 

Coefficient  B  is  the  name  given  to  the  disturbing  force 
in  the  fore  and  aft  line  of  the  vessel.  It  has  its  maximum 
effect  on  east  or  west  magnetic  headings. 

Coefficient  C  is  the  name  given  to  the  disturbing  force 
of  the  athwartship  component  and  has  its  maximum 
effect  while  the  vessel  is  on  north  or  south  magnetic 

Transient  magnetism  and  practical  compensation  will 
be  discussed  in  a  future  issue. 

High  Pressure  and  High  Temperature  Steam 
in  l\laval  and  Merchant  Vessels 

(ContinueJ  fri/m  page  19) 

trolled  by  the  rate  of  firing  of  the  superheater  furnace. 

The  pressure  and  temperature  conditions  for  the  Som- 
en class  destroyers,  600  psi  and  850°  F,  were  later  adopt- 
ed for  all  steam  powered  combat  ships  in  our  Navy. 

Boilers  of  this  general  design,  but  of  different  size, 
were  installed  in  10  destroyers  of  the  Benham  class,  in 
all  12  of  the  Sims  class,  as  well  as  in  the  first  classes  of 
our  modern  battleships  —  North  Carolina,  Wasljini^ion, 
South  Dakota,  and  Massachusetts.  All  of  these  ships  had 
excellent  service  records  during  the  war. 

The  Cleaves  type  of  destroyer,  designed  in  1938  in- 
corporated still  another  advance  of  superheat-control  in- 
tegral with  the  boiler.  These  boilers  are  the  Bah)COck  & 
Wilcox  Single-Uptake,  Controlled  Superheat  Design 
(Fig.7).  They  are  similar  to  the  type  installed  on  the 
Somers.  but  in  the  Cleaves  class  the  furnace  is  divided 
by  means  of  a  stud-tube  partition  wall  which  extends 
only  for  a  portion  of  the  height  of  the  furnace.  The  super- 
heater is  installed  between  the  superheater  and  saturated 
furnaces  and  is  suitably  screened  from  the  radiant  heat  of 
the  superheater  furnace.  The  gases  of  combustion  from 
the  superheater  furnace  pass  across  the  superheater  and 
through  an  opening  in  the  top  portion  of  the  division 
wall  tubes  into  the  saturated  furnace.  The  gases  then 
pass  through  the  boiler  generating  bank  to  the  economi- 
zer, and  finally  to  the  uptake.  The  saturated  steam  is 
passed  through  the  superheater  where  it  is  superheated 
to  any  degree  desired  by  controlling  the  firing  in  the 
superheater  furnace.  By  comparing  Figures  6  and  7  it  will 
be  noted  that  this  later  design  has  only  one  gas  outlet — a 
feature  which  was  extremely  desirable  in  view  of  the  in- 
creasingly congested  space  conditions  in  all  classes  of 

Practically  all  subsequent  combat  ships  were  equipped 
with  the  same  general  design  of  boiler  as  installed  in  the 
Cleaves.  They  are  installed  in  the  destroyers  of  the  out- 
standing Fletcher  class;  in  such  famous  battleships  as  the 
loiva  and  Missouri  and  their  sisters;  in  cruisers  of  all 
types,  including  the  giants  of  the  Alaska  class;  in  the  re- 
nowned aircraft  carriers  of  the  Essex  class  and  in  the 
super-carriers  Midway,  Coral  Sea,  and  Franklin  D.  Roose- 
velt— largest  warships  in  the  world.  The  boilers  in  the 
Midway  class  give  some  idea  of  the  meaning  of  advances 
since  the  early  days  of  steam  power  in  the  Navy.  They  are 
capable  of  generating  enough  power  for  a  city  with  1,- 
000,000  population,  and  to  feed  them  with  fuel,  the  bunk- 
ers carry  enough  oil  to  heat  .t,000  average  sized  homes  for 
one  year. 

Data  on  performance  of  modern  naval  boilers  has  not 
been  released  by  the  Navy  Department.  However,  it  can 
be  safely  assumed  that  they  represent  remarkable  ad- 
vances over  those  in  previous  eras,  and  over  those  in 
other  navies  of  the  world.  The  high  level  of  design  and 
construction  that  went  into  all  the  machinery  of  these 
warships  is  typified  by  the  record  of  the  aircraft  carrier 
Essex,  which  covered  250,000  miles  of  ocean,  averaging 
240  miles  a  day  between  the  time  of  commissioning  and 
the  end  of  the  war  ( including  the  very  few  days  she 
spent  in  port ) .  This  is  more  mileage  than  would  nor- 
mally be  expected  in  the  entire  life  time  of  a  capital 
fighting  ship.  Yet  during  that  entire  period  her  ma- 
chinery required  only  routine  maintenance. 

What  the  future  holds  in  the  way  of  higher  pressures 
and  temperatures  and  new  designs  of  boilers  is,  of  course, 
a  closely  guarded  secret.  Published  reports  have  been 
made  on  one  experimental  installation  on  the  U.S.S. 
Dahlgren.  using  a  B&W  forced-circulation  design  of 
boiler  generating  steam  at  1300  psi  and  925°F.  Other 
experimental  installations  will  undoubtedly  be  made. 
The  Navy,  having  achieved  brilliant  successes  in  World 
War  II  as  a  result  of  foresight  and  long-range  planning, 
will  not  rest  upon  its  oars. 

(Part  II,  Merchant  Ships,  wil  appear  in  February). 

Page    130 




Representatives  for 





L.  K.  SIversen,  Owner 

'"aZl"       BERKELEY.  CALIF,  cl^nit. 




#  You  can  count 
on  Todd  Oil  Burners 
to  increase  cruising 
range,  minimize 
operating  costs  and 
insure  trouble-free 
operation ! 



81-16  45th  Avenue,   Elmhurst,  Queens,   N.  Y. 

TORONTO     •      MONTREAL     •      BARRANQUILLA     •      BUENOS  AIRES      .      LONDON 

London  Insurance  Market  Adequate 
for  Postwar 

(Continued  from  page  102) 
credit  from  insurance  to  the  balance  of  payments.  How 
much  of  it  comes  from  marine  insurance  one  can  only 
hazard  a  guess,  but  perhaps  we  might  in  a  peak  year  claim 
half.  Be  that  as  it  may,  what  I  found  was  very  interesting 
and  significant.  I  have  compared  the  last  three  prewar 
years  1936-1938  with  the  figures  today  as  they  deal  with 
invisible  exports  as  a  whole.  The  total  for  those  prewar 
years  from  such  sources  as  overseas  investments,  ship- 
ping, banking,  and  insurance  gives  an  average  of  some 
£352,000,000  a  year.  Assuming  that  our  £20,000,000 
contribution  from  insurance  is  correct,  that  means  that 
we  then  contributed  rather  less  than  6  per  cent  of  the 

"For  this  year,  however,  the  total  of  our  invisible  ex- 
ports is  expected  to  be  only  £75,000,000.  Again  on  the 
assumption  that  the  insurance  contribution  should  be 
around  £20,000,000,  it  means  that  our  share  has  gone  up 
to  rather  more  than  26  per  cent.  How  necessary  it  is, 
therefore,  that  we  should  ensure  by  every  means  in  our 
power  that  that  proportion  is  maintained." 

Broker's  Place  in  the  Industry 

The  broker's  usefulness  to  the  insurance  industry  has 
been  divided  by  Sir  Philip  d'Ambrumenil,  chairman  of 
Lloyd's  into  four  main  parts:  (  1  )  the  developing  of  in- 
surance; (  2  )  the  stimulation  of  competition;  (  3  )  the 
value  of  his  expert  knowledge;  and  (4)  he  was  not  tied 
to  a  group  or  groups  of  insurers.  Sir  Philip  was  speaking 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Insurance  Institute  of  London,  his 


subject  being:  "Is  the  insurance  broker  a  necessary  part 
of  the  insurance  industry?"  It  was  not  reasonable,  he  said, 
to  expect  that  every  prospective  insured  could  know  the 
best  market  for  a  particular  insurance,  nor  was  it  reason- 
able to  think  that,  unless  he  were  well  versed  in  insurance, 
he  could  easily  present  his  case.  The  broker,  with  his  ex- 
pert knowledge,  supplied  that  need.  Furthermore,  there 
would  be  claims  on  a  certain  number  of  policies,  some  in- 
volving dispute;  the  expert  knowledge  of  the  broker  and 
his  ability  to  argue  the  case  reasonably  often  led  to  a  set- 
tlement which  might  otherwise  have  involved  litigation 
and  bad  feeling.  The  fact  that  the  broker  was  not  tied 
to  a  group  or  groups  of  insurers  was  of  great  advantage, 
because  the  freer  he  was  to  choose  the  insurers,  the  better 
it  was  for  the  insured. 

BOOK  mm 

LIVES  OF  THE  LINERS,  by  Frank  O.  Braynard,  As- 
sistant Director  of  the  Bureau  of  Information  of  the 
American  Merchant  Marine  Institute;  published  by  Cor- 
nell Maritime  Press.  Price  S3. 75;  224  pages;  6"  x  9W- 

"Vastly  interesting,  highly  entertaining  is  this  account 
of  the  lives  of  the  world's  great  (Kean  vessels.  The  bi- 
ographies of  practically  all  of  the  large  passenger  steam- 
ers of  the  last  two  decades  are  covered,  as  well  as  a  great 
many  of  the  smaller  ones.  The  book  is  divided  into  four 
parts:  Superliners,  which  covers  the  old  Mauretania, 
Leviathan,  Normandie,  Queens  Mary  and  Elizabeth,  Conte 
de  Savoia,  and  others;  Express  Liners,  the  new  Maure- 
tania, Statendam,  Roma,  and  others;  Mail  Liners  of  the 
World,  the  ships  which  make  up  the  largest  group  of  pas- 
senger vessels  in  operation;  smaller  ships — mercy  ships, 
cruise  ships,  skimming  saucers.  "Well  worth  the  reading! 

Page    131 

Heavy  Duty  Chain  Drives  for 
Marine  Propulsion  Service 

iCoiilinueil  Iruni  page  89) 

towing  ability  and  hydraulic  efficiency  mean  dollars  and 
cents  to  the  owner. 

While  there  are  undoubtedly  many  arguments  for 
the  large  slow-speed  type  of  diesel  engine  for  vessels 
of  this  kind,  a  good  deal  of  interest  is  being  shown  by 
designers  of  commercial  craft  in  the  lighter  medium- 
speed  diesels,  and  especially  in  the  compounding  of  two 
or  more  of  these  engines  for  single-screw  operation. 

There  are  several  reasons  for  this  interest,  as  follows: 

1.  Capital  outlay  is  less  per  unit  of  power. 

2.  A  smaller  engine  room  allows  more  space  for  cargo 
or  crew's  quarters. 

3.  Engine  overhaul  is  possible  without  laying  up  the 

4.  Lighter  engines  allow  of  lighter  hull  construction. 

5.  For  light  running,  one  engine  may  be  used  at  a 
time  with  enhanced  economy. 

All  of  these  advantages  of  course  may  be  inherent  in 
a  gear-driven  multiple-engined  vessel. 

It  will  often  be  found,  however,  that  gear  drives  of 
suitable  ratio,  unless  constructed  with  expensive,  ineffi- 
cient idlers,  will  require  that  the  engines  be  placed  so 
near  together  that  proper  provision  for  operation  and 
maintenance  cannot  be  made. 

Chain  drives,  on  the  other  hand,  operate  best  with 
the  sprocket  centers  spaced  at  a  distance  roughly  equiva- 
lent to  1  or  2  diam.  of  the  largest  sprocket. 

This  relatively  wide  spacing  of  centers  allows  engine 
spacing  in  the  ship  which  will  provide  the  best  access- 
ibility, balance,  and  arrangement  of  accessory  equip- 

Chain  drives  also,  because  of  their  less-exacting  re- 
quirements for  accuracy  of  center  distance  and  housing 
structural  rigidity,  lend  themselves  better  than  gear 
drives  to  economical  "tailor-made"  design  and  construc- 
tion. By  this  it  is  not  to  be  construed  that  a  marine  drive 
can  be  successful  if  built  to  "backyard"  or  "cob-house" 
construction  standards. 

Of  equal  importance  to  accurate  chains  and  sprockets 
is  a  base  or  housing  of  good  design,  adequate  shafting 
and  bearings,  and  fitting  and  assembly  workmanship 
consistent  with  the  requirements  of  heavy-dury  equip- 

One  of  the  earliest  installations  of  a  marine  chain 
drive  was  in  the  conversion  of  an  old  70-ft.  steam  tug 
to  diesel  power.  Fig.  11.  Removal  of  the  boiler  and 
engine  left  ample  room  for  installation  of  a  pair  of 
l65-hp  800-rpm  engines  with  built-in  2-to-l  reduc- 
tion gears.  A  2-tol -ratio  chain  drive,  using  two  1%-in. 
pitch,  3-strand  chains,  compound  the  engines  to  the  pro- 
peller shaft  which  swung  the  original  76  in.  wheel  at 
200  rpm. 

This  little  vessel  after  conversion  easily  outpulled  a 
larger  tug  in  the  same  fleet  which  was  powered  by  a 
single  400-hp  German-made  engine  but  which  swung 
a  smaller  propeller  at  higher  speed.  Operating  costs  over 
a  2-year  period  showed  a  substantial  saving  over  steam 
and  with  fuel  economy  comparable  to  other  diesel  tugs 
in  the  fleet. 

Another  interesting  application  for  chain  drives  is  in 
connection  with  adjustable-pitch  propellers.  Here  the 
fluid  supply  to  the  servomotor  and  the  control  rod,  which 
limits  the  propeller-blade  movement,  are  carried  through 
the  hollow  shaft  of  the  chain  transmission. 

Reversal  from  full  speed  forward  to  full  speed  astern 
in  as  little  as  5  seconds,  as  well  as  propeller-pitch  adjust- 
ment for  all  operating  conditions  are  possible  with  this 


Future  development  of  the  marine  chain  drive  will 
probably  depend  to  a  considerable  extent  upon  the 
economical  status  of  the  multiple-engine  power  plant  as 
compared  to  the  more  conventional  single-engine  lay- 
out for  small  and  medium  vessels. 

During  the  three  years  that  most  of  the  chain-driven 
boats  have  been  in  operation  accurate  operating  data 
have  undoubtedly  been  accumulated,  and  although  con- 
ditions make  this  unavailable  at  the  present  time,  it  is 
believed  that  the  results  will  show  many  cost-saving 
advantages  for  both  dual  engines  and  chain  drives. 

Availability  of  the  drives  and  standardization  of  units 
will  come  rapidly  once  the  requirements  of  power,  speed 
range,  and  center  distances  are  more  clearly  established. 

With  the  Naval  Architects  and 
Marine  Engineers 

(Continued  from  page  84) 

the  service  requires,  so  as  to  assure  passenger  comfort 
in  all  climates;  if  we  build  them  in  such  a  way  as  to  elimi- 
nate the  possibility  of  large-scale  fires;  if  we  furnish  and 
decorate  them  in  quiet,  simple  good  taste;  and  if  we 
house  them  in  a  seaworthy  structure  which  is  designed 
specifically  to  convey  the  impression  of  smart,  clean,  up- 
to-dateness;  then  we  shall  have  made  available  to  the 
public  a  traveling  experience  that  no  other  medium  of 
transportation  can  duplicate.  And  I  doubt  very  much 
that  the  passenger  agents  of  our  various  lines  shall  suf- 
fer for  lack  of  something  to  do." 

Original  Re- 
Arrangement  arrangement 
Num-     '^f  of  Num-  %  of 
bet        total  ber  total 

Total  outside  rooms 58          84  70  82 

Total  air-light  rooms 0             0  16  18 

Total    inside   rooms 11           16  0  0 

Total  rooms 69        100  86        100 

Total  3  pass.  rms.  ( 2  floor  beds.  1  sofa  bed)  8  32 

Total  3  pass.  rms.  (2  fl(X>r  beds.  1  upper)  52  28 

Total   2  pass.   rms.    (2   fl(X)r  beds).. 6  6 

Total  2  pass.  rms.  (  1  floor  bed.  I  upper)  3  20 

Total  floor  beds   (inc.  sofa  beds) 143  184 

Total  uppers 55  48 

Total  passengers 198  232 

Total   bathtubs 30  48 

Total  showers  only 28  58 

Total    lavatories 58  86 

Total    water   closets 58  86 

Tuna  Clipper  Safety  Requirements 

(Continued  from  page  104 1 

effort  required  to  heave  the  fish  over  the  rail  is  reduced 
to  a  minimum.  Inevitably  a  wave  comes  over  the  top  of 
the  rail  and  floods  the  deck.  The  water  has  to  pass  down 
through  the  fish  on  deck — through  the  grating  and  out 
the  scuppers  if  there  are  no  large  freeing  ports  to  get 
rid  of  it.  As  a  substitute  it  was  decided: 

If   the  owners  elect  not  to   install   freeing 
ports,  scuppers  must  be  provided  with  an  area 
of  at  least  25' r  greater  that  the  combined  re- 
quired scupper  and  freeing  port  area. 
This  produced  the  best  arrangement  of  all,  which  is 
practically  a  continuous  opening  all  fore  and  aft  through 
the  bulwark,  about  7"  high  fitted  with  closing  flappers. 
If  water  came  on  deck  it  had  a  chance  to  get  overboard 




-^sN^o^t  SIGNAL^} 

niVmTt   SlGHAl-S  "'»''*, Jem Woa<-l«- 

^c<,^1bin■"9  *  "" 
•DAYNITE  T.M.  R.g.,  Potenlt  Applied  Fo 

AERIAL  PRODUCTS,  INC.,  merrick.  1. 1..  new  york 



'   "    ^     BY  USING 



sivecombusuon  deposit  a        ^^^_^^,|^ 

*°  »  '''^'\C  slack  by  the  dralt. 
earned  out  the  slack  oy 

Gamlewte  reaches  spots  ^       ^^^^_ 

cally  ehminates.  I' f  f '".^^es-  and  le- 
"Insier,  lengthens  U  e  ot  tubes  .^ 

tctories,  keeps  bo^e,s  on  the  1.^  __^  ^^^ 

=;'-:rb£."^^na^  Bullet.  .54, 

JANUARY     •      1948 

1469  Spriv.a  «-, 
195  San  Bruno  / 
11  Broodw 

'■^'"►'«  W  SlocUIn  All  P""'!""'  <^"''"  ""■'  '■'"» 




at  the 

Thomas  A.  Short  Company 

245   Fremont   Street 
San   Francisco 

SUtter    1-7622 


Long  Beacli,Calil,'5^^632-81 

Page  133 

and  when  a  sea  washed  against  the  outside  of  the  bul- 
wark the  flapper  closed  and  kept  the  deck  dry. 

The  reason  for  omitting  all  openings  aft  of  a  point 
14  feet  from  the  stern  is  that  the  wave  formation  on 
most  of  the  boats  is  such  that  the  water  comes  aboard 
through  the  scuppers  and  openings  instead  of  running 
off  the  deck  as  intended. 

No.  6  Freeing  Ports 
The  standard  freeing  ports  are  12"  x  12" 
but  may   be  made  any  equivalent   area.  The 
following  freeing  ports  are  required; 

Boats   125  feet  long  over  all  and  larger — 
Six  freeing  ports  on  each  side. 

Boats  100  to   125  feet  long  over  all — Five 
freeing  ports  on  each  side. 

Boats  under   100  feet  long  over  all — Four 
freeing  ports  on  each  side,  not  less  than  8"x9". 
Some  vessels  are  fitted  with  a  tonnage  door  between 
the  forward  end  of  the  bait  boxes  and  the  ship's  side. 
Where  this  is  done; 

Where  a  vessel  is  fitted  with  a  space  on  the 
Main  Deck  enclosed  by  watertight  doors  abreast 
the  Bait  Boxes  and  freeing  ports  are  made  so 
they  will  open  with  not  more  than  4"  of  water 
on  deck  at  the  deepest  place,  the  freeing  ports 
can  be  used  as  scuppers  in  the  enclosed  space. 
What  the  fishermen  complain  about  is  that  the  blood 
and  gurry  run  off  the  deck  and  contaminate  the  water 
where  they  are  fishing.  This  causes  the  fish  to  leave  and 
spoils  the  fishing.  The  crown  of  beam  of  the  fishing 
boats  is  usually  6"  to  10"  and  if  the  blood  and  gurry  are 
allowed  to  accumulate  to  a  maximum  depth  of  4"  it  will 
run  to  the  lowest  part  of  the  sheer  away  from  the  fishing 

Within  the  last  18  months  the  fishermen  have  accept- 
ed the  idea  that  the  freeing  ports  are  better  than  the 
scuppers  and  several  of  the  boats  have  had  the  scuppers 
closed  and  freeing  ports  cut  in  the  bulwark  instead.  To 
get  adequate  area  of  freeing  ports  it  was  found  better  to 
adopt  1 V4  square  feet  instead  of  1  square  foot  as  a  basis, 
as  the  available  space  along  the  bulwark  was  taken  up 
with  other  features  relating  to  the  fishmg  operation. 
Closing  the  scuppers  and  substituting  freeing  ports; 

Boats  125  feet  long  over  all  and  larger — ■ 
14  freeing  ports  1  square  foot  each  or  1 1  free- 
ing ports  1  Vi  square  feet  each. 

Boats  100  to  125  feet  long  over  all — Eleven 
freeing  ports  1  square  foot  each  or  Nine  freeing 
ports  1 V4  square  feet  each. 

Boats  under    100   feet   long  over   all — Ten 
freeing  ports  not  less  than  8"  x  9"  or  Five  free- 
ing ports  12"  X  12". 
It  is  necessary  to  have  one  or  two  drainage  holes  to  get 
rid  of  water  spilled  on  deck  but  these  serve  only  for  the 
purpose  of  drainage. 

Doors  To  The  Engine  Room 
In  addition  to  the  facilities  for  ridding  the  deck  of 
water  the  subject  that  has  been  discussed  most  often  and 
at  great  length  is  the  entrance  to  the  engine  room.  Many 
proposals  have  been  made  to  improve  the  door  situation 
but  to  no  avail  and  apparently  the  solution  is  as  far  away 
as  ever. 

The  real  troubles  are  lack  of  ventilation  and  laziness. 
Insufficient  ventilation  serves  as  an  excuse  for  leaving  the 
doors  open  and  there  seems  to  be  no  way  to  get  the  crew 
to  pass  through  the  door  and  close  it  after  them. 

Springs  were  tried  but  they  were  too  cheap  and  were 
a  failure.  There  are  two  good  door-closers  on  the  market 
now  which  were  in  short  supply  previously.  One  has  an 
arm  about  3  feet  long  that  is  actuated  by  a  vertical  coil 
spring,  generally  used  on  refrigerator  doors.  It  is  excel- 
lent for  the  purpose,  well  made  and  rugged;  it  also  has 
the  advantage  of  being  independent  of  the  hinges  of  the 
door  itself.  The  other  was  developed  during  World  War 
II  and  substitutes  a  Hydro-Hinge  in  place  of  the  ordi- 
nary common  hinge  on  the  door.  The  Hydro-Hinge  has 
a  heavy  spring  in  a  cartridge  that  closes  the  door. 

The  losses  due  to  the  doors  being  open,  permitting 
water  to  go  below  have  been  out  of  all  reason.  Not  long 
ago  a  delegation  waited  on  the  underwriters  to  get  them 
to  accept  the  risk  of  the  doors  being  open  and  the  ink 
was  hardly  dry  on  the  bulletin  when  one  of  the  tuna  boats 
ran  on  a  sand  bank  in  broad  daylight,  leaned  over  on 
her  bilge  and  flooded  the  engine  room  through  the  open 
door.  Not  a  thing  was  physically  damaged  but  the  salt 
water  ruined  all  motors  and  electric  work. 

The  wing  athwartship  doors  are  now  required  to  be 
watertight,  which  means  that  they  must  be  steel  on  both 
wood  and  steel  vessels.  However,  there  is  quite  an  ad- 
vantage in  making  the  wing  atwartship  door  of  steel  even 
on  the  wood  vessels  because  it  is  mounted  on  a  large 
steel  plate  that  is  bolted  to  a  heavy  angle  at  the  edges 
and  the  whole  plate  is  removed  when  it  is  desired  to  send 
one  of  the  pieces  of  machinery  to  the  shop  for  repairs. 

No.  7  Door  in  After  End  of  House 
Where  a  door  leading  to  the  engine  hatch 
is  in  the  after  end  of  the  house  adjacent  to 
where  fish  cargo  is  worked,  the  sill  to  be  at 
least  24"  above  the  deck. 
This  arrangement  used   to  be   quite  common   but  is 
seldom  used  now.  The  galley  and  mess  room  is  in  the 
after  end  of  the  house  and  some  of  the  boats  had  the  en- 
trance to  the  engine  room  just  inside  the  galley  door. 
The  fish  on  deck  would  get  through  the  door  and  down 
into  the  engine  room  and  there  was  also  constant  danger 
of  the  men  falling  into  the  hatch. 

No.  8  Door  at  Raised  Deck 
Where  a  vessel  has  a  raised  portion  at  the 
forward  end  of  the  main  deck,  the  door  in  the 
side  of  the  house  to  be  at  least  8"  forward  of 
the  after  end  of  the  raised  deck.  The  door  to  be 
in  halves  and  the  sill  to  be  at  least  8"  high. 
At  one  time  it  was  customary  for  the  door  to  the  en- 
gine room  to  be  placed  in  the  side  of  the  house  on  the 
main  deck  just  aft  of  the  forecastle  which  was  raised 
18"  to  24"  above  the  main  deck.  The  bulwark  was  at 
the  height  of  the  forecastle  or  possibly  8"  above  it. 

Especially  when  the  boat  is  going  out  light  and  is  down 
by  the  head  a  little — a  sea  breaking  aboard  runs  forward, 
hits  against  the  break  of  the  forecastle  and  jumps  through 
the  door  down  into  the  engine  room.  The  loss  of  a  new 
boat  together  with  the  lives  of  the  owners  helped  to  have 
this  changed. 

No.  9  Door  in  the  Side  of  the  House 
Where  a  vessel  has  a  continuous  flush  deck 
fore  and  aft,  the  door  in  the  side  of  the  house 
leading  to  the  engine  hatch  to  have  a  sill  at 
least  12"  high. 
The  trouble  here  was  that  the  sill  of  the  door  was  so 
much  lower  than  the  bulwark  that  water  rushing  along 
the  deck  invaded  the  door  to  the  engine  room. 

To  be  cominiteJ  hi  February  PACIFIC  MARINE  REVIEW 

Page    134 






While  Hodgers 








Dole  Cold  Plate 


Cooling  Coils 



utter   1-5494 

<;aN    FRANCISCO    5 


^klp   K^ltandierS 
^nla  rCiaaerS 
^ait   niaherd 

40    SPEflR    STREET 

eJjerrick  dSaraei 
^alvaae   Kyperationi 

snn  FRflncisco.  5 

EXBROOK    0064 




Signaling,   Communicating  and  Lighting  Equipnnent 



ges:   Liquid   Level,   Ships   Draft,    Pressure,    Boiler  Water  Level 


Lighting   Fiitures  and  Special   Equipment  for  Shipboard  Ust 


GArfield  1-8102 


115-117  Steuart  Street 



Complete  Welding  Facilifies 

220  East  B  Street.  WriMINGTON.  CALIFORNIA 


Phones:  TErminal  4-5219.  TErminal  4-S2tO 

Proposed  European  Recovery  Program 
The  Marshall  Plan 

li.diituiueJ  from  page  93) 

TYPE  3 

By  private  agencies  to  the  greatest  possible  extent. 

VII — Section  I  of  Loan  Control  and 


By  a  non-partisan  Domestic  Corporation  to  be  estab- 
lished by  Congress  to  control  and  administer  the  Euro- 
pean Recovery  Program. 

The  President  ot  this  Domestic  Corporation,  and  the 
majority  of  the  Directors,  to  be  outstanding  leaders  of 
United  States  industry. 

The  members  of  the  Board  of  Directors  to  be  nominat- 
ed by  the  President  of  the  United  States  and  confirmed 
by  the  Senate. 

The  Board  of  Directors  to  be  accountable  to  the  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States. 

Country-by-country  local  Board  of  Trustees  to  be  es- 
tablished with  majority  control  vested  in  representatives 
appointed  by  and  responsible  to  the  United  States  Do- 
mestic Corporation.  Minority  members  to  be  appointed 
by  the  respective  recipient  countries. 

This  Board  of  Trustees  should  recommend  and,  if  sub- 
sequently approved,  administer,  through  delegation,  dollar 
loans  for  raw  materials  and  capital  goods  as  may  be  ex- 
tended either  through  the  Export-Import  Bank  or  World 

VIII — Section  II  of  Loan  Control  and 
The  United  States  is  willing  to  extend  material  and 
financial  help  to  the  countries  of  Western  Europe,  pro- 
viding the  United  States  is  permitted,  and  the,  govern- 
ments of  recipient  countries  facilitate,  the  making  of  pre- 
accord  understandings  in  respect  to  the  administration 
and  control  of  any  grants  or  loans  to  the  end  that  any 
aid  extended  is  used  for  the  purpose  intended,  in  the 
manner  intended,  and  with  the  benefit  anticipated. 

The  United  States  of  America  should  insist  that  pre- 
accord  agreements  stipulate  the  right  of  United  States 
nationals  to  handle  the  administration  and  control  of 
loans,  on  a  sound  business  basis — without  being  charged 
with  economic  or  political  imperialism. 
The  United  States  must  assume  the  role  of  a  prudent 
lender  and  the  recipients  that  of  honest  borrowers,  so 
that  failure  properly  to  use,  efficiently  to  administer  aid 
granted  or  to  attain  benefits  anticipated  will,  and  must 
be,  considered  as  cause  for  mandatory  temporary  or  final 
suspension  of  that  part  of  the  program. 

IX — Section  III  of  Loan  Control  and 
The  effect  of  any  and  all  aid  requested  should  be  eval- 
uated and  reviewed,  before  grant  or  commitment  on  our 
part,  for  its  impact,  upon  our  own  economy,  under  the 
criterion  that  it  is  of  supreme  importance  to  maintain 
the  economy  of  the  United  States  strong,  virile,  and  ex- 

panding if  we  are  to  fulfill  our  destiny  in  a  disrupted  and 
weakened  world  economy. 

Aid  for  economic  improvement  should  be,  insofar  as 
possible,  direct  from  industry  to  industry  rather  than 
from  government  to  government. 

European  business  should  welcome  and  American  busi- 
ness under  private  contract  should  extend  to  the  fullest 
practicable  degree  manufacturing  and  management  tech- 
nique and  know-how  in  order  that  European  productiv- 
ity can  create  new  wealth. 


Realistic  fiscal  and  monetary  policies,  essential  to  a 
sound  currency  and  to  recovery  of  production  and  trade, 
are  obviously  necessary  if  the  aid  program  is  to  be  effec- 
tive. European  countries  must  permit  their  currencies  to 
seek  their  true  value  as  expressed  in  terms  of  goods  and 


The  United  States  of  America  is  not  interested  in  im- 
posing its  political  or  Social  system  on  any  country  or 
region  in  the  world.  Conversely,  it  is  determined  that  no 
other  nation  shall  impose  its  system  or  idealogy  on  ours. 

Consequently,  whatever  the  political  idealogy  of  the 
recipient  nations,  or  their  manifestation  in  practice,  so 
long  as  the  essential  human  freedoms,  as  set  forth  in  our 
Bill  of  Rights,  are  preserved,  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica should  carry  out  its  commitments  under  any  aid  pro- 
gram agreed  upon. 

To  achieve  the  maximum  success  and  consistency  with 
American  foreign  policy,  there  should  be  the  closest  col- 
laboration between  the  new  U.  S.  corporation,  the  De- 
partment of  State,  the  Export-Import  Bank,  other  in- 
terested U.  S.  Government  departments  and  agencies,  as 
well  as  international  organizations  in  which  the  United 
States  has  official  participation,  such  as  the  World  Bank 
and  the  Monetary  Fund. 

X^Recommendations  Concerning  Restoration 
of  Economic  Life  of  Western  Germany 

That  it  is  in  our  and  European  self-interest  to  restore 
the  economic  life  of  Western  Germany  without  permit- 
ting re-establishment  of  a  war  potential. 

Economic  affairs  shoyld  be  placed  under  a  Civilian 
Economic  Board  for;the  Restoration  of  German  Prod- 

The  Board  should  cot^sist  of  experienced  United  States 
citizens  in  the  realm  of 'finance,  manufacturing,  agricul- 
ture, labor,  trade  and  commerce. 

That  rehabilitation  loar^?,  self-liquidating  in  dollars, 
be  made  aavilable  in  sufficient  amounts  to  do  the  job  so 
evidently  necessary  for  the  peace  and  well-being  of 
Europe  and  the  world. 

That  further  dismantling  of  German  productive  and 
manufacturing  facilities  be  held  in  suspense  pending 
execution  of  above  recommendations. 

Address  at  Banquet  Aboard 
President  Cbeland 

(Continued  from  page  97) 
ting  over  his  Subsidy  Bill  which  was  then  before  Con- 
gress. Naturally,  he  being  my  boss,  I  said  that  I  would  do 
as  he  directed  but  that  my  heart  could  not  be  in  my  work 
because  I  was  opposed  to  subsidies.  He  replied  in  a  rather 
interesting  manner  by  saying  that  he,  too,  had  always 
been  and  still  was,  opposed  to  ship  subsidies,  but,  he 

(Please  turn  to  page  140) 

Page   136 




is  the  one  bearing  metal  you  can  rely  on  for  all  nnarine 
machinery!  Excellent  running-in  qualities,  with  high  duc- 
tility. Tin-base,  fine  grained,  dense  structured.  Preferred 
by  marine  engineers  these  many  years! 


■  PORTLAND    • 



SAN  FRANCISCO         •         LOS  ANGELES 
SEATTLE     •     SALT  LAKE     •     EL  PASO     •     BUTTE 

You  ask  whii  I  like 
m  VIKINGS  ? 


"When  I  bough!  my  Vilcing  pumps,  I  knew  they  were 
engineered  for  my  job.  They  were  no  off-the-shelf  item 
that  was  supposed  to  do  a  little  of  everything  and  none 
too  well. 

"They  were  built  for  my  work  and  to  handle  my  par- 
ticular problem.  There  was  no  guessing  or  compromising. 
"My  pumps  today  are  several  years  old.  They  have 
needed  little  repairing.  The  newer  Vikings  are.  even 
better  than  mine  although  harder  to  get  than  when  I 
bought  them.    They  cost  a   little   more   but  they  are  still 

an   honestly  good   buy. 

"Vikings    are    simple,    rugged    and    well    built. 

They  always  have  been  and  I  think  they  always 
be.     That's    why    I'm    going    to    get    more 

Vikings    when    I    need    more    pumps. 

"Your  first  step  Is  to  ask  for  free  folder  47SU. 

If    you     have    a     pumping     problem,    tell    them 

about  It." 

Pump  Company 

Cedar  Falls,  Iowa 


12    Long    Beach   Ave.,   Los   Angeles    II        il    Beale   Street.   San   Francisco 






These   C-2    fast   freight   vessels,   three   equipped    with    re- 
frigerator space,  and  limited  passenger  accommodations, 
together    with    modern    chartered    tonnage,    will    supply 
frequent   service  between — 


Mexico  Central  America  Panama  Colombia 

Ecuador  Pern  Bolivia  Chile 


White  Building  2  Pine  Street  523  W.  Sixth 

SEneca4300  SUtter  1-3800  Michigan  7811 


991  Hastings  St.,  W.  Board  of  Trade  Bldg. 

PAcific  7271  ATwater  8508 

to  condensation  of  nioisliire. 
sistance  to  chemicals  reroin 
decks  under  niagnesi I e.  Sinn 
marine  men  want  it  for  li;iril- 

Technically,  KOMI  I,  is  an 
tar-pitch,  retaining  all  the 
pitch  in  an  easil>-iisc<l   form 

An  illustrated  folder  and  a 
for  the  asking.  The  panel  y< 
will  and  you  can  din  "t  ll>e 
adhesion  iind   toughness. 

KOMUIi  IS  a  well-proved 
coaling  for  marine  service. 
Application  to  tianip  sur- 
faces first  reeonjmended  it 
for  use  in  spaces   siihjeet 
Its  <'(>ntinu<»iis  film  and  re- 
fii«-iidc<l    it    for    use   on    steel 
ihcily  of  application  has  made 
lo-fiet-at  spaces, 
irreversible  emulsion  of  coal- 
protective   characteristics   of 

sample  on  a  steel  panel  •  .  . 

iiu  can   twist  or  hcnd  as  you 

Coating  to  prove   KO.Ml  L's 



S23S4l«hllb(«ii..  rHIUOElPKIMJ.r*. 

J,  H.  CORDES,  200  Dovii  SIreil,  Son  Froncitco  11,  Calif. 

J.  M.  COSTEILO  SUPPIY  CO.  221  North  Avolsn  tlvd.,  Wllmlnglan,  Calif. 

TOURTEILOTTE  t  8RADIEY.  401  Willi*  BIda..  SaaHl*  I.  Woih. 

I  AN  U  ARY     •      I  948 

Page    137 

Development  of  Ship  Forms 

iConlinueJ  from 

as  the  'Admiralty  displacement 

The  constants  used,  given  in 

page  92 1 
ordinary  units  of  mea 

surement,  are: 

1.  The  "speed  constant"  K^ 

X  0.5834 

2.  The  "resistance  constant" 

C V 

E.  H.  P. 

2938= X  427.1 


X  0.3057 

■L= X  1.0552 

3.  The  "length  constant"  M= 

4.  The  "length-speed  constant 


5.The  "skin  constant"  S^ 

—  X  0.09346 

Where  V=speed  in  knots 

R=resistance  in  tons  in  salt  water 

D^displacement  in  tons  in  salt  water 

I^=length  in  feet  between  perpendiculars 

S=wetted  skin  area  in  square  feet. 

The  Froudes  also  investigated  the  character  of  the 
waves  created  by  a  ship  passing  through  the  water  and 
concluded  that  the  bow  did  not  produce  a  solitary  wave 
of  translation  in  accordance  with  Scott  Russell's  theory. 
They  found  that  the  ship  created  two  classifications  of 
waves — those  produced  by  the  advance  of  the  bow  and 
those  caused  by  the  streamline  motions  of  the  stern. 
Each  of  these  may  be  subdivided  into  a  diverging  series 

which  trail  aft  and  a  transverse  series  whose  crests  are 
at  right  angles  to  direction  of  motion. 

A  series  of  models  having  varying  length  of  parallel 
middlebody  but  the  same  length  and  forms  of  entrances 
and  runs  were  tested  and  it  was  found  that  up  to  a 
certain  speed  ( that  appropriate  to  the  length  of  run  as 
determined  by  Russell's  theory)  the  wave-making  resist- 
ance was  nearly  constant  for  all  models.  Above  that 
speed  the  wave-making  resistance  varied  considerably  as 
the  total  lengths  of  the  models  changed.  The  Froudes 
concluded  that  for  any  given  ship  "The  height  of  the 
waves  made,  and  the  amount  of  the  resistance  caused 
will  be  at  the  maximum  or  minimum  according  as  the 
crests  of  the  bow-wave  series  coincide  with  the  crests  or 
troughs  of  the  natural  stern-wave  series  ...  In  either 
of  these  two  cases  the  crest  of  the  resultant  wave  coin- 
cides with  the  crest  of  the  larger  of  the  two  components, 
while,  if  the  crests  of  one  series  fall  on  the  slopes  of  the 
other,  the  resultant  crest  position  will  be  a  compromise 
between  the  crest  position  of  the  components,  though 
nearer  to  the  larger  of  the  two." 

Wave-making  resistance  is  affected  by  a  number  of 
considerations.  The  height  of  the  bow-wave  depends  on 
the  speed  of  a  ship  and  the  form  of  the  entrance  while 
the  height  at  the  stern  of  the  transverse  series  of  waves 
caused  by  the  bow  depends  on  the  length  of  the  ship. 
In  like  manner  the  form  of  the  stern  and  the  speed 
affect  the  stern  series  of  waves  and  the  point  of  coin- 

Regarding  the  general  shape  of  the  ends  of  a  ship  R. 
E.  Froude  noted  the  following:  "It  is  a  reasonable  in- 
ference .  .  .  that  the  wave-making  features  of  a  ship  will 
operate  more  effectively  to  make  short  waves  if  their 
displacement  is  disposed  broadwise  rather  than  deep- 
wise;  and  more  effectively  to  make  long  waves  if  it  be 
disposed  deepwise  rather  than  broadwise.  Now,  the 
diverging  waves  being  necessarily  much  shorter  than  the 
transverse  waves,  we  see  that  flaring-out  the  end  sections 
of  a  ship,  or  increasing  the  ratio  of  breadth  to  depth, 
will  caeteris  paribus  tend  to  increase  the  resistance  due 
to  diverging  waves  and  diminish  that  due  to  transverse 
waves:  while  giving  U-sections  or  increasing  ration  of 
depth  to  breadth  will  have  the  opposite  effect.  Again  it 
is  worth  noticing  that  the  experiments  have  shown  that, 
as  a  rule,  moderately  U-shaped  sections  are  good  for  the 
forebody,  and  comparatively  'V-shaped  sections  for  the 
after-body.  This  would  seem  to  show  that  in  the  wave- 
making  tendency  of  the  after-body  the  diverging  wave 
element  is  less  formidable  than  in  that  of  the  fore-body, 
and  this  inference  corresponds  with  the  fact  that  the 
stern  diverging-wave  series  is  visibly  less  marked  than 
that  of  the  bow." 

Since  the  model  towing  tanks  used  by  the  Froudes  at 
Torquay  and  Haslar  were  supported  by  the  British  Ad- 
miralty it  was  only  natural  that  the  majority  of  the 
models  tested  were  of  fine-lined  vessels  suitable  for  naval 
service.  The  same  can  be  said  of  the  early  tanks  in  other 
countries  so  that  conclusions  drawn  from  such  tests  could 
not  be  applied  directly  to  the  slow  merchant  ships  of  the 
period.  The  first  and  only  private  establishment  for  many 
years  was  that  built  by  Denny  of  EXimbarton  in  1881. 
The  majority  of  naval  architects  still  used  the  Admiralty 
coefficient  or  some  combination  of  the  works  of  Russell 
and  Rankine  for  determining  the  form  and  resistance  of 
their  new  ships.  In  addition,  there  were  many  proposed 
formulae  for  determining  the  resistance  based  on  the 
dimensions  of  a  ship  with  a  suitable  coefficient. 

The  authors  of  some  of  these  approximate  formulae 
ignored  the  work  of  the  Froudes  showing  the  difference 
between  the  frictional  and  residuary  resistance  and  at- 

Page    138 




Wire  Rope  Pilot  Ladders 

Wire  Rope  Cargo  Nets  and  Save-alls 

All  Types  of  Splicing 

134  Sacramento  Street  SUtter  1-1362 

San  Francisco  1 1 


Nonporous  .  .  .  wifhstands  highest  steam  pressures.  Will  not 
melt,  harden  or  carbonize  .  .  .  resists  ammonia,  air,  oils, 
gases  and  acids.  EBONITE  will  retain  its  life  and  fleiibility 
after  ordinary  sheet  packings  have  broken  down.  Quaker  is 
the  sole  manufacturer  of  EBONITE. 

SERVING     ALU    THE    WEST    ■ 

168  Second  St.     g^^^  ^036  Santa  Fe  Ave. 
San  Francisco    P|^l         Los  Angeles 
EXbreok  3880         1^  ^ijl  Kimball  2201 

ctory:  Quaker  Rubber 

n,  Philadelphia.  Po 

tempted  to  obtain  the  total  resistance  by  a  complicated 
relationship  of  dimensions  and  areas  with  a  variable  co- 
efficient. Other  formulae  for  residual  resistance  only  fail- 
ed to  follow  the  law  of  comparison,  hence  calculated  re- 
sults versus  test  results  showed  agreement  at  one  speed 
only.  Such  formulae  usually  were  applicable  to  a  particu- 
lar type  of  vessel  with  which  the  originators  happened  to 
be  working.  A  formulae  for  residuary  resistance  given  by 
D.  W.  Taylor  about  1895  for  speeds  where  V-  is  less  than 
1.2  is:  L 

„      J                              ,u        12.5  b  D  V* 
Residuary  resistance  in  Ibs.^ r-j- 


b=block  coefficient 

D=displacement  in  tons 

V^speed  in  knots 

L=length  on  water-line  in  feet 

In  combination  with  a  frictional  resistance  calculated 
by  the  Froude  method  this  formula  gave  good  results. 

In  practical  shipbuilding  the  last  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century  saw  the  gradual  change  from  paddlewheels  to 
screw  propulsion  for  ocean  service,  the  reduction  of  sail 
power  on  steam  vessels,  and  the  general  acceptance  of 
first  iron  and  then  steel  as  building  materials.  Improved 
engineering  knowledge  led  to  larger  ships  and  more 
powerful  machinery.  The  particulars  of  some  of  the 
famous  Atlantic  liners  of  the  period  follow: 




City  of  Paris 











White  Star 


























I.  H.  P. 













Kaiser  Wilhelm 
Der  Grosse 








N.  Ger.  Lloyd 















38.2'  (Hold) 

35.8'  (Hold) 





L  H.  P. 








Part  III  of  Mr.  Baker's  article,  entitled  "Modern  Prac- 
tice" will  appear  in  the  February  issue  of  Pacific  Marine 

ress  at  Banquet  Aboard 
President  Cleveland 

I  Continued  from  page  136) 
added,  when  I  learned  that  one  of  the  biggest  maritime 
nations  in  the  world  was  so  intently  interested  in  defeat- 
ing the  Bill  by  sending  to  the  steps  of  our  Capitol  some 
trained  lobbyists,  I  decided  that  to  insure  an  American 
Merchant  Marine  at  any  cost  was  something  I  simply 
had  to  pursure.  Well,  as  you  know,  the  Subsidy  Bill  of 
that  period  was  killed  and  on  other  occasions  other  at- 
tempts were  made,  but  always  in  a  veiled  manner.  When 
Mr.  Roosevelt  became  President,  he  decided  to  call  it  by 
its  right  name  and  the  Subsidy  Bill  was  enacted  into  law. 
But  I  stiU  do  not  like  subsidies.  I  wonder,  if  all  of  us  here, 
and  all  others  (who  are  shippers  or  consignees)  would 
think  of  these  things  and  support  our  ships  come  hell  or 
high  water,  whether  we  tvould  require  subsidies. 

On  the  ship  operators'  side,  I  would  like  to  mention 
their  responsibilities  by  briefly  reminding  them  that  they 
are  the  servants,  not  the  masters,  of  the  trade.  By  this, 
I  mean  that  ships  are  of  no  value  to  shippers  who  have 

nothing  to  ship,  and  one  way  to  have  nothing  to  ship  is 
to  have  no  customers.  Yesterday  we  had  customers  and 
today  we  have  some,  though  not  enough.  But  we  cannot 
keep  our  present  customers  and  get  new  ones  if  the 
costs  of  getting  our  products  to  them  is  too  high  for  their 
pocketbooks.  It  is  well  and  good  to  say,  provided  we 
are  isolationists,  that  our  home  economy  comes  first,  but 
that  is  like  a  school  boy  thinking  that  when  he's  learned 
the  multiplication  table,  and  the  "goes  into's"  that  he 
knows  all  about  mathematics.  Unless  we  create  and  main- 
tain foreign  markets,  we  are  sunk  at  home,  and  one  way 
to  help  develop  this  line  of  economics  is  to  have  sure, 
efficient  and  cheap  transportation.  From  time  to  time,  I 
resent  carriers  agreeing  on  this  increase  and  that,  without 
consulting  or  at  least  taking  into  account  the  person  who 
pays  these  increases.  They  are  always  in  the  freight  rate  or 
the  handling  charges,  and  one  of  these  days  these 
charges  will  be  too  high  and  the  goods  will  simply  not 
move.  Under  such  conditions,  should  we  pay  subsidies 
to  the  ships  for  NOT  carrying  goods  that  they  could  have 
carried  IF  the  rates  were  within  reason.-' 

Incidentally,  I  wonder  why  we  haven't  kept  in  step 
with  labor  results.  I  do  not  mean  that  we  should  revert 
to  slave  conditions  or  to  low  wages,  but  I  do  refer  to  the 
intelligent  use  of  our  brains,  skills  and  the  employment 
of  labor-saving  equipment.  Sailors  use  the  latest  devel- 
opments aboard  ship  to  make  their  work  easier  and  more 
efficient — why  not  the  workers  on  the  docks.-'  I  am  one 
of  those  who  believe  that  eliminating  or  refusing  labor- 
saving  devices  is  criminal  and  just  as  degrading  as  low 
wages  and  long  hours. 

Some  years  ago  I  wrote  a  Bill  that  created  the  Manila 
Harbor  Board,  and  the  other  day  I  got  messing  around 
some  of  the  old  records.  Here  is  something  that  may  in- 
terest some  of  you  who  have  forgotten.  After  makint; 
numerous  changes  in  the  handling  of  ships  and  cargoes 
in  Manila,  we  received  this  letter: 

"The  S.S.  President  McKinley  of  the  Admiral  Oriental 
Line  arrived  at  the  port  of  Manila  at  6:00  a.m.  January 
24,  1924  and  was  berthed  at  the  pier  at  7:30  a.m.  4300 
tons  of  import  cargo  were  discharged  and  2900  tons  of 
export  cargo  were  laden  in  29  actual  working  hours,  or 
an  average  of  248  tons  per  hour.  The  vessel  sailed  for 
port  at  5:00  p.m.  January  25  (the  next  day),  or  35  hours 
after  her  arrival." 

Do  you  wonder  why  I  bring  up  the  ppint  of  compar- 
ing the  improvement  in  ships  and  "change,"  let's  call  it, 
in  cargo  handling — and  think  of  the  costs — and  the  pos- 
sible elimination  of  our  ships  from  the  seas  unless  we 
get  a  change  in  the  attitude  from  this  member  of  the 
team?  Perhaps  with  our  new  national  attitude  toward  a 
certain  foreign  country  we  might  expect  some  improve- 
ments along  this  irne.  I  am  confident  that  ONLY  tvitb 
the  American  attitude  in  our  labor  ranks,  will  we  be  able 
to  bring  this  member  of  the  team  into  a  full  working 
partnership,  and  very  greatly  to  his  advantage. 

So,  I  say  to  you,  the  responsibility  of  the  carriers  is 
something  that  goes  beyond  their  business.  The  American 
ship  operator,  the  American  producer,  whether  farm  or 
factory,  the  American  consumer  and  the  American's  cus- 
tomer abroad,  form  the  team,  and  they  must  work  to- 
gether. But  they  cannot,  without  the  proper  coach  and 
captain.  Since  I  was  one  of  those  who  helped  write  the 
Bill  that  created  the  present  Maritime  Commission,  I 
may  be  pardoned  if  I  presume  to  say  that  that  legislation 
is  now  obsolete  and  I  recommend  bringing  it  up  to  date. 
I  wonder  if  the  members  of  the  team  I  have  just  men- 
tioned should  not  get  together  and  sincerely  offer  some 
of  their  experience  and  talents  for  such  a  change  in  the 
present  laws. 

Page    140 



me  Rtvitui 

I  Lnbiicants  I 






A  new  marine  towing  record  — 
6,350  nniles  —  was  established 
recently   by   Socony  Vacuum   Oil 

Company,  Inc.,  in  towing  its  war  damaged  tanker  Mobilube  from  Subic  Bay  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  to  San  Francisco  Bay. 

When  a  Jap  torpedo  found  its  mark  in  January,  1943,  the  Mobilube's  hull  was  dam- 
aged and  her  engine  room  put  out  of  commission.  For  the  remainder  of  the  war  she 
served  the  Navy  as  a  mobile  oil  tank,  being  towed  behind  active  units  of  the  United 
States  Fleet. 

The  saga  of  this  record  tow  began  on  May  26,  1947,  when  a  Standard  Vacuum  Oil  Com- 
pany tanker,  the  Yorba  Linda,  steamed  out  of  Subic  Bay  with  the  Mobilube  in  tow 
behind  two  hundred  fathoms  of  Tubbs  Extra  Superior  Manila  Rope.  According  to  Cap- 
tain A.  L.  Clark,  the  Mobilube's  original  skipper,  the  strain  on  the  12"  Extra  Superior 
was  so  great  at  times  that  the  line  calipered  only  9%"  circ.   Extra  Superior  Manila  once 

again  proved  its  complete  dependability  and  brought  the 
tanker  home  safely  45  days  after  leaving  Subic  Bay. 

This  same  proven  dependability  can  be  yours  too,  when 
you  specify  Tubbs  Extra  Superior  Manila  Marine  Rope. 
Tubbs  SUPERCORE,  not  then  available,  can  now  also  be 
obtained  for  heavy  duty  jobs  like  this. 
















Editor  , 

i.  DeROCHIE,  Jr. 



PoeHlc  Coait 
Advertistng  Mgr. 
Lot  Angeloi  Office 

riD   J.    DeROCHIE 

Lot  Angelet 


Adverilting  Mgr, 
San  Froncfsco 

tittcripiion  rates: 

ki  year,  $2.00;  two  yean, 
I.I;  three  years,  $5.00;  for- 
ig  $1.00  additional  per  year; 
!>  copies,  25c. 

What  Is  a  Ship?     EdiU)rial  By  T.  Douglas  MacMullcn 

Swedish  Motorship  Seattle  for  Pacific  Service     ... 

Tanker  Transportation  By  M.  G.  Gamble 

Development  of  Ship  Forms  (Part  III)  By  William  A.  Baker 

The  Good  Neighbor  Fleet  Sails  Again       ..  .  •  ■  ■ 

Pollution  of  Navigable  Waters         By  Howaid  G.  Walters 

Stability  and  Trim  E.xperimcntal  Tank  By  John  H.  La  Dage 

With  the  Port  Engineers 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month,  George  W.  Curran  in  L.  A. 
Port  Engineer  of  the  Month.  George  Jackson  in  S.  F. 

Water  Treatment  in  the  Marine  Field  By  Dr  RC.  Ulmer 

Pacific  World  Trade 

Foreign  Trade  Zone  in  San  Francisco  By  Robert  H.  Wylie 

How  U.  S.  Exports  Have  Been  Financed 

U.  S.  Commercial  Co.  Quits 

New  Import  Regulations  for  Netherlands  Indies 

Travel  to  Japan 

Marine  Insurance 

The  London  Letter 

Admiralty  Decisions  By  Harold  S.  Dobbs     .... 

Pier  Watchmen's  Benefits 

Tuna  Clipper  Safety  Requirements  (Cont.)  By  David  W    Dieki 

Coast  Commercial  Craft    ...•••■ 
Tuna  Clipper  Santa  Elena 

Kort  Nozzles  On  New  Tow  Boats 

Your  Problems  Answered  By  "The  Chief 

The  Horse  Power 

Steady  As  You  Go!  "The  Skipper"  ... 

The  Earth's  Magnetism  and  Its  Effect  on  the  Ship  and  Compass 


Running  Lights 

On  the  Ways  .  

Largest  Strapping  Job 

Todd  Makes  Three  Conversions  On  One  Freighter 

News  Flashes  ■  ■ 

Solutions  to  Liberty  Ship  Faults         ... 














LOS  ANGELES   OFFICE 816  West  5th   Street.  Zone    13.    Telephone   Michigan   3I2« 


Men  who  work  with  ropes  prefer  Colum- 
bian— the  rope  that  is  easier  to  handle  and 
that  stays  on  the  job  longer. 

Columbian  Rope  is  preserved  and  water- 
proofed by  an  exclusive  process  that  keeps 
it  flexible  and  easy-working  regardless  of 
wetting  or  age.  This  same  Columbian  treat- 
ment staves  off  rotting,  maintains  full 
strength  of  the  rope  longer. 

Whatever  your  need,  Columbian  is  the 
preferred  line.  Columbian's  correct  lay 
means  perfect  balance  and  no  kinking. 

You  can  always  tell  genuine  Columbian 
Pure  Manila  Rope  by  the  red,  white,  and 
blue  surface  markers  running  through  one 
strand  in  3/j"  sizes  and  larger.  Insist  on  the 
red,  white,  and  blue  proof  of  top  rope 
quality  .  .  .  Columbian  Pure  Manila  Rope. 


400-90   Genesee  St.,  Auburn,  "The  Cordage  City",  N.  Y. 

Page  28 


T  IS  i\  SHIP? 

AT  THE  EDGE  OF  A  WYOMING  PRAIRIE  there  once  appeared  a  sign  that  read,  "Choose 
your  rut  with  care,  for  you  will  be  in  it  ior  the  next  500  miles."  And  that  was  a  long  way 
in  those  days. 

There  are  many  ruts  in  maritime  industry  thinkmg,  and  there  are  many  who  will  not 
climb  out.  Each  of  us  seems  to  pick  his  own  rut  and  seldom  even  thinks  of  other  branches  of 
the  industry.  For  instance, — the  diminishing  ship  construction,  which  to  many  people  seems 
to  indicate  the  end  of  the  world.    Just  what  is  a  ship?    Or  ship  construction? 

We  do  not  go  along  with  the  idea  that  ship  construction  is  finished,  nor  with  the  idea 
that  ship  construction  is  all  that  there  is  to  the  industry.  If  some  of  the  governmental  S-curves 
and  stop  signs  and  road  blocks  could  be  eliminated,  there  would  be  a  lot  more  ships.  Herbert 
Hoover  stated  recently  that  there  have  been  162  boards  and  commissions  to  investigate  the 
iVIerchant  Marine,  all  of  whom  came  up  with  the  conclusion  that  there  must  be  a  strong  Mer- 
chant Marine.  The  whole  industry  is  in  that  rut.  Let's  climb  out,  as  the  oil  people  are  doing 
in  the  tremendous  new  tanker  program  that  broke  almost  over  night.  And  as  the  Navy  is 
doing  in  its  plans  for  giant  carriers  and  undersea  tankers.  And  just  as  certain  steamship  com- 
panies are  doing  as  the  need  for  ships  generates  the  spirit  and  finance  needed  for  independent 
action.   The  chartering  days  may  soon  be  over. 

A  ship  is  an  important  symbol  of  a  mighty  industry  and  of  national  defense,  but  to  some 
it  is  merely  a  subsidy  rut.  They  do  not  realize  that  our  war-built  ships  were  obsolete  the  day 
they  were  built.  Nor  that  the  subsidies  required  for  the  ships  that  will  make  possible  an  Amer- 
ican world  trade  of  1 5  billion  dollars  a  year  are  about  14  of  1  %  of  the  trade  these  ships  help 
create.  The  federal  subsidy  for  paved  roads  is  four  times  as  much  and  for  potatoes  twice  as 
much.  Subsidies  for  ship  construction  are  a  cheap  way  for  keeping  the  country  strong.  Amer- 
ica can  afford  them. 

But  we  cannot  afford  to  give  our  ships  away  or  to  lend  them  to  other  countries  to  man 
and  sail.  Beyond  the  mere  transportation  which  they  provide,  there  is  the  matter  of  employ- 
ment for  our  crews,  control  of  cargo  routing,  and  the  handling  of  ship  repairs  and  services.  A 
shipyard  worker  keeps  six  and  a  half  other  Americans  at  work  in  other  industries  in  46  states. 
Let's  not  transfer  our  ship  assets  to  others.  This  rut  of  international  thinking  would  lead  to 
poverty  and  defeat.  The  easy,  beaten  path  of  giving  all  to  avoid  dispute  is  not  the  American  way. 
Beaten  paths  are  for  beaten  men. 

FEBRUARY»I948  Page  29 



Longitudinal  cross-section  of  the  Seattle 

Su/^edc^  "THoton^^lfr 

^0%  'poetic  Seno^ice 

With  cargo  handling  looming  as  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant elements  in  ship  operation,  the  industry  as  a 
whole  has  taken  a  special  interest  in  the  performance  of 
the  new  Johnson  Line  motorship  Seattle  which  visited 
West  Coast  ports  during  January  on  her  maiden  voyage 

from  Sweden.  She  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  five  fast 
cargo  liners  of  an  almost  entirely  new  type  ordered  by 
the  company.  These  vessels,  each  of  9100  tons  d.w.,  are 
intended  for  the  Europe-North  Pacific  service. 

The  Seattle,  delivered   in  November   1947,  is  being 

Promenade  and    Boat    Deck    Plants  of  the  Seattle 


FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page   31 

followed  by  two  more  sisterships  during  1948,  while  the 
remaining  two  of  the  series  will  be  delivered  as  soon 
as  the  capacity  of  the  shipyard  permits. 

The  new  ships  have  a  contracted  speed  of  I9j,'2  knots, 
fully  loaded.  They  will  thus  be  the  fastest  cargo  carriers 

in  the  services  between  America  and  Europe.  Indeed,  at 
the  time  when  the  Seattle  was  delivered,  no  faster  cargo 
ships  were  known  to  be  in  commission  anywhere  on  the 
high  seas. 

A  number  of  new  constructional  features  have  been 
incorporated  in  these  ships  in  order  to  gain  the  greatest 
possible  advantage  of  their  high  speed.  The  holds  and 
cargo  handling  gear  have  been  specially  designed  with 
a  view  to  quick  loading  and  discharging,  thereby  shorten- 
ing the  time  spent  in  port — a  feature  that  may  prove 
to  be  of  as  great  importance  as  the  high  speed. 

One  such  innovation  is  the  substitution  of  specially 
designed  electric  deck  cranes  for  the  customary  winches 
and  derricks,  each  ship  carrying  14  such  cranes.  More- 
over, the  number  of  hatches  has  been  increased  to  enable 
a  larger  number  of  gangs  to  work  simultaneously,  and 
the  efficiency  in  working  the  ship  is  further  improved 
through  the  arrangement  of  the  deck  fittings  and  rigging. 
In  order  to  aflord  the  cranes  more  unobstructed  space 
the  usual  after  mast  is  eliminated,  while  the  foremast 
has  no  other  function  than  to  support  the  lantern,  aerial, 
Tyfon  siren,  etc. 

There  are  six  refrigerated  holds  with  a  total  volume 
of  about  95,000  cu.  ft.  One  third  of  this  space  may  be 
refrigerated  for  carrying  deepfrozen  products  ( —  20 
Centigrades  which  is  —  4F. ). 

The  hull  is  all-welded,  signifying  inter  alia  that  the 
frames  are  welded  to  the  plating,  as  well  as  all  beams  to 
the  deck.  The  double  bottom  is  also  welded  all  around 
and  is  provided  with  extra  docking  keels,  which  enable 
the  ship  to  be  docked  with  a  couple  of  thousand  tons 
of  cargo  on  board.  Reinforcement  for  running  in  ice 
stretches  as  far  aft  as  to  the  forward  engine  room  bulk- 
head. The  definitive  shaping  of  the  hull  was  preceded  by 
exhaustive  model  trials  in  order  to  produce  the  most 
suitable  design.  The  propellers  were  also  tested  in  models, 
and  were  only  selected  after  a  number  of  different  types 
had  been  tried  out  in  combination  with  the  hull  models. 

The  ventilation  of  the  holds  is  effected  by  motor- 
driven  fans  in  deckhouses  on  the  fore  and  after  decks. 
Only  a  small  number  of  fixed  ventilators  of  the  ordinary 
type  are  installed.  All  holds  are  provided  with  devices 
for  extinguishing  fire  in  the  cargo.  The  ships  are  equipped 
with  all  modern  aids  to  navigation,  including  r.idar  and 

Stainless  steel  has  been  largely  used  in  galleys,  pan- 
tries, refrigerated  provision  rooms,  stores  and  wash- 
rooms. Like  most  John,son  Liners  these  new  ships  are 

Page  32 


equipped  with  comfortable  accommodation  for  a  limited 
number  of  passengers. 

Owing  to  these  novel  arrangements  the  Seattle  type 
differs  in  appearance  quite  considerably  from  other  mod- 
ern ships,  the  large  number  of  cranes,  the  single  mast. 

Top  to  bottom:  One  of  the  14  electrical 
hoist  cranes  on  the  Seattle.  Looking  aft 
from  the  bow  of  the  ship.  Looking  forward 
from    a    point    near    the    stern    of    the    ship. 

and  the  streamlined  hull  and  superstructure  giving  it 
a  very  special  silhouette. 

The  Seattle  series  has  been  planned  by  the  technical 
department  of  the  Johnson  Line  and  is  built  by  the 
Swedish  shipbuilders  Kocktwn  Mekaniska  Verkstad. 

The  Johnson  Line  has  been  operating  services  to  the 
North  Pacific  for  over  .SO  years.  Regular  sailings  were 
started  in  1914 — the  same  year  as  the  Panama  Canal  was 
opened,  whereas  the  first  voyage  on  this  line  was  made 
round  the  Horn  before  the  canal  was  completed. 

In  1912,  the  same  year  as  that  in  which  the  first  Diesel- 
driven  sea-going  vessel  in  the  world  was  completed,  the 
Johnson  Line  took  delivery — the  second  shipping  com- 
pany in  the  world  to  do  so — of  a  Diesel-engined  cargo 
liner.  In  1922  the  Company  was  the  first  to  possess  a 
fleet  consisting  entirely  of  Diesel  ships,  and  at  the  end 
of  1947  the  Johnson  Line  had  .t2  motor  vessels  aggre- 
gating 250,000  tons  in  traffic,  while  8  or  48.000  tons 
were  on  order. 

The  ships  are  propelled  by  two  Kockum-M.A.N. 
Diesel  engines  of  double-acting  type:  cylinder  diameter 
720  mm  and  stroke  1,200  mm.  Together  the  two  engines 
develop  14,000  shaft  HP  at  110  rev.  per  min.,  giving 
the  vessels  a  contracted  speed  of  19,'/2  knots. 

In  the  Seattle  class  of  ships  the  ordinary  winches  and 
derricks  are  replaced  by  no  less  than  14  electric  cranes 
of  a  new  design.  The  arrangement  of  the  cranes,  more- 
over, gives  them  an  exceptional  reach — 41  feet — making 
it  possible  to  handle  goods  from  and  to  the  ship  even  on 
the  second  railway  track  from  the  pierside.  The  lifting 
capacity  of  the  cranes  varies  from  2  to  5  ''ons,  and  up  to 
10  tons  in  some  hatches  by  operating  two  cranes  in  pairs. 
Two  of  them  can  be  used  for  lifting  engine  parts  directly 
out  of  the  engineroom  through  the  skylight,  and  by 
means  of  special  devices  they  can  also  handle  the  life- 

The  operating  controls  of  the  cranes  are  extremely 
simple  and  are  provided  with  effective  safety  devices  to 
prevent  casualties  from  faulty  manipulation. 

While  ships  of  this  class  and  size  usually  have  only 
five  hatches,  the  Seattle  has  seven.  This  enables  more 
gangs  to  be  at  work  simultaneously,  and,  moreover, 
affords  greater  possibilities  for  stowing  the  cargo  in  such 
a  way  as  to  make  it  easily  accessible  for  discharging.  The 
elimination  to  the  greatest  possible  extent  of  stanchions 
further  contributes  to  rapid  loading  and  unloading.  The 
interior  trimmings  of  the  holds  are  largely  vertical,  and 
all  holds,  including  the  refrigerated  chambers,  are  lighted 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page   33 

Axel   Ax:son  Johnson 
president  and  owner  of  the  Johnson  Line 

by  permanent  fixtures,  thereby  avoiding  the  trouble  of       ^ 
rigging  up  portable  lighting. 

All  the  shifting  beams  for  the  ordinary  holds  move 
on  roller  bearings  in  the  same  plane  as  the  hatch,  enabling 
the  cargo  to  be  got  at  without  lifting  any  beams. 

The   Seattle — view   of   crew's   quarter; 

Fred   Doelker 
West  Coast  manager  of  the  Johnson  Line 

Paqe   34 


By  M.  G.  GAMBLE,  Manager  Marine  DEpartment 
Standard  Oil  Company  of  New  Jersey 

One  of  the  foremost  questions  within  the  industry 
today  on  the  subject  of  tankers  is;  "Are  there  enough 
tankers?"  If  there  are,  "why  are  we  experiencing  such 
a  transportation  shortage?"  The  correct  answer  to  the 
first  question,  I  believe,  is  that  there  are  ample  tankers 
in  the  world  today.  As  of  October  1,  1947  there  were 
96  U.  S.  government-owned  T-2  type  vessels  in  tie-up, 
over  and  above  nearly  200  in  operation.  In  regard  to  the 
second  question,  the  prolonged  shipyard  strike  kept  a 
substantial  number  of  tankers  out  of  service  from  July 
to  November.  Several  months  have  been  required  in  most 
cases  to  process  the  purchase  by  private  industry  of  T-2's 
from  the  U.  S.  Maritime  Commission.  Also,  both  military 
and  commercial  requirements  have  proved  to  be  far  in 
excess  of  previously  estimated  needs.  All  these  factors,  I 
think,  explain  why,  in  spite  of  there  being  enough 
tankers  over  the  longet  term,  we  are  at  present  handi- 
capped by  an  artificial  shortage  of  water  transportation. 

Progress  is  now  being  made  in  returning  all  modern 
tankers  formerly  in  tie-up  to  active  operation,  and  steps 
are  being  taken  to  sell  all  Maritime  Commission  tankers 
promptly  to  private  interests.  However,  it  is  difficult  to 
foresee  when  all  of  these  steps  will  be  effective  in  remedy- 
ing the  situation,  because  of  the  extent  of  the  accumu- 
lated shortage.  As  vessels  taken  out  of  tie-up  for  sale  or 
operation  require  repairs,  the  shipyard  situation  will 
largely  govern  the  speed  with  which  the  shortage  can  be 
alleviated  and  finally  overcome. 

From  a  long-range  standpoint,  it  is  felt  that  building  in 
Europe — which  apparently  is  being  greatly  retarded  by 
material  and  labor  shortages — will  not,  in  itself,  provide 
all  tonnage  needed  to  keep  pace  with  world  requirements, 
and  construction  in  U.  S.  yards  will,  therefore,  be  neces- 

For  national-defense  purposes  tankers  should  be  fast, 
modern,  and  efficient  in  order  to  minimize  the  risk  from 
enemy  action  and  to  insure  prompt  delivery  of  cargo. 
No  less  is  this  true  for  economical  commercial  opera- 
tion. It  is  fortunate,  therefore,  that  the  government  has 
promoted  sales  to  legitimate  buyers  for  foreign  registry, 
as  this  will  provide  an  opportunity  in  the  future  for 
modernization  of  the  U.  S.-flag  tanker  fleet. 

War  Construction 

The  war  resulted  in  the  loss  of  about  40  per  cent  of 
the  prewar  worldwide  tanker  fleet.  However,  it  also 
had  the  effect  of  hastening  the  general  utilization  of 
larger  and  faster  ships.   For  example,  the  average  prewar 

M.  G.  Gambia 

American-flag  tanker  hud  a  deadweight  tonnage  of  about 
11,500  tons  and  a  speed  of  about  10  knots,  whereas 
today  the  average  American  tanker  lias  a  deadweight 
of  about  15,000  tons  and  a  speed  of  14  knots.  In  general, 
we  might  safely  say  that  the  size  and  speed  of  a  tanker, 
within  certain  limits,  are  all-important  in  reducing 
operating  costs.  This  is  particularly  true  with  today's 
high  and  rising  costs. 

Our  government  constructed  during  the  war  about 
9,000,000  tons  of  T-2  type  tankers.  These  vessels  have 
a  deadweight  of  about  16,600  tons,  a  speed  of  15  knots, 
and  a  capacity  of  138,000  bbl.  of  gasoline.  In  most 
trades  oil  can  be  transported  in  them  about  25  per  cent 
cheaper  than  in  a  prewar  13,000-ton  12-knot  tanker, 
and  for  about  30  to  40'  per  cent  less  than  on  the  old 
11,000-ton  vessels.  Looking  at  this  question  in  another 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page  35 

argo   capacity;    bu!H    by   Sun   In    1940;    Sun-Doxford    On 

way,  it  is  estimated  that  out-of-pocket  operating  costs 
have  about  doubled  since  1939.  However,  the  increased 
size  and  speed  of  the  modern  fleet,  with  consequent  m- 
creased  haulage  capacity,  has  fortunately  reduced  the  cost 
per  ton-mile,  so  that  the  effective  rise  on  that  basis  has 
only  been  about  65  per  cent. 

New  Tanker  Types 
Inasmuch  as  it  is  obvious  from  the  foregoing  that 
large,  fast  tankers  are  an  answer  to  the  high  cost  which 
owners — and,  I  might  say,  particularly  American  owners 
— are  experiencing  today,  the  question  naturally  arises 
as  to  how  far  one  should  go  in  this  matter  of  size  and 
speed.  Since  difficulties  have  been  experienced  in  accom- 

modating T-2  tankers  in  many  ports,  some  may  question 
the  advisability  of  going  to  still  larger  ships.  However, 
various  waterway  improvement  projects  already  carried 
out  or  in  progress  by  the  U.  S.  Army  Engineers,  coupled 
with  terminal  improvements  by  private  companies,  have 
greatly  improved  this  situation.  Recent  studies  made  on 
this  subject  by  our  technical  staff  have  led  to  the  design 
of  a  26,000-ton  l6-knot  vessel  with  a  length  of  628  ft. 
and  a  draft  on  summer  freeboard  of  31  ¥2  ft.  This  is  felt 
to  be  the  most  practical  answer  to  the  foregoing  question. 
The  draft,  which  is  only  slightly  more  than  a  foot  above 
that  of  a  T-2,  will  permit  this  large  vessel  to  enter  the 
majority   of  ports  which   can   accommodate   T-2's   with 

16.408   dwt.   Turbo   electri 

apacity;    built    by    Sun 



Page  36 



THIS  IS  THE  NEW  GIANT  TANKER  referred  to  in  Mr.  Gamble's  article.  It 
will  appri)xiniate  27,000  deadweight  tons,  carry  some  228,000  barrels,  and  save  about 
20',:  in  transportation  costs  over  the  T'2.  Sun  Shipbuildino;  and  Drydock  Co.  and 
Newport  News  already  have  contracts  for  this  type  from  Standard  of  New  Jersey, 

Socony,  and  Gulf  Oil. 

full  cargo.  The  cargo  tank  capacity,  after  making  tlic 
usual  allowance  for  expansion,  is  about  228,000  bbl.  It 
is  estimated  that  transportation  costs  on  such  a  vessel 
would  be  about  20  per  cent  less  than  on  a  T-2.  Natu- 
rally, the  use  of  this  size  of  tanker  will  involve  some 
sacrifice  in  flexibility,  both  as  regards  the  grades  that 
may  be  carried  and  the  terminals  at  which  they  can 
be  accommodated.  In  the  early  stages,  these  vessels 
would  probably  be  used  principally  with  fuel  oil  and 
crude  oil;  but,  with  the  present  upward  trends  in  the 
volume  of  petroleum  products  consumed,  it  is  a  safe 
assumption  that,  as  time  goes  on,  they  will  be  used  to 
an  increasing  extent  for  the  transportation  of  products. 
Also,  as  vessels  of  this  size  increase  in  use,  they  will 
be  taken  into  account  in  the  design  of  future  terminal 
facilities,  and  in  the  improvements  in  existing  ones  both 
here  and  abroad. 

Operating  Costs 

Just  as  high  operating  costs  highlight  the  need  for 
large  fast  tankers,  so  do  these  high  costs  (many  of  which 
go  on  in  port  the  same  as  at  sea)  accentuate  the  need 
for  quick  turnaround.  The  average  cost  of  a  T-2  at  the 
dock  is  about  S  1,800  per  day,  which  gives  some  idea  of 
the  importance  of  keeping  port  time  to  a  minimum. 
Given  the  proper  shore  facilities,  a  modern  tanker  is 
capable  of  loading  or  discharging  at  a  rate  of  at  least 
10,000  bbl.  per  hour.  It  is  in  the  common  interest  of  all 
concerned,  therefore,  including  suppliers  and  consignees, 
to  provide  loading  and  discharging  facilities  with  the 
maximum  capacity  justified  by  the  volume  handled.  In 
normal  times,  when  rates  follow  closely  the  marker  situa- 
tion, the  charterer  with  a  reputation  for  quick  turn- 
arounds will  be  favored  over  others.  Another  factor  which 
may  react  to  the  charterers'  benefit  is  the  covering  of  their 
requirements  well  in  advance  and  for  as  long  a  period 
as  practicable.  Over  the  long  run,  rates  reflect  the  owner's 
costs;  and  it  is,  therefore,  in  the  interest  of  all  concerned 
to  keep  these  costs  to  a  minimum. 

Beginnings  of  Inland-Waterway  Transport 

Let  us  now  turn  from  the  subject  of  ocean  tankers 
and  discuss  briefly  inland-water  operations  in  the  United 
States.  Here  there  are  more  than  26,000  miles  of  navi- 
gable waters.  Of  this  total,  9,200  miles,  or  about  35  per 
cenr,  have  a  depth  of  9  ft.  or  more;  and  14,300  miles,  or 
about  54  per  cent,  are  6  ft.  or  more  in  depth.  The  re- 
mainder have  depths  less  than  6  ft. 

Inland-waterway  transportation  began  at  the  time  oil 
was  discovered  in  Pennsylvania  in  1859.  Oil  was  then 
moved  on  rafts,  which  were  steered  by  poles  and  floated 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

with  the  current  from  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Allegheny 
River  to  the  Pittsburgh  area.  Since  this  early  beginning, 
transportation  has  evolved  until  in  recent  years  large 
single  barges,  or  groups  of  them  in  flotilla  are  towed  or 
pushed  in  our  inland  rivers.  On  other  waterways,  where 
deeper  drafts  are  possible  and  other  considerations  favor- 
able, small  self-propelled  tank  vessels  are  used.  However, 
by  far  the  greater  volume  is  still  transported  in  non- 
propelled  equipment. 

Non-propelled  Equipment 

One  might  ask  why  greater  utilization  is  not  made  of 
self-propelled  equipment.  The  answer,  as  far  as  our  own 
operations  are  concerned,  is  that,  in  the  majority  of  river 
operations,  the  greatest  economy  lies  in  the  use  of  non- 
propelled  equipment  handled  by  powerful  pusher-type 
towboats,  and  in  certain  other  operations  barges  towed 
by  conventional  tugboats  give  better  results.  The  latest 
type  of  river  towboats  has  a  horsepower  of  2,000,  and 
pushes  twelve  9,000-bbl.  barges,  making  a  total  capacity 
for  one  tow  of  108,000  bbl. 

With  a  tow  of  this  kind,  one  or  more  barges  are  re- 
leased as  terminals  are  reached  on  the  route,  and  the 
towboat  with  the  remaining  barges  continues  on  the 
voyage,  thereby  avoiding  the  laying  up  of  the  power 
plant  while  barges  are  being  discharged,  as  would  be 
the  case  with  a  self-propelled  barge.  When  a  sharp 
bend,  coupled  with  a  narrow  channel  and  perhaps  a 
swift  current,  makes  the  going  hazardous,  the  majority 
of  the  barges  may  be  moored  while  the  towboat  takes 
one  at  a  time  over  the  difficult  crossing.  Also,  addi- 
tional barges  of  suitable  type  and  draft  may  be  rented 
for  use  with  the  tow  as  occasion  requires.  In  our 
western-rivers  operations,  the  usual  permissible  draft 
is  in  the  neighborhood  of  9  ft.  to  10  ft.,  which,  coupled 
with  other  local  conditions,  is  not  satisfactory  for  eco- 
nomical self-propelled  barge  operations. 

On  the  Gulf  Intracoastal  Canal  and,  to  some  extent, 
along  the  inland  waterways  of  the  Atlantic  seaboard, 
barges  towed  by  small  tugboats  of  the  type  seen  around 
New  York  Harbor  are  commonly  used.  Tugs  and  barges 
have,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  also  been  found  to  be 
the  most  economical  units  for  bunkering  large  vessels. 
This  is  because  of  the  length  of  time  consumed  along- 
side the  ship  being  bunkered  and  the  consequent  saving 
of  the  power  plant's  time.  This  saving  is  especially  im- 
portant today  with  the  prevailing  high  wages. 

Again  referring  to  our  own  company's  operations,  in 
the  Clhesapeake  Bay,  the  Erie  Canal,  the  New  York  State 
Barge  Canal,  and  the  Great  Lakes,  as  well  as  for  short 

Page  37 









'»,,.    j. 

k  '■    ^. 



















Aerial  photograph  of  the  Standard  of  California    j 
tanker  J.  L.  Hanna  heading  upstream  on  the  sunny    i) 

coastwise  trips  on  the  north  Atlantic  seaboard,  conditions 
are  favorable  for  the  use  of  self-propelled  equipment. 
Stich  of  our  equipment  now  in  use  consists  of  6  self- 
propelled  diesel  barges  ranging  in  capjicity  from  about 
600  bbl.  to  1 3,700  bbl.  Our  people  are  now  taking  steps 
to  acquire  larger  units  with  capacities  of  more  than 
18,()0()  bbl.  for  use  in  the  New  York  State  Barge  Canal 
and  on  the  Clreat  Lakes. 

Barge  transportation  costs  vary  with  the  volume  in- 
volved in  each  shipment,  the  distance  covered,  the  effi- 
ciency of  the  unit  used,  and  the  extent  of  delays  at  termi- 
n.ds  and  in  transit.  Where  conditions  are  favorable  for 
the  use  of  self-propelled  equipment,  the  larger  and 
faster  the  vessel  up  to  limits  governed  by  local  conditions, 
the  lower  will  be  the  transportation  costs. 

In  any  new  inland-waterway  operation  wliere  a  choice 
must  be  made  as  to  the  type  of  equipment  to  be  used, 
the  right  decision  can  only  be  reached  after  a  careful 
study  of  all  the  factors  involved.  Among  these  are: 

1 .  The   physical    characteristics   of   the   waterway,    i.e., 

whether  open  but  "easy"  water,  open  with  strong 
current,  locks  present;  or  whether  there  are  shal- 
low crossings  with  swift  currents,  sharp  bends,  etc. 

2.  Kind  of  terminal   facilities  available  at  loading  and 

discharging  ports. 
V    Volumes  to  be  handled  annu.dly. 

4.  Size  of  deliveries. 

5.  Generally   accepted   local   competitive   transportation 


6.  Labor  and  other  costs. 

7.  Special  regulations  governing  the  use  of  waterways. 
Taking  all  of  these  factors  into  account,  an  economic 

study  is  made  to  determine  the  most  advantageous  and 
economical  type  and  size  of  equipment  for  the  intended 

Among  the  advances  made  in  recent  years  in  barging 
equipment  are  the  following; 

1.  Improvement  in  the  lines  of  non-propelled  barges; 

For  many  years  short  stubby  rakes  at  the  bow  and 
stern  were  used.  The  latest  design  in  these  barges 
employs  the  so-called  "Dravo  hull,"  which  has 
been  developed  after  exhaustive  model  basin  tests. 
With  this  design,  the  rakes  at  both  ends  are  longer, 
but  the  stern  is  designed  in  such  a  way  as  to 
facilitate  the  clearance  of  water  and  the  elimination 
of  dr.-ig. 

2.  Tile   stern-wheel    towboat,    so   long    in    use   on    the 

Mississippi  River  and  tributaries,  and  very  aptly 
described  in  a  recent  issue  of  The  La??ip  under  the 
title  "Big  Mama,"  is  being  replaced  gradually  by 
a  more  powerful  pusher-type  towboat  with  finer 
lines  and  conventional  twin  screws.  Two  of  the 
new  type  are  now  being  built  for  our  company. 

3.  As  time  goes  on,  no  doubt  there  will  be  a  more  ex- 

tensive use  of  twin-screw  self-propelled  barges  of 
from  15,000-bbl.  to  20,000-bbl.  capacity,  with 
speeds  up  to  12  knots  and  drafts  of  more  than  12  ft. 

Water-Transport  Advantages 

In  conclusion,  I  should  like  to  stress  the  advantage 
of  water  transportation  from  the  standpoint  of  flexi- 
bility wherever  conditions  are  favorable  to  its  use.  Both 
ocean  tankers  and  inland-waterway  equipment  can  be 
readily  moved  from  one  area  of  operation  to  another  to 
suit  changed  conditions.  As  petroleum  becomes  more 
extensively  used  throughout  the  world,  the  need  for  its 
tran.sportation  by  water  gains  increasing  importance,  and 
today  the  best  estimates  of  normal  postwar  shipping 
show  tankers  comprising  almost  half  of  the  total  U.  S. 
merchant  fleet. 


By  WILLIAM  A.  BAKER,  Assistant  to  Naval  Architect, 

BethlEliem  Steel  Company's  San  Francisco  Yard. 

Part  III 

Modern  Practice 

Russell  and  Rankine  with  their  respective  theories  on 
the  resistance  of  ships  directed  the  attention  of  naval 
architects  to  the  importance  of  wave-making  and  fric- 
tional  resistance;  it  fell  to  William  Froude  and  his  son 
to  combine  the  two  in  their  proper  relation.  It  is  beyond 
the  scope  of  this  paper  to  give  detailed  accounts  of  the 
multitude  of  experimenters  who  followed.  There  have 
been  additional  frictional  experiments,  series  tests  to  de- 
termine the  effect  of  methodical  changes  of  form,  tests 
of  ships  in  waves  as  well  as  those  for  wave-making,  etc. 

For  the  average  ship  designer  the  works  of  David  W. 
Taylor  of  this  country  and  G.  S.  Baker  of  England  are  the 
most  useful;  for  some  forms  those  of  Mclintee,  Semple, 
Robertson  and  Ackcrson  may  also  be  consulted. 

At  the  present  time  there  are  three  general  methods 
for  determining  the  power  required  to  propel  a  new  ship 
at  the  desired  speed:  By  the  oid  Admiralty  coefficient,  by 
independent  estimate  or  by  model  tank  test.  In  practice 
the  Admiralty  coefficient  is  normally  used  for  rough 
estimates  in  the  preliminary  stages  of  a  design,  while, 
unless  the  ship  is  to  be  of  unusual  form  for  which  no 
data  exists,  the  model  test  is  used  as  a  check  on  some 

FEBRUARY     •      I94i 

Page   39 

form  of  independent  estimate.  The  independent  estimate 
can  be  calculated  from  model  results  of  similar  ships,  by 
Taylor's  "Standard  Series",  from  Ayre's  curves  or  from 
C  curves  published  by  Baker  and  others. 

The  methodical  series  tests  performed  by  D.  W.  Tay- 
lor form  the  basis  of  the  well-known  "Standard  Series" 
which  are  presented  as  contours  of  residuary  resistance 
per  ton  for  constant  values  of  V/\/L  plotted  on  grids  of 
DISPL.  /  /  L      \  ^  ^"'^  prismatic  coefficient.  There  are 


two  sets  of  charts  showing  the  contours  for  beam-draft 
ratios  of  3.75  and  2.25  respectively;  values  for  ship  be- 
tween these  ratios  are  interpolated. 

The  following  describes  the  basic  model: — "In  1902  a 
model  numbered  164,  constructed  to  the  lines  of  the 
British  armored  cruiser  Leviathan  of  the  Drake  class 
(1900),  was  tested  in  the  U.  S.  Experimental  Model 
Basin  at  Washington.  The  design  embodied  a  bulbous 

ram  bow  with  a  twin-screw  cruiser  stern,  on  a  ship  of 
the  following  characteristics:  — 

Length  on  load  waterline 521  '0" 

Length  between  perpendiculars 500'0" 

Beam   71'1" 

Draft,  zero  trim  26'0" 

Displacement,  Salt  water 14100   tons 

Block  coef .0.513 

Midsection  coef 0.923 

Prismatic  coef.  ...   0.555 

Waterplane  coef ...0.660 

"For  years  later  at  Washington  the  sectional  area 
curve,  waterline  plane,  and  bow  and  stern  profiles  of  this 
model,  together  with  a  mathematically  derived  body 
plan,  were  chosen  for  Model  632.  This  model  was  used 
as  the  parent  form  to  develop  thirty-eight  (  38 )  models, 
designated  Series  18,  for  an  investigation  of  the  effect  of 
changes  in  longitudinal  coefficient  or  resistance  .  .  ." 
One  point  which  some  fail  to  note  in  estimating  the 

Salient  features  known  to  be  necessary  to  ensure  good  performance  for  various  types  of  ships: 

Type  of  ship 

Pris.  Coef. 


Slow  speed  cargo 



Medium  speed 



Cargo  liners 





High  speed  liners 
and  fast  coastal 
passenger  vessels 
0.65  and 

Length  of  parallel 


up  to  25%.  de- 
pending on  beam 

up  to      up  to 

25%       20% 

10%      0%. 
with  hollow  L.W.L. 
fwd.  0%   with 
straight  L.W.L. 




0.8       1.00 




L     must  be  long 

enough  to  avoid 




L.C.B.  as  '~',   L  from 
amidships.  Single 
screw  ships. 
Shape  of 
area  curve 

2%— 1.0% 
fwd.  fwd. 

straight  ends 

2%— 1.0% 
fwd.  fwd. 

straight  ends — 
medium  hollow 

1V2%   to   1/2% 


straight  ends — 
hollow  curve  fwd. 

1.0'  c  fwd.  to  . 
1.0%  aft. 

fine  entrance 

'/<%  aft  to 
1%  aft. 

fine  ended  curve  of 
areas.  Bulbous  bow 
useful  above 

Shape  of 

Bow — slightly 
convex  through- 
out— fairly  straight 
slope  >20°C 

Bow  convex — 
Bow  convex 
to  straight 

Bow  lines  either 
straight  and  long 
entrance  or  hollow 
and  jhort 

Bow  lines  hollow 
— bow  lines 

Fine  L.W.L. 
fwd.  hollow 

]/2  Ent.  Angle 
on  L.W.L. 

Midship  sec. 

35°   32° 

30°       27° 

24°      16° 
straight  or 
12°  hollow 

18°      12°  hollow 
or  up  16°  straight 


Down  to  6"  with 


Cruiser  stern:  Reduces  resistance  up  to  6' ,   for  slow  speed  cargo  ships. 
From  "The  Fundamentals  of  Ship  Form"  F.  H.  Todd. 

Page  40 

I  Please  turn  to  page  90] 


Following  up  the  lengthy  technical  article  on  Moore- 
McCormack's  "Good  Neighbor  Fleet"  in  the  June  1947 
Pacific  Marine  Review,  the  story  of  the  completion  and 
sailing  of  the  Argentina  on  January  15  heralds  the  re- 
sumption of  service  on  the  route  which  she  left  a  few 
days  after  Pearl  Harbor  when  she  was  drafted  by  the 
Army  and  started  on  the  career  of  a  troop  carrier.  Serv- 
ing in  this  capacity  until  August  31,  1946,  she  steamed 
335,906  miles  and  carried  approximately  200,000  pas- 

Today,  fully  reconverted  and  overhauled  at  the  Brook- 
lyn 56th  Street  yard  of  Bethlehem  Steel  (Company  she 
is  in  every  respect  better  than  her  former  self.  A  number 
of  improvements  have  been  added  to  satisfy  the  latest 
demands  for  safety  and  to  insure  every  convenience  and 
comfort  according  to  present  standards  of  travel. 

The  Argentina  is  the  second  largest  liner  in  the  Amer- 
ican merchant  marine  to  resume  postwar  service.  She 
is  one  of  three  sister  ships  owned  by  the  U.  S.  Maritime 
Commission  and  operated  by  Moore-McCormack,  tiie 
other  two  being  the  Brazil  and  the  Uruguay.  Altiiough 
she  was  the  last  of  the  trio  to  be  laid  up  for  reconversion, 
she  is  the  first  to  be  completed.  She  entered  the  Brooklyn 
56th  Street  Yard  in  November  1946  and  work  was 
started  shortly  after  her  arrival.  However,  due  to  the 
strike  of  the  shipyard  workers  during  the  summer  and 
early   fall  of  last  year  work  was  suspended   for  about 

five  months,  making  the  actual  working  time  about 
eight  months.  This  is  the  largest  peacetime  reconversion 
job  ever  handled  in  New  York  harbor. 

The  contract  for  the  conversion  in  general  called  for 
restoring  the  vessel  to  its  prewar  condition.  This  in- 
cluded removal  of  standee  berths,  messing  facilities,  and 
all  defense  features — gun  foundations,  armor,  magazines, 
degaussing  equipment,  and  many  others  added  to  the 
vessel  by  the  Army.  All  public  spaces  were  completely 
stripped  and  modern  furniture  and  furnishings,  murals 
and  other  decorations  installed.  The  staterooms  as  well 
as  officers'  and  crew's  accommodations  were  likewise  re- 
decorated and  equipped  with  new  furnishings. 

In  addition  the  vessel  was  fire-proofed  in  accordance 
with  the  U.  S.  Coast  Guard  requirements,  a  procedure 
which  meant  the  installation  of  incombustible  ceilings, 
linings,  fire  screen  bulkheads,  new  steel  stairways,  ade- 
quate escapes,  an  extensive  sprinkler  system,  and  many 
other  features. 

The  Argentina  is  a  twin-screw  vessel  with  turbo-elec- 
tric drive  of  18,000  horsepower,  613  ft.  long  with  80  ft. 
beam  and  a  loaded  draft  of  34  ft.  Her  prewar  speed  was 
rated  at  I8V2  knots  although  she  actually  exceeded  that 
figure.  The  registered  gross  tonnage  is  20,500,  the  dis- 
placement 33,000  tons.  General  cargo  space  is  450,000 
cu.  ft.  bale  capacity,  in  6  holds,  with  additional  95,000  cu. 
ft.  refrigerated  space  in  3  holds.  After  her  conversion  she 

lent    Moore-McCor 
mack  Lines,  Inc. 



Page  4! 

I  *9  ■ 

S'  . 


■  Kirr  I  i  [  I  iXi  wwt  ftxi-r  r 

,0  "m "  ^:'~':  triii^iiiirr^'^  ^  ":i 

Outboard  profile.  For  inboard  profile,  see  folded  inserf. 

now  accommodates  359  passengers  in  First  Class  and 
160  in  Tourist,  with  a  crew  of  380  officers  and  men. 

Soon  after  her  arrival  in  the  yard  the  Argentina  was 
placed  in  drydock  for  survey.  The  underwater  bottom 
was  sand-blasted  in  four  days,  an  exceptionally  fast  per- 
formance on  a  vessel  of  this  size.  Due  to  the  extensive 
bottom  work  that  turned  up,  she  remained  in  drydock 
until  January  20.  A  number  of  bottom  plates  were  re- 
newed, and  several  thousand  rivets  were  renewed  and  or 
welded  as  required. 

The  boilers  and  propulsion  machinery  and  all  pumps 
and  auxiliaries  were  opened,  inspected,  and  the  neces- 
sary repairs  performed.  All  cargo  and  service  refrigera- 
tion spaces  were  completely  gutted  and  renewed,  using 
mineral  wool  insulation.  Thousands  of  feet  of  electric 
wire  and  cable  were  torn  out  and  the  lighting  system 
renewed  in  its  entirety,  modern  indirect  lighting  being 
used  wherever  suitable.  AH  interior  communication  sys- 
tems were  removed  and  renewed,  and  all  electric  motors 
on  the  ship  were  completely  overhauled,  cleaned  and 
tested.  The  existing  radio  and  radar  were  completely  over- 
hauled also. 

After  a  hydrostatic  test,  it  was  found  necessary  to  re- 
place the  hot  and  cold  salt-water  system  throughout  the 
vessel.  Existing  lead  soil  lines  were  also  removed  and 
new  welded  steel  soil  lines  installed.  Sanitary  fixrures, 
such  as  tubs,  wash  basins,  and  water  closets  were  taken 
out  and  replaced  with  modern  fixtures. 

A  new  steel  deck  was  installed  in  way  of  the  galley 
on  the  C  deck,  and  the  ship's  service  refrigeration  boxes 
on  the  D  deck,  as  it  was  found,  upon  removing  the  cov- 
ering in  these  areas,  that  the  original  steel  decking  was 
almost  completely  wasted.  About  1,000  additional  tons 
of  block  ballast  was  placed  in  No.  3  hold. 

Included  in  the  inspection  of  the  vessel  was  the 
drilling  of  all  steel  decks,  bulkheads  and  shell  plating, 
to  gauge  their  thickness.  Another  large  item  was  the  sur- 
vey of  the  wood  decking  throughout  the  ship,  a  large 
part  of  which  it  was  found  necessary  to  replace.  Oregon 
pine,  3x4  in.,  with  edge  grain  on  the  exposed  surface, 
was  used,  and  all  decking  was  repayed  and  caulked  pre- 
paratory to  sanding  to  a  smooth  finish.  Deck  covering 
was  also  removed  in  all  foyers  and  in  many  of  the  public 
spaces  and  replaced  with  magnesite  terrazo. 

All  drinking-water  tanks  were  cleaned,  scraped  to  bare 
metal  and  recoated.  Doors  of  every  description — weather 
doors,  screen  doors,  and  joiner  doors  were  reconditioned 
or  renewed,  as  found  neces.sary.  All  windows  were  re- 

placed with  new  modern  types  and  existing  airports  re- 
conditioned and  equipped  with  scoops  and  insect  screens 
throughout.  Cargo-port  doors  and  other  openings  sealed 
off  by  the  Army  to  meet  blackout  requirements  were  re- 
stored to  their  original  condition. 

In  the  redecoration  and  lefurnishing  of  the  ship, 
major  emphasis  has  been  placed  on  simplicity  in  all 
decorative  treatment.  Pleasing  and  attractive  effects  have 
been  attained  by  various  color  combinations  and  by 
suitable  design  and  placement  of  furniture,  plants  and 
flowers.  Murals  and  sculpture  play  a  secondary  part  and 
do  not  dominate  the  scenes.  Donald  Deskey  Associates, 
of  New  York,  designed  and  selected  the  interior  decora- 

Several  features  of  the  Argentina  will  attract  the 
attention  of  the  traveling  public.  The  main  lounge,  on 
the  promenade  deck,  is  large  and  formal.  It  has  been 
named  the  Tango  Room,  as  a  tribute  to  the  dance  which 
all  the  world  associates  with  Argentina.  A  multi-purpose 
room,  the  lounge  lends  itself  Hexibly  to  a  number  of 
uses,  from  comfortable  lounging  to  dancing  and  other 
types  of  entertainment.  A  stage  has  been  erected  at  one 
end.  Behind  the  stage  is  a  movie  projection  booth  and 
film  storage.  Facing  the  stage  is  a  large  mural,  a  seascape 
by  Loren  Maclver  entitled  "Voyage."  Large  French  win- 
dows open  into  the  promenade  deck  on  both  sides.  The 
old  wood  flooring  has  been  removed  and  replaced  with 
magnesite  underlayment  for  a  carpet,  except  at  the 
center  where  a  vinyl  tile  dance  floor  has  been  laid  over 
the  underlayment  and  where  the  carpet  can  be  removed 
during  dancing.  White,  warm  grey,  bluish  grey  and 
brown  are  the  predominating  colors  in  walls,  rugs,  furni- 
ture, and  hangings. 

Continuous  ribs  run  across  the  ceiling  athwartship, 
recalling  the  character  of  the  ship's  framing.  In  the 
center  of  the  ceiling  a  transverse  frame  with  longitudinal 
baffles  forms  an  egg-crate  effect  below  the  skylight. 
Through  this  device  natural  daylight  enters,  while  at 
night  artificial  light  is  admitted,  to  give  a  diffused,  glare- 
free,  highly  pleasing  effect. 

The  lounge  and  all  other  public  spaces  are  equipped 
with  an  entertainment  sound  system  for  broaticasting 
radio  programs  and  recorded  music. 

Immediately  forward  of  the  lounge  is  the  library, 
named  for  a  former  chief  officer  of  the  Argentina, 
Captain  Henry  Olin  Billings,  who  died  a  hero's  death 
when  his  ship  was  sunk  oft  the  coast  of  Africa  in  1942. 
A  bronze  plaque  has  been  placed  in  this  room  to  indi- 
cate that  Captain  Billings  has  been  chosen  as  a  repre- 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Page  43 

Diagram  showing  arrangement  of  main  galley,  as  well  as  various  bakeshops  and   pantries. 

sentative  of  the  many  young  Americans  carried  by  this 
vessel  who  never  returned  from  the  war.  The  plaque  has 
the  following  inscription: 

"To  the  men  and  women  of  the  Armed  Forces  of  the 
United  States  who  went  in  this  ship  to  meet  the  enemy 
in  World  War  II  and  gave  their  lives  that  the  ideals  of 
their  country  might  survive,  this  library  is  reverently 

The  library  offers  a  quiet,  secluded  atmosphere,  with 
the  main  decorative  motifs  in  grey,  brown,  and  natural 

The  smoking  room  with  adjoining  writing  room,  aft 
of  the  lounge,  is  an  H-shaped  room,  with  a  centrally 
located  bar.  Pole  trellises  with  growing  plants  are  placed 
on  each  side  of  the  banquette  seats  and  tables  facing  the 
bar,  to  supplement  the  intimate  quality  of  the  room  with 
one  of  freshness.  A  mural  of  Eric  Mose  on  the  wall  above 
the  seats  and  extending  into  the  dome  depicts  the  eco- 
nomic pattern  of  South  America. 

Light  grey  terrazzo  is  used  for  deck  coverings,  with  the 
predominating  color  in  walls  and  furnishings  a  warm 
grey  and  natural  oak. 

Located  aft  on  the  promenade  deck  is  the  veranda 
cafe,  known  as  the  Mar  Del  Plata  Club,  and  named  for 
the  famous  watering  resort  near  Buenos  Aires,  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  places  of  its  kind  in  South  America. 
French  windows  face  the  promenade  on  both  sides, 
while  large  glass  doors  open  onto  the  swimming  pool. 

Banquette  seats  and  tables  are  arranged  along  the  port 
and  starboard  walls,  and  small  tables  and  comfortable 
chairs  elsewhere  around  the  room.  A  large  mirror  behind 
the  bar  reflects  the  deck  activities  and  augments  the 
apparent  size  of  this  relatively  small,  but  highly  attrac- 
tive cafe.  Gay  colors  are  used  throughout,  creating  an 
atmosphere  of  light  cheerfulness.  Trellis  screens  with 
climbing  plants  add  much  to  the  charm  of  the  room. 

The  large  outdoor  swimming  pool,  immediately  aft  of 
the  veranda  cafe,  has  been  completely  refinished  with 
an  attractive  lining  of  blue  tile  and  with  underwater 
lighting  and  overhead  flood  lights  for  night  swimming. 

Both  the  First  Class  and  the  Tourist  dining  rooms  are 
on  the  C  deck,  separated  by  galley  and  pantries  and  by  a 
large,  roomy  emergency  escape  within  easy  access  of 
the  entire  area,  providing  an  escape  up  to  the  promenade 

The  two  dining  rooms  extend  the  full  width  of  the 
ship,  and  both  have  a  central  dome  with  special  lighting 
arrangement.  In  First  Class  this  is  an  egg-crate  construc- 
tion similar  to  that  in  the  main  lounge,  in  Tourist  Class  an 
indirect  lighting  effect.  Flush-mounted  ceiling  lights  are 
used  on  the  outboard  sides.  Oak  tables  on  metal  pedestals 
are  used  in  both  dining  rooms,  and  are  arranged  for 
from  two  to  fourteen  persons  in  First  Class,  and  from 
two  to  eight  in  Tourist.  The  two  dining  rooms  will  seat 
300  and  166  persons,  respectively. 

Both  dining  rooms  are  air-conditioned,  and,  like  all 

Page  44 




PACIFIC     MARINE     REVIEW  FEBRUARY     •      19 

lAriPir.     MARINE     REVtf 

other  public  spaces  on  the  ship,  they  liave  been  htteJ  with 
sound-prix)f  ceilings. 

Decorations  in  the  First  Class  dining  room  include  a 
stainless  steel  statue,  "En  Route,"  by  Jose  de  Riviera. 
Attractive  flower  boxes  under  the  windows  add  a  cheer- 
ful note. 

Practically  all  of  the  equipment  in  galley  and  pantries 
is  new — electric  ranges  and  ovens,  steam  tables,  coffee 
urns,  refrigerators  and  all-metal  dressers  and  sinks  with 
stainless  steel  tops.  New  non-skid  tile  decking  has  been 
laid  throughout  the  entire  area.  Individual  dining  rooms 
for  officers  and  concessionaires  are  also  located  in  this 

Mess  rooms  and  galley  (or  the  crew  are  forward  on  the 
B  deck.  Special  service  pantries  are  provided  on  all  decks 
where  public  spaces  are  located. 

The  Tourist  lounge  and  smoking  room  are  aft  on  B 
deck.  Decorations  in  the  smoking  room  include  a  paint- 
ing "Sea  Image",  by  Theodose  Stanos.  A  swimming  pool 
for  this  class  is  arranged  in  upper  section  of  No.  fi  hatch 

First  Class  staterooms  are  on  the  A  and  B  deck  and  are 
arranged  for  occupancy  by  two,  three,  or  four  persons  per 
room.  Except  in  a  few  cases  where  two  adjoining  rooms 
share  bathroom  and  toilet  facilities  all  have  private  bath, 
shower  or  tub,  the  latter  predominating.  All  staterooms 
in  both  classes,  and  also  those  of  the  crew,  are  outside 
rooms,  and  each  room  is  equipped  with  an  oscillating 
wall  fan.  The  rooms  are  designed  to  provide  maximum 
comfort  and  convenience.  Spaciousness  is  attained  by  the 
use  of  low  beds,  widely  separated  to  effect  as  little  inter- 
ference as  possible  where  strangers  share  rooms.  All  beds 
have  inner-spring  mattresses.  In  a  number  of  rooms  an 
extra  bed  of  the  Pullman  type  has  been  added.  The  type  of 
furniture  used,  and  its  arrangement,  are  aimed  at  creat- 
ing a  sitting  room  lounge  effect.  Color  schemes  have  been 
selected  that  suggest  coolness  and  comfort  in  the  tropical 
atmosphere  of  the  Southern  runs. 

Two  de  luxe  suites  are  arranged  on  the  A  deck.  These 
consist  of  bedroom,  bath,  a  sitting  room  opening  upon 
the  main  lobby,  and  an  outside  veranda.  In  addition  to 
these  suites,  a  few  of  the  regular  staterooms  may  be  com- 
bined into  bedrooom-living  room  suites  if  desired. 

The  tourist  staterooms,  all  on  the  C  deck,  are  arranged 
for  occupancy  by  two  to  four  passengers.  They  have 
beds  of  the  built-in  type,  equipped  with  innerspring 
mattresses.  Some  of  these  rooms  also  have  an  extra  Pull- 
man bed. 

No  staterooms  in  this  class  have  private  bath,  but  all 
have  running  hot  and  cold  water.  Bath  and  toilet  facilities 
are  conveniently  spaced  throughout  the  area. 

The  officers'  quarters  are  on  the  boat  deck,  the  crew's 
accommodations  on  B,  C,  and  D  decks,  some  fore  and 
some  aft.  Three  recreation  rooms  and  lounges  and  four 
mess  rooms  have  been  provided  for  the  crew.  All  officers' 
quarters  were  completely  refinished,  and  some  of  the 
furniture  was  renewed. 

From  one  to  six  men  are  berthed  in  each  room  in  the 
crew's  quarters,  in  two  high  standee  berths  with  inner- 
spring  mattresses.  These  quarters  were  also  completely 
renovated  and  equipped  with  new  furniture. 

Many  changes  were  also  made  in  the  ship's  hospital. 

on  C  deck.  This  area  has  a  male  ward  with  eight  beds,  a 
female  ward  with  five  beds  and  an  isolation  ward  with 
one  bed,  in  addition  to  a  medical  office,  dispensary,  phar- 
macy, diet  kitchen,  bathroom  and  toilet  facilities. 

A  gift  shop  is  located  on  the  A  deck,  a  beauty  parlor 
on  B  deck,  and  barber  shops  on  B  and  C  decks. 

All  of  the  ship's  rooms  and  the  running  and  standing 
rigging  were  renewed,  all  blocks  tested  and  reconditioned 
or  renewed. 

A  large  area  on  the  boat  deck  is  set  aside  for  deck 
games.  This  space  also  has  a  gymnasium  and  a  large 
children's  playroom. 

The  ship's  15  existing  lifeboats,  including  one  motor 
driven  with  radio  receiver  and  transmitter,  were  all  re- 
conditioned, and  three  new  lifeboats  with  davits  and 
winches  were  installed.  One  existing  motor  driven  life- 
boat was  discarded.  These  boats  accommodate  approxi- 
mately 950  persons.  They  are  all  handled  by  mechanical 
davits  and  are  raised  by  electric  motor-driven  winches. 

A  14  hr.  sea  trial  was  carried  out  on  Dec.  30,  over  a 
course  between  Ambrose  Lightship  and  Barnegat  Bay. 
After  testing  the  compasses  and  the  radio  direction  finder 
the  vessel  was  put  through  an  8-hr.  endurance  run  during 
which  she  averaged  I8'2  knots  at  5900  kw.  on  each  main 
motor,  and  a  2-hr.  overload  run  which  gave  an  average  of 
1 9  knots  and  6700  kw.  The  steering  gear  was  tested  hard- 
over  to  hard-over  during  these  runs. 

Between  the  two  runs  a  crash-stop  was  made  from  full 
ahead  to  full  astern  at  which  the  propeller  came  to  rest 
after  66  seconds  and  then  started  to  revolve  in  the  oppo- 
site direction.  The  crash  stop  was  then  repeated,  but  in  the 
ahead  direction.  Readings  and  recordings  were  also  made 
on  all  equipment  not  previously  tested,  and  the  various 
instruments  were  checked  and  adjusted. 

Arthur  G.  Leonard,  Chief  of  Trial  Bureau,  Inspection 
and  Performance  Division,  U.  S.  Maritime  Commission, 
made  the  following  statement  at  the  completion  of  the 
trial:  "The  Argent/ihi's  performance  was  surprisingly 
good.  The  ship  was  subjected  to  the  same  type  of  exacting 
tests  usually  applied  to  new  vessels,  and  she  met  every 
phase  very  satisfactorily." 

Captain  Thomas  M.  Simmons,  master  of  the  Ars^ent/ihi 
and  her  skipper  since  19.38,  including  her  war  duty,  said: 
"I  am  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  performance  of  the 
Argentinu.  She  is  safer  and  better  than  ever,  and  met  all 
of  her  tests  in  excellent  fashion." 

The  following  tribute  was  paid  by  Arthur  Hiltebrant. 
general  manager  of  Bethlehem's  New  York  district  ship- 
yards: "The  Argentina  has  fully  measured  up  to  our  ex- 
pectations. Her  performance  w'as  smooth  throughout  and 
she  achieved  a  speed  of  18'2  knots  on  her  endurance  run 
and  a  speed  of  19  knots  on  her  overload  run.  Even  on  the 
crash  stop  vibration  was  negligible.  Delivery  of  the  ship 
to  her  operators,  the  Moore-McCormack  Lines,  on  sched- 
ule in  the  face  of  the  many  problems  created  by  the 
record  snow  storm  in  New  York  City,  is  a  tribute  to  the 
men  of  the  56th  Street  Yard  who  worked  round  the  clock 
and  through  the  week-end  to  complete  the  vessel  before 
the  close  of  1947." 

After  the  completion  of  the  trial  trip,  the  Argenlina 
resumed  her  old  run  to  the  East  Coast  of  South  America, 
on  January  15.  Her  itinerary  includes  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
{Please  turn  to  page  94) 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page  45 

POLLUTION  OF  m\um  \ihnn 

By  HOWARD  G.  WALTERS,  Civil  Engineer 

Harbor  and  Shoreline  Section 
Corps  of  Engineers,  Department  of  the  Army 

Prevention  of  pollution  of  the  navigable  waters  of  the 
United  States,  especially  in  Southern  California,  is  a 
serious  problem,  requiring  the  continuous  effort  and  close 
cooperation  of  Federal  and  State  authorities  in  keeping 
the  public  informed  concerning  the  laws  and  needs  rela- 
tive thereto,  and  in  enforcing  said  laws. 

Pollution  of  the  waterways,  including  all  streams,  lakes, 
rivers,  their  tributaries,  and  the  ocean,  is  a  direct  or  an 
indirect  result  of  population.  As  a  country  develops,  its 
population  and  business  growth  is  closely  paralleled  by 
the  growth  of  those  factors  which  tend  to  increase  pollu- 
tion of  inland  and  coastal  waters.  Industrial  waste  matter, 
refuse,  and  sewage;  mining  waste  and  drainage  water; 
disposal  of  garbage  and  many  other  such  waste  matter, 
entailed  by  a  high  standard  development  of  both  popula- 
tion and  resources,  cause  corresponding  increase  in  pollu- 
tion problems.  The  increase  of  pollution  of  the  waters 
has  been  gradual  and  largely  unnoticed  for  many  years. 
As  is  usually  the  case,  until  the  needs  of  the  population 
become  urgent  and  a  public  demands  its  abatement,  little 
is  done.  Public  demands  generally  result  in  the  enactment 
of  needed  pollution  laws,  or  their  revision,  and  insistence 
in  their  enforcement.  Of  the  various  laws  that  have  been 
enacted  by  cities,  counties,  states,  and  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment, this  article  considers  only  existing  Federal  laws 
concerning  pollution  of  navigable  waters,  the  enforce- 
ment of  which  are  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Corps 
of  Engineers,  Department  of  the  Army. 

Congress,  in  1938,  passed  a  bill  commonly  referred  to 
as  an  "Anti  Pollution  Bill."  This  measure  was  not  an 
enactment  prohibiting  pollution,  but  rather  an  act  to 
provide  for  extensive  and  costly  study  of  pollution  prob- 
lems and  for  grants  and  loans  to  local  agencies  for  the 
construction  and  installation  of  improvements  designed 
to  prevent  pollution.  The  President  vetoed  this  bill  be- 
cause he  disapproved  the  manner  of  granting  Federal 
money  to  local  agencies  for  pollution  abatement  projects. 
He  did,  however,  approve  the  principle  of  pollution 
abatement  and  requested  that  Congress  further  consider 
this  subject. 

Pollution  of  navigable  waters  of  the  United  States  has, 
under  existing  laws,  been  unlawful  since  the  passage  of 
the  Act  of  March  3,  1899.  Section  13  of  this  Act  makes 
it  unlawful  to  place  in,  or  to  permit  to  be  placed  in,  the 
navigable  waters  of  the  United  States  any  refuse  matter 
of  any  description,  except  that  flowing  from  streets  and 
sewers  and  passing  therefrom  in  liquid  state,  whereby 
navigation  shall,  or  may  be  impeded  or  obstructed. 
Further,  the  limitations  extended  to  the  placing  or  de- 
posit of  any  refuse  on  the  bank  of  any  navigable  water 
or  tributary  thereto  from  whence  it  can  float  or  be  wash- 

ed into  the  navigable  waters  by  tides,  floods,  or  storms. 

In  1924,  Congress  passed  what  is  known  as  "The  Oil 
Pollution  Act."  This  Act  makes  it  unlawful  for  any  per- 
son to  discharge,  or  permit  to  be  discharged,  oil  by  any 
methods,  means,  or  manner  into  or  upon  the  coastal 
navigable  waters  of  the  United  States  from  any  vessel 
using  oil  as  fuel  for  generation  of  propulsion  power,  or 
any  vessel  carrying  oil  thereon  in  excess  of  that  necessary 
for  its  lubrication  requirements.  It  is  to  be  noticed  in  this 
connection  that  the  law  concerns  only  oil  pollution  from 

I  might  define  Navigable  Waters  of  the  United  States, 
since  the  laws  under  discussion  are  applicable  only  to 
such  waters. 

The  Federal  Court  decision  states  that:  "Coastal  waters, 
rivers,  and  lakes  are  navigable  in  law  which  are  navigable 
in  fact,  and  they  are  navigable  in  fact  when  they  are  used 
or  can  be  used  in  their  ordinary  condition  as  highways  for 
commerce  upon  which  trade  and  travel  are,  or  may  be 
conducted  in  the  customary  modes  of  trade  and  travel  on 
waters,  and  when  they  are  connected  with,  or  extend  to 
waters  of  another  state  or  foreign  country." 

In  connection  with  pollution  of  coastal  waters,  the 
question  arises  as  to  the  extent  of  Federal  jurisdiction. 
It  is  the  present  practice  of  the  Corps  of  Engineers, 
Department  of  the  Army,  to  include  within  its  jurisdic- 
tion the  coastal  waters  of  the  United  States  to  such  dis- 
tance seaward  as  may  be  necessar)'  to  give  full  effect  to 
the  laws  for  the  protection  and  preservation  of  the  navi- 
gable waters  of  the  United  States.  This  distance  is  not 
controUed  by  any  special  limitations  of  three  or  twelve 
miles  which  may  have  been  set  up  for  other  purposes. 
This  practice  is  an  assertion  of  the  right  of  Congress  to 
prohibit  the  doing  of  anything  which  tends  to  destroy  the 
navigable  capacity  of  any  of  the  waters  of  the  United 
States.  This  extended  jurisdiction  is  applicable  only  to 
American  vessels.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States 
over  foreign  vessels,  in  cases  of  pollution  occurring  sea- 
ward of  the  three-mile  limit,  has  not  as  yet  been  settled  by 
treaty,  as  required  by  international  law. 

It  might  seem  that  the  navigable  waters,  particularly 
the  ocean,  are  so  extensive  that  pollution  would  be  in- 
consequential. Unfortunately,  this  is  not  the  case.  Oil  and 
refuse  discharged  at  sea  are  carried  by  winds  and  surface 
currents  for  many  miles  and  may  eventually  float  into 
harbors  and  wash  ashore  on  the  beaches.  Experience  in- 
dicates that  in  order  to  prevent  pollution  of  the  beaches, 
oil  must  be  discharged  not  less  than  fifty  miles  offshore, 
and  garbage  should  be  dumped  not  less  than  eighteen 
miles  offshore. 

Oil    and    refuse    discharged    into    harbors    have    little 

Page  46 


chance  to  be  carried  out  to  sea,  and,  if  not  cleaned  up 
promptly,  they  spread  and  wash  onto  the  liarbor  shores, 
cling  to  boats  and  piling,  or  in  the  case  of  refuse  sink  to 
the  harbor  bottom. 

In  southern  California  particularly,  where  the  beaches 
are  used  for  recreation  by  a  very  large  number  of  people 
throughout  the  year,  the  presence  of  refuse,  garbage,  oil, 
and  sewage  washed  onto  the  shores,  presents  a  very  se- 
rious problem,  since  such  wastes  are  highly  objectionable. 
Oil  has  been  known  to  so  pollute  a  beach  that  for  days  at 
a  time  bathers  have  found  it  unpracticable  to  use  it.  No 
one  likes  to  picnic  on  a  beach  or  swim  where  there  is  oil 
or  garbage  such  as  grapefruit  and  canteloupe  rinds, 
empty  crates,  or  old  onions,  and  other  refuse,  or  near 
a  sewer  outfall.  Oil  is  most  objectionable  to  bathers,  as  it 
sticks  to  the  skin  and  bathing  suits  and  is  usually  very 
difficult  to  remove.  The  condition  of  sewage  discharged 
into  the  water  may  be  somewhat  improved  by  screening, 
but  it  has  been  reported  that  screening  removes  only  5 
per  cent  of  the  solids,  leaving  95  per  cent  to  be  deposited 
on  the  ocean  floor,  or  washed  ashore  in  a  more  or  less 
objectionable  form.  Beaches  that  are  frequently  or  regu- 
larly polluted,  particularly  those  near  sewer  outfalls,  are 
in  general  shunned  by  the  public. 

Within  harbor  areas,  pollution  creates  an  unsanitary 
and  unsightly  condition,  and  sometimes  a  serious  fire 
hazard.  Floating  oil  discolors  paint  on  ships'  hulls  and 
necessitates  their  frequent  cleaning  or  repainting.  Gases 
released  by  decaying  refuse  have  a  deleterious  effect  on 
paint  and  hulls  of  vessels  and  other  metal  objects,  and  is 
offensive  to  the  public. 

Floating  oil  at  times  so  fouls  the  plumage  of  sea  birds 
as  to  prevent  their  flying,  and  thereby  causes  their  death. 
It  also  has  an  adverse  effect  on  fish  life,  apparently  caus- 
ing an  oxygen  deficiency,  which  in  turn  causes  migration 
from  areas  frequently  polluted.  Thus,  there  is  ample  rea- 
son for  the  enactment  and  strict  enforcement  of  pollution 

The  Corps  of  Engineers  is  assisted  in  the  enforcement 
of  the  Federal  pollution  laws  by  the  United  States  Col- 
lector of  Customs  and  other  revenue  officers,  such  as  the 
United  States  Coast  Guard.  Prosecution  is  handled  by 
the  United  States  District  Attorneys.  In  the  Los  Angeles 
District,  the  Coast  Guard  cooperates  fully,  and  patrols 
are  alert  to  detect  and  apprehend  violators  of  the  pollu- 
tion laws.  The  Coast  Guard  reports  all  cases  to  the  Dis- 
trict Engineer,  and  the  cases  to  be  prosecuted  are  in  turn 
forwarded  to  the  United  States  District  Attorney  for 
appropriate  action. 

The  State  laws  concerning  pollution  are  more  inclusive 
-  than  the  Federal  laws.  The  enforcement  Division  of  the 
State  Fish  and  Game  Commission  is  very  active  in  detect- 
ing and  arresting  violators.  That  agency  cooperates  fully 
with  the  Corps  of  Engineers  and  the  United  States  Coast 
Guard.  These  agencies  notify  each  other  when  cases  occur, 
and  members  of  the  two  agencies  serve  as  witnesses  for 
either  or  both  State  and  Federal  cases,  where  at  least  two 
witnesses  are  required. 

Obviously,  there  are  two  types  of  pollution — deliberate 
and  accidental.  The  dumping  of  garbage  and  other  refuse, 
the  disposal  of  sewage,  and  the  discharge  of  oily  bilge  or 
ballast  water  into  the  navigable  waters  are  generally 
deliberate.  The  spilling  of  oil  while  loading  or  unloading 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Southern  California   beach,   temporarily  ruined  for   recreational 

use    by   oil   which   was   discharged    in    violation    of   Federal    and 

state  Pollution  laws. 

Overflow  of  ships'  fuel  oil  tanks  causes  serious  fire  hazards  in 

the  harbor  areas. 

Trash  and  oil  on   harbor  waters  constitute  a  serious  fire  haiard 

as    well    as    creating     unsightly    and    unsanitary    conditions    in 

slips,   around  floats,  and   under   piers. 

vessels  and  the  breakage  of  oil  pipe  lines  so  that  oil  is 
carried  onto  the  navigable  waters,  etc.,  are  usually  acci- 
dental. The  deliberate  type  of  pollution  can  be  readily 
avoided.  The  accidental  type  is  more  difficult  to  prevent, 
but  the  use  of  adequate  equipment,  its  careful  inspection, 
and  the  institution  of  proper  procedure  and  training  can 

Page  47 

greatly  reduce  the  number  of  accidents. 

Although  designated  by  law  as  the  "enforcement" 
agency,  the  Corps  of  Engineers  takes  the  attitude  that  it 
is  better  to  prevent  pollution  than  to  apprehend  and 
successfully  prosecute  violators.  Although  strict  about 
enforcement,  since  the  law  is  mandatory,  the  Corps  at- 
tempts to  secure  cooperation  in  the  installation  and  opera- 
tion of  proper  equipment  and  the  promulgation  and  en- 
forcement of  rules  and  regulations  to  reduce  pollution. 
Semi-monthly  inspections  of  the  navigable  waters  of  Los 
Angeles  and  Long  Beach  Harbors  are  being  made. 

In  many  cases,  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  frequently  in 
cooperation  with  the  State  Fish  and  Game  Commission, 
holds  conferences  or  consults  with  individuals,  concerns, 
or  agencies  whose  operations  involve  pollution  hazards, 
concerning  proper  methods  and  equipment  to  prevent 
pollution.  The  Corps  of  Engineers,  of  course,  is  not  em- 
powered to  require  installation  of  equipment  or  prescribe 
operating  regulations,  but  it  is  eager  to  assist  in  consider- 
ing such  matters  if  the  persons  or  agencies  involved  so 
desire,  which  is  frequently  the  case. 

One  of  the  latest  cases  of  cooperation  on  a  large  scale 
is  in  connection  with  the  fish-canning  industry,  at  Los 
Angeles  and  Long  Beach  Harbors,  wherein  bilge  and 
waste  water  from  the  fishing  boats  and  fish  refuse  from 
the  canneries  was  therefore  discharged  directly  into 
the  harbor  waters,  creating  a  most  undesirable  condition. 
Since  the  matter  of  pollution  and  its  prevention  has  been 
called  to  their  attention  by  both  the  State  and  Federal 
Government,  equipment  is  being  installed  to  alleviate 
the  pollution  problem.  The  importance  of  keeping  fish  oil 
and  solids  from  the  sewers  has  been  emphasized,  and 
screens  and  centrifuges  are  being  installed  for  their  re- 
moval for  that  purpose.  The  Port  of  Hueneme  was  closed 
to  fishermen  until  a  fish  refuse  disposal  plant  was  placed 
in  operation. 

The  cooperation  of  the  major  oil  companies  in  prevent- 
ing pollution  has  been  most  satisfactory.  Practically  all  of 
the  oil-loading  docks  now  have  special  equipment  for 
the  prevention  of  pollution,  and  some  have  special  booms 
for  use  in  surrounding  oil  spills.  In  some  cases,  the  pro- 
cedure in  loading  oil  has  been  modified  so  as  to  reduce 
the  liability  of  pollution,  and  most  companies  now  care- 
fully plug  all  vessel  scuppers,  while  in  port,  in  order  to 
prevent  oil  spilled  on  deck  from  flowing  overboard.  Most 
oil  companies  now  require  their  ships'  masters  to  dump 
bilge  and  ballast  waters  at  least  fifty  miles  offshore. 
Crews  of  vessels  and  shore  facilities  are  provided  with 
equipment  for,  and  have  been  instructed  in  methods  of 
localizing  and  removing  oil  spills  so  that,  although  pollu- 
tions may  occur,  they  will  not  spread  and  become  a  gen- 
eral nuisance  and  hazard  over  large  areas. 

To  prevent  refuse  and  garbage  pollution,  some  ships 
have  installed  locked  receptacles  wherein  all  such  mate- 
rials are  placed  while  the  vessel  is  in  port,  and  which  can 
be  unlocked  to  permit  disposal  of  the  material  only  by 
responsible  employees,  who  are  instructed  that  refuse 
shall  not  be  dumped  until  the  vessel  is  at  least  eighteen 
miles  offshore. 

Studies  of  industrial  waste  pollution  have  been  made 

by  various  Federal  and  State  agencies  and  by  some  indus- 
tries through  their  national  association.  As  a  result  of 
these  studies,  a  number  of  industries  have  made  plant 
changes  for  re-circulation  and  reuse  of  waters  formerly 
wasted,  or  for  recovery  processes  which  salvage  waste 
products  of  some  value. 

The  most  serious  water  pollution  by  industrial  wastes 
results  from  the  manufacture  and  finishing  of  various 
textile  products,  pulp  and  paper,  coke  and  gas,  leather, 
sugar,  certain  chemical  products,  operations  in  which 
distillation  is  a  process,  the  canning  of  food,  the  prepara- 
tion of  milk  and  milk  products,  slaughtering,  and  the 
preparation  of  meat  products.  Still  other  substances  of  a 
polluting  character  are  acid  waters  from  refineries,  brines 
from  oil-field  operations,  waste  water  from  the  refining 
of  petroleum  products,  and  wastes  from  the  manufac- 
ture of  rubber  using  reclaimed  material. 

The  factors  which  have  militated  in  the  past  against 
the  prevention  of  water  pollution  by  industrial  wastes 

a.  Lack  of  coordinated  effort  and  of  proper  organiza- 
tion to  obtain  cooperation  between  industry  and  muni- 

b.  Failure  of  municpalities  to  participate  in  a  com- 
prehensive program  for  the  prevention  of  water  pollu- 

c.  Lack  of  uniformity  in  the  prevention  of  water  pollu- 
tion by  industrial  wastes,  resulting  in  unfair  competition 
when  strict  regulation  in  one  State  gives  an  advantage  to 
industry  in  another  State. 

d.  Lack  of  effort  on  the  part  of  industry  to  study 
methods  within  the  plant  for  the  reuse  of  waste  water  or 
the  salvage  of  by-products  of  possible  value. 

e.  The  cost  of  changes  in  methods  of  plant  operation 
for  the  reuse  of  waste  water  or  the  salvage  of  by-products 
of  possible  value. 

The  Corps  of  Engineers,  in  order  to  inform  all  persons 
concerning  Federal  pollution  laws  and  to  call  to  their 
attention  the  need  for  preventing  pollution,  has  issued 
notices  to  all  steamship  companies,  vessel  owners  and 
operators,  shipping  concerns,  oil  companies,  terminal  and 
dock  operators,  and  other  agencies  whose  activities  may 
involve  pollution  hazards.  All  such  parties  have  been  re- 
quested to  post  and  bring  these  matters  to  the  notice  and 
attention  of  all  employees. 

The  District  Office  has  also  published  and  distributed 
an  illustrated  booklet  on  the  subject  of  pollution  and  its 
prevention.  This  booklet  describes  the  harmful  effects  of 
pollution,  the  causes,  and  means  of  prevention,  and  quotes 
the  pollution  laws.  And  it  is  intended  that  by  illustrating 
the  various  facts,  the  steamship  companies,  shipping 
agencies  and  others  would  have  a  convenient  means  of 
calling  the  attention  of  all  employees  to  the  pollution 
problem,  and  that  cooperation  in  this  matter  would 
thereby  be  considerably  advanced. 

Since  19.i6,  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  Los  Angeles  En- 
gineer District,  has  investigated  240  oil  pollution  viola- 
tions in  the  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  Harbor  area.  Most 
of  these  cases  consisted  of  oil  spills  from  vessels  loading 
(Please  turn  to  page  96) 

Page  48 


Stability  and  Trim 
Experimental  Tank 

By  JOHN  H.  La  IJAGE  ' 

Stability,  the  stepchild  of  nautical  science,  is  at  last 
achieving  prominence  commensurate  with  its  importance. 
Recently  completed  at  the  United  States  Merchant  Marine 
Academy  at  Kings  Point,  N.  Y.,  the  Stability  and  Trim 
Experimental  Tank  is  being  used  to  highlight  in  a  vivid 
and  accurate  manner  the  theories  of  ship's  stability  and 
trim.  The  Tank  and  its  use  are  unique  smce  prospective 
merchant  marine  officers  have  never  before  been  given 
an  opportunity  to  observe  visually  the  results  of  loading 
and  flooding  a  merchant  vessel  and  to  study  methods  of 
correction  for  poorly  loaded  and  flooded  conditions. 

The  trim  of  a  vessel,  since  it  is  immediately  apparent 
til  the  observer  and  is  of  everyday  concern  in  the  opera- 
tion of  a  vessel,  is  customarily  given  more  attention  by 
the  ship's  officer  than  the  stability  of  his  vessel.  Poor 
stability,  either  excessive  tenderness  or  stiffness,  is  not 
noticed  while  loading  unless  the  vessel  is  loaded  so  poorly 
that  a  list  develops.  At  sea,  the  behavior  of  a  vessel  is 
often  attributed  to  the  fact  that  she  is  a  "poor  roller"  or 
to  the  fact  that  severe  rolling  just  cannot  be  helped.  This 
unavvareness  of  stability  has  led  many  officers  to  the 
belief  that  a  study  of  stability  is  not  entirely  necessary 
and  merits  only  a  few  hours  of  time  in  order  to  be  able 
to  answer  questions  given  by  the  Merchant  Marine  In- 
spectors on  Chief  Mate's  and  Master's  license  examina- 
tions. Fortunately,  however,  in  the  past  few  years  a 
growing  concern  by  the  Maritime  Commission  and  cer- 
tam  steamship  companies  in  seeing  that  their  officers 
acquire  a  thorough  knowledge  of  stability  principles  has 
manifested  itself.  Their  concern  is  not  primarily  due  to 
the  fact  that  vessels  are  occasionally  lost  due  to  a  lack 
of  knowledge  of  stability  by  the  operating  officers  ( as 
impt)rtant  as  this  fact  may  be)  but  principally  to  the 
f.icr  that  overly  stiff  vessels  roll  sharply  in  heavy  seas 
Ic.idmg  to  topside  damage  while  overly  tender  vessels 
are  apt  to  take  aboard  an  unnecessary  amount  of  water 
when  rolling  in  heavy  seas,  once  again  leading  to  damage. 

The  reasons  underlying  the  establishment  of  a  Stability 
and  Trim  Experimental  Tank  by  the  Department  of 
Nautical  Science  at  Kings  Point  are  to  demonstrate 
vividly  how  poor  distribution  of  weight,  both  vertically 
and  longitudinally,  lead  to  the  unfortunate  sea  conditions 
of  a  vessel  referred  to  above;  and  more  important,  what 
can  be  done  to  alleviate  these  conditions.  A  laboratory 
term  has  been  set  aside  in  the  course  in  Naval  Architec- 
ture for  both  deck  and  engine  Cadet-Midshipmen  where 
the  experiments  described  below  can  be  demonstrated. 

John  H.  La  Dage 

iSeaior  Instructor  in  Naval  Architecture  at  the  United  States  Merchant 
Marine  Academy.  Lt.  La  Dage  is  co-author  of  the  textboolc  '  Slahilily  and 
Trim  for  the  Ship's  Officer"  by  La  Dage  and  Van  Gemert,  and  an  Associate 
Member  of  the  Society  of  Naval  Architects  and  Marine  Engineers. 

Cadet-Midshipmen  participate  actively  in  these  experi- 

Description  of  Facilities 

Facilities  may  be  divided  roughly  into  three  groups: 
The  tank,  the  model,  and  auxiliary  gear. 

The  tank  is  some  2.5  feet  in  length,  7  feet  in  breadth, 
and  3  feet  deep;  and  is  constructed  of  steel  plating  with 
appropriate  stiffening.  Piping  consists  of  a  filling  line 
and  drain  line,  and  necessary  valves.  A  water  meter  is 
provided  on  an  offshoot  from  the  filling  line  and  is  used 
to  obtain  the  volume  and  weight  of  water  when  the 
model  is  fiooded  for  certain  damage  calculations. 

The  model,  which  is  of  merchant  form,  was  given  to 
the  Academy  by  the  U.  S.  Navy  Bureau  of  Ships  and 
was  used  in  the  David  W.  Taylor  naval  towing  tank  at 
Carderock,  Md.  for  damage  stability  studies  during  World 
War  II.  Tank,  equipment,  and  procedures  were  designed 
and  devised  by  Academy  personnel.  The  model  glories 
in  the  name  of  'T.  V.  Al/'jr  Calculation,"  a  name  which 
at  once  defines  her  purpose  and  misdefines  her  use.  The 
humorous  touch,  however,  has  proved  very  popular  with 
the  Cadet-Midshipmen  and  can  be  used  to  advantage  to 
make  the  study  of  theory  more  inviting.  Miss  Calculation 
cannot  be  considered  as  a  dainty  lady,  however,  since 
she  has  a  rather  large  and  bulky  form  as  her  principal 
dimensions  and  characteristics  reveal: 

T.  V.  Miss  Calculation — Principal  Diniensions 
and  Characteristics 

Length  overall   lO'llVs" 

Length  between  perpendiculars 20'00" 

Beam 2'10" 

Depth  I'10y4" 

Sheer  forward 5%" 

Sheer  aft 2%" 

Camber     Zero 

Draft,  loaded  L'02" 

Draft,  light  5.7" 

Displacement,  loaded  (F.W. ) 2825  lbs. 

Displacement,  light  (  F.W. ) 1035  lbs. 

Miss  Calculation  is  subdivided  into  five  compartments. 
Nos.  1  and  5  are  fitted  with  supports  for  accommodating 
1  3  one-hundred-pound  lead  weights.  These  weights  can 
be  moved  up  vertically  by  the  use  of  wooden  blocks. 
Nos.  2,  3,  and  4  compartments  are  available  for  flooding. 
There  is  a  double  bottom  tank  under  each  of  these  com- 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Page  49 

View  of  the  stability  and  trim  experimental  tank  at  Kings  Point. 
The  model  is  secured  by  lifting  it  out  of  the  tank  and  adjusting 
slings  fore  and  aft.  Visible  are:  Dynamometer  scale,  pulleys, 
drum,  inclining  sectors,  chain  hoist,  angle  indicator  (on  bulk- 
head), brass  compensating  weights  in  inclining  lines,  water 
meter,  inclining  experiment  tracks  and  cars,  and  topside 
ballast  weights. 

partments;  No.  2  has  a  deep  tank,  and  No.  3  has  two 
wing  tanks.  Each  tank  has  one  or  more  flooding  ports 
closed  by  rubber  plugs.  When  these  plugs  are  removed, 
flooding  conditions  involving  free  communication  with 
the  sea  can  be  easily  simulated.  The  tanks  can  also  be 
flooded  from  above  by  use  of  a  hose  which  is  attached 
to  the  water  meter.  No.  4  compartment  can  be  fitted  with 
permeability  blocks.  These  blocks  serve  to  illustrate  the 
eflfect  of  water-excluding  objects  within  a  vessel  on  the 
damaged  stability. 

In  addition  to  the  hundred-pound  weights,  supports 
are  provided  above  decks  accommodating  twenty-five, 
ten,  and  five-pound  weights.  The  supports  are  so  con- 
structed that  the  weights  can  be  shifted  both  vertically 
and  longitudinally,  thus  adding  flexibility  to  the  methods 
of  shifting  the  center  of  gravity  of  the  model. 

Miss  Calculation  is  equipped  with  a  complete  set  of 

plans  including;  (a)  Curves  of  Form  (Displacement, 
Tons  per  inch  immersion,  Metacenter  above  base.  Coef- 
ficients of  fineness,  etc. ;  {  b  ;  The  Lines  Plan  (  c  )  Cross 
Curves  of  Stability  and  (d)  General  Arrangement  Plans. 
Thus,  the  Cadet-Midshipmen  are  working  under  condi- 
tions which  almost  exactly  simulate  conditions  as  found 
aboard  ship.  Using  the  above  plans  and  discovering  that 
their  predictions  based  on  the  use  of  the  plans  and  cal- 
culations are  borne  out  in  the  condition  of  the  model 
gives  the  Cadet-Midshipmen  confidence  m  their  knowl- 

Statical  stability  curves  can  be  drawn  up  by  inclining 
the  model  and  ascertaining  the  value  of  her  righting  arms 
and  moments  at  various  angles  of  inclination.  The  meth- 
ods used  in  inclining  Miss  Calculation  and  measuring 
the  force  required  and  the  angle  of  inclination  are  inter- 
esting. Sectors  with  circular  arcs  are  bolted  to  a  collar 
which  fits  around  the  midship  section.  Lines  are  led  from 
these  sectors  through  pulleys  to  a  drum.  When  the  handles 
on  the  drum  are  turned,  a  dynamometer  scale  registers 
the  force  of  the  couple  which  is  inclining  the  modeL 
The  force  on  the  scale  can  be  easily  converted  into  the 
righting  arm  or  righting  moment  of  the  model.  The 

Kings    Point    Cadet-Midshipmen    i 

flooding    a     compartment    of    the 

Lt.  S.   N.  Steiner 

the    list    caused    by 


■n   load   a   hundred-pound   lead   ballast 
npartment   on   the   model,    Miss   Calcula 

angle  of  inclination  is  indicated  on  a  linear  scale  which 
slides  past  a  cross-hair  as  the  model  inclines  and  slacks 
off  a  line  attached  to  the  inclining  sector  and  led  through 
pulleys  to  the  sliding  scale.  Thus,  the  stability  of  a  vessel 
at  various  angles  of  inclination  and  for  difi^erent  condi- 
tions of  loading  is  quickly  and  easily  demonstrated. 

Gear  is  provided  for  a  realistic  inclining  experiment. 
On  shipboard,  this  method  of  locating  the  center  of 
gravity  of  the  vessel  is  accomplished  by  winching  a  car 
loaded  with  heavy  weights  across  tracks  which  have 
been  built  up  transversely  across  the  deck;  observing  the 
small  angle  of  list  induced  by  means  of  a  pendulum;  and 
using  this  data  along  with  the  displacement  of  the  vessel 
to  calculate  the  center  of  gravity.  This  method  is  followed 
out  almost  exactly  with  Aliss  Calculation.  Small  cars  with 
lead  weights  run  across  tracks  built  up  on  a  wooden  base, 
and  a  pendulum  located  on  the  bow  where  it  can  be  easily 
observed  serves  to  find  the  tangent  of  the  angle  of  in- 

Incidentally  the  center  of  gravity  of  the  model  is  some- 

Page  50 


—  ■■^ 


to   a 



angle    of 





Ttie   m 


in   this 



ig    PC 

wer    or 


B  angle 

of  d 

eck  edg 

e  immcr. 

In    the    background, 

what  lower  in  Aliss  Cidcuhttivii  in  relation  to  her  depth 
than  would  be  the  case  with  a  merchant  vessel  of  similar 
form.  This  is  due  to  the  lack  of  superstructure  on  the 
model.  However,  the  model  can  be  made  unstable  very 
easily  by  loading  a  few  hundred  pounds  of  weight  on  the 
topside  supports. 

One  of  the  most  vivid  demonstrations  is  the  effect  of 
free  surface  of  water  on  the  model's  stability.  Once  a 
Cadet-Midshipman  has  seen  the  model,  which  prior  to 
the  flooding  of  just  one  compartment  was  floating  up- 
right with  considerable  stability,  caused  to  list  heavily 
due  to  such  flooding,  he  will  never  forget  the  danger  of 
free  surface  of  liquids  aboard  his  vessel.  In  the  typical 
demonstration  reproduced  in  this  article  it  can  be  seen 
that  a  positive  GM  of  1.29  inches  is  converted  to  a  nega- 
tive GM  of  0.22  inch  by  flooding  just  one  hold.  The  con- 
j   sequent  list  is  entirely  due  to  the  free  surface  effect  since 
\   the  weight  of  liquid  is  loaded  at  the  center  of  gravity 
j   and  the  change  in  the  position  of  the  metacenter  is  not 

Corrective  measures  for  list  rank  high  in  the  demon- 
strations performed  on  Miss  Calculation  since  the  cor- 
rection of  list  due  to  negative  initial  stability  is  one  of 
the  most  commonly  misunderstood  concepts  of  both 
students  and  ship's  officers.  A  list  due  to  negative  GM 
cannot  be  corrected  by  pumping  water  or  shifting  weight 
from  the  listed  side  to  the  high  side;  not  only  that,  but 
if  an  attempt  to  do  so  is  made,  it  is  entirely  possible  to 
cause  the  capsizing  of  the  vessel.  There  is  only  one  prac- 
tical method  of  correcting  list  due  to  negative  GM:  — 
Get  the  center  of  gravity  down.  Once  again,  the  actual 
observance  of  a  ship-forined  model  capsizing  when  the 
wrong  method  of  correction  is  used  is  sufficient  to  implant 
a  mental  picture  which  he  will  never  forget  in  the  mind 
of  a  young  cadet. 

A  partial  list  of  experiments  and  demonstrations  which 
are  performed  includes: 

1.  Displacement  experiment,  showing  that  a  vessel 
displaces  a  weight  of  water  equal  to  its  own  weight. 

2.  The  three  equilibriums,  showing  the  three  condi- 
tions of  initial  stability;  Stable,  Neutral,  and  Un- 
stable Equilibriums. 

?.  List  due  to  (a)  unsymetrical  loading  (b)  negative 
initial  stability  and  (c)  combination  of  unsymetri- 
cal loading  and  negative  initial  stability. 

■1.  The  Inclining  Experiment,  showing  the  method 
used  to  obtain  the  position  of  tiie  center  of  gravity 
of  a  vessel. 

5.  Construction  of  statical  stability  curves  for  a  vessel 
at  various  drafts  and  with  various  positions  of  the 
center  oi  gravity;  correction  of  the  curves  for  verti- 
cal and  transverse  shifts  in  the  position  of  the  center 
of  gravity. 

6.  Effect  of  form  (beam,  freeboard,  coefficients,  etc.) 
on  stability. 

7.  Free  surface,  showing  the  effect  of  free  surface  of 
liquids  on  stability  at  small  and  large  angles  of  in- 

8.  Flooding  with  free  communication  with  the  sea; 
without  free  communication;  effect  of  intact  buoy- 
ancy; effect  of  surface  and  volume  permeability. 

9.  Trim  demonstrations,  including: 

(a)   Calculation  of  drafts  after  longitudinal  shifts 

of  weight. 
(  b )    Loading  and  discharging. 

(c)  Effect  of  the  position  of  the  tipping  center 
(center  of  flotation)   on  trimming  moments. 

(d)  Effect  of  out-of-trim  conditions  on  displace- 
ment readings, 

(e)  Loading  so  as  to  change  draft  at  one  end  only. 

( f )  Effect  of  trim  on  transverse  stability. 

In  addition  to  the  above  routine  experiments,  the 
Cadet-Midshipmen  are  encouraged  to  conduct  their  own 
experiments  on  any  phase  of  ship's  stability  or  trim  which 
appeals  to  them.  This  practice  proves  particularly  interest- 
ing and  valuable  to  the  Cadet-Midshipmen. 

Typical   Demonstration 

The  following  demonstration  is  reproduced  here  in 
order  to  show  how  the  demonstrations  are  conducted  and 

Demonstration   II — Free   Surface 
Displacement  Condition  2{c) 

Displacement:   ISOO  lbs.         KG:   14.4  inches 

Correction  to  Righting  Arms 
10°— 0.42  50°— 1.85 
20°— 0.83  60°— 2.10 
30°— 1.20  70°— 2.27 
40°— 1.56 

Assumed  KG:      12.00 
Actual       KG:      14.42 
GG'     2.42 

(Please  turn  to  page  88) 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page   5! 

--With  The 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month 




George  W.  Curran  was  born  in  San  Francisco  and 
went  to  school  in  San  Francisco  and  Richmond.  He 
served  his  apprenticeship  in  the  Berkeley  shops  of  Byron- 
Jackson,  and  spent  the  years  from  18  to  22  on  all  types 
of  machine  tools  and  erecting. 

At  22  George  went  to  sea  with  the  Pacific  Mail  (later 
became  Dollar  Line)  and  sailed  on  the  first  of  the 
President  Liners,  President  Pierce  (passenger  and 
freight)  as  oiler  and  water  tender.  His  second  ship  was 
the  freighter  West  Holbrook.  then  back  to  the  President 
Pierce  as  refrigeration  engineer  and  licensed  junior  en- 
gineer. His  chief  on  the  Pierce  was  Jack  Penberthy,  now 
with  the  Bureau  of  Marine  Inspection  and  Navigation 
in  Honolulu. 

At  24  he  moved  on  to  the  Grace  Lines'  West  Kasson 
under  the  well-known  chief  engineer,  E.  T.  Senter,  now 
marine  superintendent  of  that  line.  Later  when  the 
freighter  IFej/  Kasson  changed  its  name  to  the  Cuzco, 
George  sailed  as  3rd  assistant  and  finally  2nd  assistant 
where  he  remained  for  one  year.  Then  with  Union  Oil 
on  the  tanker  Los  Angeles  for  1  }/^  years  as  3rd  assistant, 
2nd  assistant  and  then  1st,  his  chief  being  Louis  Eakins, 
now  with  the  Maritime  Commission  in  San  Francisco. 
For  the  next  five  years  with  Grace  again  on  the  tanker 
Nora  as  1st  assistant  and  chief.  After  the  Nora  was  sold, 
he  had  the  freighter  Coya  for  two  years  and  Charcas  for 
another  two  years. 

The  next  phase  was  spent  on  the  eastern  coast  where 
he  joined  the  crew  of  the  new  C-2  (one  of  the  first  C-2s) 
Red  Jacket,  which  later  became  the  Santa  Monica,  for 

In  October  1941  George  returned  to  the  West  Coast 
and  joined  Bethlehem  Shipyard  as  marine  machinist 
supervisor  on  new  construction,  where  his  job  was  on  the 
installation  of  machinery  in  destroyers,  and  he  transferred 

to  repair  in  1942.  He  remained  at  Bethlehem  until  Sep- 
tember 1944  at  which  time  he  went  with  American 
Pacific.  Here  he  became  marine  superintendent  and  had 
as  his  superior  Paul  V.  Gaudin,  Superintending  Engineer. 
His  next  promotion  made  him  Assistant  Superintendent 
Engineer,  which  job  he  holds  today. 

George  Curran  is  mighty  popular  down  Los  Angeles- 
Long  Beach  Harbor  way  and  is  very  well  liked  and  re- 
spected by  all  marine  men.  He  is  a  very  active  member  of 
the  Society  of  Port  Engineers  and  I  can't  think  of  a  sin- 
gle meeting  that  he  has  missed. 



JOE  WOSSER.  ne. 
president  o(  Socit 
tv      of      Port      Eng 

He  succeeds  L( 
nard  E.  Land, 
who  h. 

ed    by   hi: 

pany    to    San    Fr 

Page  52 


Port  Engineers  - 

PUGET  mm  PORT  EiliER 

The  Society  of  Port  Engineers  of  Puget  Sound  elected 
Herb  Moore,  Matson  Navigation  Company,  as  its  presi- 
dent for  1948.  Sidney  R.  Smith,  American  Bureau  of 
Shipping,  was  named  vice-president,  and  Alex  Stewart 
was  unopposed  as  secretary-treasurer. 

Mickey  Felton,  Alaska  S.S.;  J.  W.  Elkins,  Board  of 
Marine  Underwriters;  and  Howard  Lovejoy,  Puget  Sound 
Freight  Lines;  were  elected  to  the  board  of  governors. 
Merle  Johnston,  Olympic  S.S.,  was  named  a  member  of 
the  board  to  fill  Moore's  unexpired  term. 

Al  Mades,  Pacific  Marine  Review,  disguised  himself 
as  Santa  Claus  for  the  Christmas  portion  of  the  evening 
and  distributed  the  presents.  A  feature  of  the  program 
was  movies  taken  at  the  port  engineers'  picnic  a  few 
months  ago.  These  films,  taken  by  Quent  Herwig,  Marine 
Service,  were  shown  by  Howard  Lovejoy. 

Louis  Dial,  ATC,  spoke  briefly  regarding  his  inspec- 
tion of  the  wreck  of  the  Clarksdale  'Victory. 


New  Assistant  SupHrintendiiig  Eiigineer 
of  A  P  L  at  San  Francisco 

George    Jackson 

Port  [ngineer  of  The  Month 




'With  a  seagoing  career  of  27  years  chalked  up  in  his 
"personal  logbook, "  George  Jackson,  who  today  is  super- 
intending engineer  for  American  President  Lines,  came 
ashore  in  1942  to  become  assistant  to  the  man  he  has 
now  succeeded. 

Born  in  1890  in  San  Francisco,  George  Jackson's  first 
trip  to  sea  was  in  1915  for  the  old  Pacific  Mail  Line. 
Later  with  the  Dollar  Line,  and  then  for  American 
President  Lines,  Jackson  continued  to  serve  as  a  marine 
engineer  until  May,   1942. 

At  that  time  he  left  the  sea,  but  did  not  leave  ships, 
when  APL  picked  him  for  the  post  of  Assistant  Superin- 
tending Engineer  with  headquarters  in  San  Francisco. 
In  this  job,  Jackson  served  under  the  veteran  and  colorful 
John  Jacobsen.  Upon  Jacobsen's  retirement  at  the  end 
of  1947  George  Jackson  was  promoted  to  the  top  APL 
engineering  post — Superintending  Engineer.  His  oflSce 
is  at  Pier  44. 

Jackson's  first  job  at  sea  was  as  oiler  on  the  famous 
old  Pacific  liner,  Korea.  Sometime  later  he  shipped  on 
the  Manchuria,  which  afterward  was  renamed  President 
Johnson.  His  first  berth  as  chief  engineer  was  on  the 
President  Lincoln  in  1921.  He  also  has  been  chief  on 
the  President  Pierce,  President  Jackson,  President  Taft 
( old  ) ,  President  Hayes  ( new ) ,  and  President  Polk 
(  new ) . 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Page  53 

Frank  Cavanaugh 

mm  cm^^ucH  SPONSORS 
[J.-LB.  [lEcm  im^i; 





g   of  th 

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OS   Angeles-Long    Beach   So 





neers.    spon 

sored    by    the    Frank    Cava 


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arks,    inc 

luded    the    election    of    officers 







e:    President— Leonard    Lan 




n  Pre 

ident  Li 


since  resigned);  Vice-presi 







ligation    Co.    (since   elected 







-Bert  Hale,   Marine  Solvents 


ce    Corp 




easurer-G.    "Alex"    Robin 




ch    M 

arine   Re 


Co.;    Directors— Glen  Gul 

.in'and   G 


ge  Ct 

rran.   A 

can   Pacific  S.S.  Co.;    M.   H 


V,   Ric 


Id  Oil  Corp.; 


Dobler  (Board  Chairman) 




•  :  C. 

V.    Pete 


The   Texas   Co.;    and    Fred 


.     Deco 


Shipping    Co. 

Shown  in  the  above  photo  are  left  to  right:  Frank  Cava- 
naugh.  Cavanaugh  Machine  Works;  R.  Risher.  Asst.  Mgr., 
Construction  &  Repair  on  Navy  Tanker  Conversion,  Stand- 
ard Oil  of  New  Jersey;  Bill  Anderson,  Keystone  Shipping; 
Andy  Ells,  San  Francisco,  Pacific  Coast  Division,  Maritime 
Commission;    Dan    Dobler,   Texas   Oil   Co.     Joe   Hare     Mari- 


art     Sn 


anaugh     Machine    Works;     Bert    Hale 





g    the    invitation    to   the    I 
ind    report    the    meetings 
technical   coverage  of  the  r 
provitjed    than    has   heretofo 

ts    Co 

life   Mar 
thout    lir 

Stewart      Small 

Annual  Banouet  of  Society  of  Port  Engineers  of  Puge 
Sound  held  in  Seattle  January  14.  Left,  front  to  back 
L.  D.  Beardsley,  Todd  Shipyards  Seattle  Division;  Mrs 
A.  E.  Farr;  Robert  G.  Zener,  Gen.  Mgr.,  Todd  Paclfi 
Seattle  Division;  Mrs.  L.  D.  Beardsley;  Lynton  Jordan 
Pacific  Tankers,  Inc.  Right  front  to  back:  Philii 
Spaulding,  Todd  Shipyards  Seattle  Division;  Mrs 
Robert  G.  Zener;  A.  E.  Farr,  Todd  Shipyards;  Mrs 
Philip  Spaulding;  Al  Copp,  Northwest  Ship  Repair 
Right,  background:  Gil  Ackerman,  Operations  Mgr. 
American      Mail      Line. 

Page  54 


Water  Treatment  in  the  Marine  Field 

lly  nil.  II.  L-  ULMlili 

TRcliiiical  lliructur,  Puwer  CliHinicals  llivisioii 

L  F.  Ilrew  S-  Compaiiy,  Iiiu. 

Dr.  R.  C.  Ulmer  has  had  wide  and  varied  experience  in  the 
tifld  of  chemistry,  especially  that  concerned  with  power 
pl.ints.  Following  the  receipt  of  his  AB  degree  at  Ohio  State 
University,  he  was  employed  by  the  Columbus  &  Southern 
Ohio  Electric  Co.  in  1930.  A  Fellowship  at  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity was  followed  by  the  receipt  of  his  PhD.  degree  after 
which  he  was  employed  by  the  Detroit  Edison  Co.  In  the 
Chemical  Division  of  the  Research  Department  of  this  com- 
pany he  had  experience  with  the  diverse  problems  involved 
in  the  operation  of  power  plants.  In  1915  the  author  joined 
E.  F.  Drew  &  Co.,  Inc.,  as  Technical  Director  of  the  Indus- 
trial Department.  He  is  at  present  in  charge  of  all  water 
treating  problems  and  research  and  development  of  water 
treating  products  for  that  company. 

Dr.  Ulmer  is  the  author  of  many  technical  papers  and 
holds  membership  in  the  following  technical  and  engineer- 
ing societies:  The  National  American  Chemical  Society  and 
The  Chemists  Club  of  New  York.  American  Society  for 
Testing  Materials,  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers 
and  the  National  Association  of  Power  Engineers. 

Great  advances  have  been  made  in  recent  years  in 
water  conditioning  and  it  is  no  longer  necessary  to  toler- 
ate just  fair  conditions  in  marine  boilers.  Scale  and  cor- 
rosion-free boilers  and  steam  of  very  high  quality  are 
rightly  to  be  expected  from  good  water  treatment.  In 
er  to  accomplish  these  objectives,  a  proper  water  treat- 
ment must  be  selected,  but  just  as  important  if  not  more 
so,  the  treatment  must  be  controlled  and  used  properly. 

'Delivered  before  the  Sa, 

Boiler  Design 

Although  it  is  realized  that  boiler  design  has  much  to 
do  with  water  treatment  problems,  this  subject  is  not 
dealt  with  in  this  article  since  an  article  itself  might  be 
written  about  this  problem.  Boiler  design  may  have  a 
tremendous  effect  on  carryover,  bad  circulation  of  water 
and  steam,  etc.  The  latter  difficulties  may  lead  to  overheat- 
ing and  tube  failures.  Fortunately  if  a  treatment  will  work 
for  one  type  of  boiler  it  will  work  for  another  type  in 
general  or  at  least  treatment  can  be  modified  slightly  so 
that  it  will  apply.  The  same  is  true  of  operating  pressure 
and  operating  characteristics.  That  is,  only  a  slight  modi- 
fication of  a  basic  treatment  usually  is  required  to  meet 
the  situation. 

Objectives  of  Water  Treatment  in  Marine 


The  problems  in  the  marine  field  are  essentially  the 
same  as  those  in  the  industrial  field  with  the  exception 
that  they  are  aggravated  somewhat  by  salt  water  con- 
tamination. The  chief  problems  encountered  are: 

1.  Scale  and  Sludge. 

2.  Corrosion  and  caustic  embrittlement. 

3.  Foaming  and  priming  or  carryover. 


Corrosion    difficulties    in    the    boiler   can    usually    be 
iFU-tise  turn  to  page  98) 

Left  to  right:  R.  C.  Ulmer, 
technical  director;  Norman 
McLeod,  service  engineer; 
Jack  Churchill.  Pacific 
Coast  manager;  J.  J.  Lewis, 
service  engineer;  all  of  E. 
F.   Drew  &   Co. 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page  55 


RcK-  U.  S.  Pat.  Off. 

FOREIGN  Tlil\D[  im 

By  ROBERT  H.  WYLIE,  Port  Manager 

Editor's  Note:  For  years  San  Francisco  export-import 
interests  have  been  endeavoring  to  get  governmental 
approval  for  a  so-called  foreign  trade  zone;  that  is,  an 
area  to  which  commodities  may  be  imported  and  sorted, 
processed,  mixed  or  stored  and  then  re-exported  without 
the  payment  of  customs  duty  until  such  time  as  they 
may  be  brought  "into  the  country"  by  delivery  beyond 

The  sketch  shows  the  layout  of  Pier  45  with  the 
boundary  of  the  initial  Foreign-Trade  Zone  area  in- 
dicated both  from  the  standpoint  of  the  technical  or  legal 

the  boundaries  of  the  zone.  New  York  and  New  Orleans 
have  such  zones,  and  San  Francisco  is  now  awaiting 
final  approval  by  the  Foreign  Trade  Zone  Board  to 
plans  already  approved  in  a  preliminary  way.  This  final 
approval  is  expected  at  any  moment.  General  Wylie  has 
had  an  important  part  in  bringing  this  project  to  fruition. 

boundaries  and  of  the  fence  which  is  the  physical  bar- 
rier. Obviously  the  free  zone  area  including  water  is 
appreciably  larger  than  the  land  area  which  is  enclosed 

San    Francisco    Pier   45— Site   of 
proposed    Foreign    Trade   Zone. 

Page  56 


but  it  also  comes  under  the  designation  of  Foreign-Trade 
Zone  territory  so  that  the  boundary  is  the  legal  line  on 
water  or  land  which  separates  the  Zone  from  U.  S. 
Customs  territory.  This  fact  must  be  thoroughly  under- 
stood to  appreciate  the  difference  between  a  Foreign- 
Trade  Zone  and  any  form  of  bonded  warehouse  or  storage 
facility.  For  security  reasons  (proximity  of  the  inner 
portion  of  Berth  B,  Pier  45  to  Fishermen's  Wharf  area) 
no  attempt  will  be  made  to  use  this  berth  for  ships 
bringing  carg(5  to  the  zone.  It  was  first  contemplated  that 
the  doors  leading  on  to  the  apron  would  be  .sealed  but 
it  was  later  determined  desirable  to  place  the  fence  on 

operation  of  the  Zone.  It  will  be  noted  that  this  area  will 
permit  loading  of  cars  on  the  low  level  tracks  to  the 
east  of  the  shed  or  on  the  high  level  tracks  to  the  west. 
Trucks  may  be  loaded  either  inside  the  shed  or  outside 
on  either  side.  The  fence  around  the  area  will  be  patrolled 
by  Customs'  Guards  to  prevent  unlawful  passage  of 
goods  from  the  Zone  to  U.  S.  Customs  territory.  It  should 
be  pointed  out  that  the  presence  of  these  guards  and  of 
this  fence  will  not  prevent  the  use  of  the  pier  for  busi- 
ness other  than  foreign  trade  zone  activities  although 
it  is  hoped  that  the  zone  will  be  so  active  that  outside 
business,  other  than  Foreign  Trade  Zone,  need  not  be 

Pier  45.  The  Zone  layout  is  the 
shaded  area.  Compare  this 
sketch  with  the  photo  on  page 
Si  and  note  that  the  ship  in  the 
photo  would  stand  along  the 
top  of  this  sketch  and  within 
the   Zone. 

PIER  "45 
FORtiGM  Trade  Zone 

Son  Francisco,  Co\iforr,i9 

ithe  outer  edge  of  the  apron  thus  permitting  the  use  of 
this  additional  space  for  storage  or  processing  of  com- 
modities that  do  not  require  protection  from  the  weather. 
This  will  materially  increase  the  operating  space  avail- 
able although  it  must  be  noted  that  one  of  the  two  rail- 
.road  tracks  on  the  apron  must  be  kept  free  in  order  to 
Ipermit  switching  cars  to  berth  D. 

!  Shed  D,  and  the  apron  alongside  the  shed,  will  be  the 
{ship  berth  for  the  zone.  This  will  accommodate  one  large 
ivessel  as  there  is  sufficient  space  to  accommodate  the 
largest  cargcj  ships  in  operation,  or  two  vessels  of  the 
Coaster  type.  Several  of  the  doors  in  the  southeast  por- 
'tion  of  Shed  D  will  be  open  and  available  for  direct 
Sloading  to  cars  on  a  low  level  track.  The  doors  in  the 
;northeast  area  of  Shed  D  will  be  sealed  since  it  is  not 
'practicable  to  put  a  fence  between  these  doors  and  the 
structure  of  the  car  float  slip.  Should  volume  of  business 
warrant  the  inclusion  of  additional  space  on  Pier  45  into 
the  zone,  one  proposal  contemplates  the  removal  of  this 
slip  which  will  not  only  give  considerable  additional 
space  but  will  make  possible  the  opening  of  all  the  doors 
on  that  side  of  the  shed. 

Shed  B  will  be  used  primarily  for  storage  and  manipu- 
lation of  goods  in  the  zone.  In  this  shed  there  will  be  the 
offices  of  the  Zone,  U.  S.  Customs  and  of  other  tenants 
Isuch  as  packers,  cleaners,  sorters,  bottlers  and  other 
'businesses  that  may  have  work  in  connection  with  the 

encouraged.  The  area  of  some  four  acres,  judged  by  some 
standards,  does  not  appear  large  but  it  is  adequate  to  care 
for  a  very  considerable  volume  of  goods  and  when  there 
is  an  indication  that  its  capacity  will  be  exceeded  the  Zone 
may  be  expanded — first  by  taking  in  the  remaining  sheds 
A  and  C,  then  filling  in  the  space  where  the  car  float 
slip  is  now  located  and  then  expanding  into  the  area  on 
the  landward  side  of  the  pier  until  we  would  have  some 
20  acres  of  useful  area. 

It  will  require  some  considerable  time  to  get  the  activi- 
ties under  way  to  the  extent  that  we  may  determine  what 
the  trade  will  actually  be,  but  it  is  imperative  that  all 
of  those  interested  in  the  success  of  the  Zone  and  of  the 
port  and  world  trade  in  general,  realize  that  a  foreign 
trade  zone  is  a  little  known  institution.  It  is  essential 
that  an  active  promotional  and  educational  campaign  be 
carried  on  in  order  to  develop  business  for  the  Zone 
not  only  in  order  that  it  might  be  used  but  because  of 
the  stimulating  effect  it  must  have  on  commerce. 

In  New  York  and  in  New  Orleans  where  the  zones  are 
in  operation,  a  number  of  uses  have  been  developed  but 
undoubtedly  there  are  scores  of  operations  that  would 
prove  profitable  or  advantageous  in  such  an  establishment. 
It  will  require  energy  and  imagination  to  explore  the 
possibilities  and  develop  new  business.  It  is  unlikely  that 
the  Zone  will  take  any  business  away  from  any  existing 
agencies.  Therefore,  it  is  a  challenge  to  the  ingenuity  of 
the  pro-zone  enthusiast  to  go  out  and  get  new  business. 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Page   57 





U.S.  lOUS.  CKEDirS. 


DIAL  U.  S. 







7.4  ^^^^^^B 


|n        .,Ai^.o 

6.7   6.7 

6.6  ^^^^^Bl^^^ 








,     -1/,    '' 










THE  ABOVE  chart  prepared  by  Dun  &  Bradstreet 
gives  a  comprehensive  picture  of  our  balance  of  trade. 

Prior  to  1942  the  goods  exported  from  the  United 
States  were  largely  paid  for  by  imports.  In  many  of  these 
pre-war  years  all  exports  were  balanced  by  a  corre- 
sponding volume  of  imports;  in  some  years  exports  were 
partly  financed  through  loans  and  credits.  Since  1942 
over  50  per  cent  of  all  exports  have  been  sent  out  as 
gifts  or  have  been  financed  through  loans  and  credits. 
Since  the  end  of  the  war  these  gifts  and  credits  exports 
have  declined  largely  as  a  result  of  the  virtual  termina- 
tion of  lend-lease.  With  the  sharp  curtailment  of  lend- 
lease  the  volume  of  total  exports  declined  but  continued 
to  be  well  above  the  level  that  existed  from  1919  to 

The  1947  estimate  of  exports  is  based  upon  U.  S. 
Department  of  Commerce  data  covering  the  first  ten 
months  of  1947.  In  each  of  these  ten  months  the  ex- 
ports of  merchandise  have  been  well  above  the  corre- 
sponding 1946  levels.  While  the  total  volume  of  goods 
sent  abroad  in  1947  is  greater  than  in  1946,  the  volume 
financed  through  loans,  credits,  and  gifts  has  been 

The  huge  volume  of  exports  during  and  after  the 
war,  while  representing  about  8  per  cent  of  total  United 
States  production,  constituted  an  enormous  outlay  in 
terms  of  goods  and  services.  Part  of  these  exports  were 
paid  for  by  imports  of  commodities  and  part  were 
financed  by  the  liquidation  of  foreign  holdings  including 
gold.  Despite  these  payments,  there  was  a  considerable 

portion  of  all  exports  that  were  not  covered  bv  anv  imme- 
diate return. 

Shipments  of  gifts  on  which  no  future  return  was 
anticipated  represented  more  than  half  of  the  exports 
that  were  not  paid  for  by  imports  or  by  liquidation  of 
foreign  holdings  during  and  after  the  war.  The  remain- 
ing exports  that  were  not  sent  as  gifts  and  were  not 
covered  by  any  immediate  returns  were  financed  through 

In  addition  to  numerous  gifts  from  individuals  and 
institutions,  there  were  Government  donations  to 
UNRRA,  shipments  of  civilian  supplies  to  occupied 
countries,  and  lend-lease  shipments.  While  lend-lease 
was  originally  planned  to  be  conducted  on  a  loan  basis, 
the  Government  has  since  listed  it  as  a  unilateral  trans- 
fer which  is  the  same  as  a  gift. 

Most  of  the  credit  has  been  extended  for  exports  since 
1941  has  been  obtained  from  Government  sources,  for- 
eign bond  issues  placed  on  the  domestic  markets  gen- 
erally have  not  attracted  any  large  amounts  of  private 
capital.  Loans  from  the  United  States  Government,  the 
International  Bank,  the  Monetary  Fund,  and  the  Export- 
Import  Bank  have  enabled  many  countries  to  purchase 
commodities  from  the  United  States.  The  International 
Bank  took  over  the  function  of  the  Export-Import  Bank 
to  provide  long-term  reconstruction  and  development 
loans  in  May  1947.  The  Monetary  Fund  made  dollars 
available  to  foreign  countries  for  the  first  time  last 

Page  58 


mm  mm  tk^dek!; 
m^  numm 

When  Maitland  Pennington  began  his  campaign  for 
(irtianized  sales  effort  for  the  promotion  of  Pacific  Coast 
pdfts,  many  of  those  who  heard  him  were  diverted  by- 
Ins  reference  to  particular  instances  of  export  and  im- 
port percentages.  So  the  Junior  World  Trade  Assn.  of 
San  Francisco  listened  with  keen  interest  to  the  explana- 
iioii  of  such  cases  when  he  addressed  its  January  meet- 

Out  of  this  and  other  meetings  with  shipping  groups, 
it  is  hoped  that  a  program  of  aggressive  advertising  of 
Western  ports  will  come,  and  that  the  advantages  of  such 
ports  will  more  than  offset  the  fear  of  labor  troubles 
which  other  ports  are  using  in  their  own  sales  efforts. 
The  Junior  traders  are  following  all  developments  with 
the  usual  alertness. 


The  U.  S.  Commercial  Company,  a  subsidiary  of  the 
Reconstruction  Finance  Corporation,  is  rapidly  going  out 
of  business  and  expects  to  close  down  about  March  1. 

The  Company's  work  in  Japan  and  Germany — han- 
dling the  exports  of  these  countries — terminated  on 
December  31st.  The  only  exceptions  are  silk  and  textile 
contracts  that  require  more  time  to  complete.  A  S.C.A.P. 
Foreign  Trade  Office  has  been  opened  by  the  Army  to 
aid  shippers  interested  in  Japan. 

The  San  Francisco  Office  of  USCC  has  terminated  its 
purchasing,  warehousing  and  shipping  of  merchandise  to 
the  Ex  Japanese  Mandated  Islands  of  the  Pacific.  The 
Company  has  been  supplying  over  one  hundred  trade 
stores  in  the  Marianas,  Carolines  and  Marshall  Islands 
with  just  about  every  commodity  one  would  expect  to 
find  in  the  old  fashioned  country  store.  These  trade  stores 
are  run  by  the  Natives  themselves  and  goods  are  paid  for 
in  U.  S.  dollars  which  the  Natives  have  accumulated  by 
working  for  the  Navy  Military  Government,  gathering, 
sacking  and  selling  copra  and  seashells  and  producing 
Native  handicraft.  USCC  bought  these  commodities  from 
the  Natives,  then  shipped  them  to  San  Francisco  where 
they  were  sold  to  the  local  trade.  Any  surplus  from  sales 
was  returned  to  the  Islands. 

The  Island  Trading  Company  of  Micronesia  has  been 
formed  in  Guam  by  the  Navy  to  take  over  the  work  of 
USCC.  Their  local  representative  is  F.  H.  Tillotson,  Vice 
President,  with  offices   in   the  Naval  Supply   Center   in 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

s'I'i  t  ■ 

Top— Arthur  F.  Burns,  Joseph  Harper,  Barney  Jager,  Robert  D. 
Hudson,  Maitland  Pennington.  Center— Mortimer  Gussett,  V/m. 
J.  Griialva,  Stewart  M.  Wellhouse,  Jannes  R.  Leiand,  Alan  Logan. 
Bottom— Dennis  M.  Ryan,  Stanley  W.  Mobbs,  Wayne  Hamilton, 
Joseph    B.    Carroll,    Wm.    W.    Olheiser. 

Oakland.  Frank  Howland,  Chief  of  USCC's  San  Francisco 
Office,  and  Harry  Gunther,  Assistant  Chief,  are  returning 
to  private  business. 

Export  Exam:  • 

Examining  Prof.:  "Give  the  amount  of  coal  exported 
in  any  one  year." 

Student:  "1942 — None!" 


Page  59 

New  Import  Regulations  Announced 
For  Netherlands  Indies 

Because  infringments  of  the  Netherlands  Indies  For- 
eign Exchange  regulations  have  increased  extensively  in 
the  past  months,  a  new  ruling  has  been  imposed,  effec- 
tive February  1,  1948,  requiring  importers  to  obtain  a 
certificate  issued  by  the  Department  of  Economic  Affairs 
showing  that  the  importation  of  such  goods  is  in  con- 
formity with  the  foreign  exchange  regulations  of  1940. 

Smuggled  goods  and  smuggled  money  into  the  Indies 
have  resulted  in  the  importation  of  steadily  increasing 
quantities  of  inferior  goods  and  "complete  rubbish"  sold 
in  the  country  at  "fancy  prices",  the  announcement  de- 
clared. The  new  measure  aims  at  a  more  effective  super- 
vision of  the  present  foreign  exchange  regulations. 

To  obtain  the  certificates  importers  are  requested  to 
supply  all  details  relative  to  proposed  imports  to  the 
Bureau  for  the  Supply  of  Goods,  Department  of  Econom- 
ic Affairs,  No.  8,  Molenvliet  West,  Batavia,  Java,  issuers 
of  the  certificates. 

The  following  extenuations  of  the  regulations  have 
been  provided  so  that  importers'  difficulties  may  be  ob- 
viated as  much  as  possible; 

During  February  and  March,  exchange  permits  issued 
before  February  1,  1948,  may  be  substituted  for  the 
certificate.  But  after  March  31  the  certificate  must  be 
produced  at  the  Custom  House  even  though  the  permit 
was  issued  prior  to  February  1. 

In  cases  where  permits  are  issued  after  February  1,  the 
certificates  will  be  granted  with  the  permits. 

Regulations  for  certificates  described  above  do  not 
apply  to  parcel  post  packages,  travellers'  luggage,  com- 
mercial samples,  etc.  A  separate  regulation  for  these  will 
be  announced  later. 

1948  Officers  of  Foreign  Trade 
Ussociation  of  Southern  California 

At  the  annual  meeting  followed  by  a  directors 
meeting  of  the  Foreign  Trade  Association  of  South- 
ern California  the  following  officers  and  directors 
were  elected  for  the  year  1948: 

Chairman  of  the  Board,  F.  H.  Beeman,  A.  T.  & 
S.  F.  Railroad;  President,  S.  J.  Hindle,  American 
President  Lines;  1st  'Vice  President,  Philip  Stein; 
Customs  Attorney;  2nd  Vice  President,  Roland  C. 
Stevens,  Transmarine  Navigation  Co.;  Secretary, 
Manuel  Avila,  Attorney;  Treasurer,  A.  M.  Gaines, 
Farmers  &  Merchants  National  Bank. 

Directors:  R.  D.  Blanchard,  Norman  Dunnavant, 
Michael  Harris,  Norman  Hewson,  Stanley  Lindo, 
T.  R.  Mojonier,  H.  W.  Peterson,  Alden  T.  Ross, 
T.  R.  Stetson. 

Executive  Secretary,  George  Spillenaar,  and  As- 
sistant Secretary,  Dorothy  P.  Jackson. 



Edition,  by  Frank  Henius,  Foreign  Trade  Counselor;  pub- 
lished by  Prentice-Hall,  Inc.  Price  SIO.OO  (special  dam- 
aged copy  price) ;  over  1,000  pages;  6"  x  9". 

An  invaluable  reference  book  on  foreign  trade,  this 
volume  contains  concise  explanations  of  foreign  trade 
terms,  usages,  practices,  abbreviations,  techniques  and 
procedures.  The  material  is  arranged  in  alphabetical  or- 
der and  covers  all  aspects  of  foreign  trade  including  buy- 
ing, selling,  importing,  exporting,  packing,  shipping, 
banking,  invoicing,  customs,  and  insurance.  Also  included 
are  a  compilation  of  3,000  abbreviations  in  English, 
French,  Spanish,  and  German,  and  300  Foreign  Trade 

foreign  Trade  Zone  for  los  Angeles?      IRMII  TO  m\i  BV  businessmen 

The  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chamber 
of  Commerce  adopted   the  following  recommendation: 

"That  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Los  Angeles 
Chamber  of  Commerce  favor  the  establishment  and 
operation  of  a  Foreign  Trade  Zone  by  the  Los  Angeles 
Board  of  Harbor  Commissioners  using  the  existing 
facilities  recommended  by  the  Leeds-Fitzgerald  survey." 


Relaxed  regulations  governing  travel  to  Japan  by 
businessmen  make  it  possible  to  enter  Japan  for  more 
extended  periods  than  heretofore.  All  firms  ( except 
service  firms )  which  wish  to  send  representatives  to 
Japan  should  make  application  to  Department  of  Com- 
merce Field  Offices.  Procedures  for  making  such  appli- 
cation remain  the  same  as  those  already  in  effect  for 
businessmen  going  to  Japan  to  buy  or  sell  goods.  Pur- 
poses of  travel  may  now  include  purchase  or  sale  of 
commodities,  investigation  of  investment  possibilities, 
or  seeking  restitution  of  property  held  in  Japan  before 
the  war.  For  the  present  the  same  application  forms 
should  continue  to  be  used;  firms  wishing  to  seek  resti- 
tution of  property  should  indicate,  in  connection  with 
their  statement  of  purpose,  the  nature,  location,  and  ex- 
tent of  such  property.  New  application  forms  are  being 
prepared  and  will  be  distributed  in  the  near  future. 
Service  firms  will  continue  to  make  application  to  the 
Department  of  State. 




Uarine  Insurance 

The  London  Letter 

By  Our  United  Kingdom  CorrespDndent 

The  Insurance  Horizon 

E.  B.  Ferguson,  general  manager  of  the  Phoenix  As- 
surance Company,  Ltd.,  London,  recently  made  a  tour 
of  the  United  States  and  the  British  Empire,  and  reviews 
the  insurance  position  as  follows  in  a  report  to  the  In- 
surance Institute  of  London: 

One  cloud  rises  from  the  political  philosophy  widely 
entertained  today,  that  insurance  is  a  service  to  the  com- 
munity, one  which,  having  been  brought  by  free  enter- 
prise to  its  present  state  of  efficiency,  can  now  well  be 
made  the  subject  of  State  monopoly.  I  do  not  imply  that 
the  principles  upon  which  insurance  has  been  developed 
t(i  its  present-day  immense  influence  and  prestige,  are 
identified  with  any  special  political  or  economic  theory. 
Such  principles  as  the  contributions  of  the  many  meet- 
ing tlie  losses  of  the  few  can,  from  the  sociological 
viewpoint,  effectively  be  carried  into  operation  by  the 
State  itself.  War  Risks,  insurance  and  national  insurance 
.  schemes  making  basic  provision  for  unemployment,  sick- 
ness, and  old  age,  are  cases  in  point. 

But  we  are  entitled  to  claim  that  where  insurance 
service,  in  relation  to  economic  activity  or  to  personal 
and  individual  needs,  is  provided  by  free  enterprise  it 
makes  a  notable  contribution  to  all  that  we,  in  the  Eng- 
lish-speaking world,  regard  as  the  privileges  enjoyed  by 
free  men  in  a  free  society.  It  is,  perhaps,  excusable  for 
the  layman  to  indulge  in  rather  shallow  thinking  on  this 
point.  We  are  engaged  in  a  profit-making  enterprise,  and 
io  many  who  are  on  the  outside,  the  making  of  profits 
seems  an  easy  matter.  He  does  not  see  the  multitude  of 
transactions  and  the  judgment  exercised  in  each  of  them 
that  goes  to  make  up  the  final  result.  He  is  in  no  real  posi- 
tion to  assess  the  unresting  efforts  that  are  made  in  the 
field  of  risk  improvement,  nor  the  unceasing  control  exer- 
cised over  expenses.  Often  it  is  the  manner  in  which  his 
claim  is  satisfied  that  provides  the  measure  by  which 
he  judges  the  suitability  of  his  particular  insurer,  and 
possibly  by  which  he  may  praise  or  condemn  the  business 
as  a  whole. 

We  know  full  well  how  much  more  there  is  in  it  than 
this.  Insurance  is  an  essential  individual  service.  That 
service  extends  word-wide  to  give  its  protection  and  aid 
at  every  point. 

The  idea  that  it  can  be  laid  on  from  a  central  source, 
like  gas  or  electricity  or  the  telephone,  and  that  payment 
of  the  required  charge  will  produce  a  standard  cover 
varying  not  at  all  between  one  individual  and  another,  or 
one  commercial   or  .industrial   enterprise   and    another. 

ignores  this  element  of  personal  care,  and  calls  for  our 
unceasing  vigilance  and  refutation  at  every  opportunity 
t)pen  to  us. 

Mr.  Ferguson  further  stated  that  the  great  justification 
of  the  British  insurance  system  was  that  it  was  sensitive 
to  the  new  challenges  it  had  to  face,  and  that  it  had, 
within  itself,  the  power  of  adaptation  and  progress  in 
a  changing  world.  In  the  United  States  the  insurance  in- 
dustry would  develop  out  of  the  present  strains  greater 
financial  strength  and  increased  underwriting  skill. 

Government  Ownership 

While  the  insurance  industry  in  the  United  Kingdom 
has  received  from  leaders  of  the  Socialist  Government  an 
assurance  that  there  is  no  intention  on  the  part  of  the 
part  of  the  present  Government  to  nationalize  insurance, 
no  politician  can  bind  his  successor.  It  is  clear,  therefore, 
that  one  cannot  prophesy  whether  insurance  will  be 
allowed  to  develop  on  its  present  lines,  or  will  be  poli- 
tically revolutionized.  This  was  the  theme  of  Major- 
General  Sir  Claude  F.  Liardet,  presiding  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  Corporation  of  Insurance  Brokers,  held  in 

Would  their  sons  and  grandsons  buy  their  insurance 
and  the  insurance  of  their  firms  at  a  post  office.  Sir  Claude 
Liardet  asked.  That,  he  maintained,  was  no  idle  fantasy, 
as  there  were  numerous  fantatics  who  thought  that  that 
could  be  achieved  with  advantage.  Insurance  brokers 
must  give  the  fanatics  no  grounds  for  demonstrating  that 
they  could  improve  the  efficiency  of  a  service  which  had 
been  operating  under  private  control  for  many  cen- 

British  insurance  represented  security — and  that  was 
why  such  an  enormous  volume  of  foreign  insurance  was 
effected  in  the  home  market.  But  there  was  more  than 
that — the  cost  must  be  commensurate  with  the  cover,  or, 
more  simply,  the  policy  must  be  good  value  for  the 
premium.  That  was  not  solely  the  concern  of  insurers. 
The  brokers  formed  an  integral  part  of  the  distributive 
system,  and  provided  an  essential  link  between  producers 
and  consumers. 

Today,  the  insurance  broker  saw  a  tendency  towards 
nationalized  industries  running  their  own  insurance  risks 
or  sidetracking  the  broker  when  renewing  their  insur- 
ances. The  broker  had  shown  his  worth  in  the  past.  He 
must  consolidate  his  position,  know  his  job,  provide 
service,  and  he  must  be  a  man  of  substance.  The  principal 
aim  of  the  Corporation  was  well  known,  namely,  to  secure 
the  efficiency  of  the  broker  and  all  that  was  implied 

"There  are  many  influences  at  work  which  sooner  or 
later  are  bound  to  have  an  effect  one  way  or  another  on 
this  great  business,"  Sir  Claude  continued.  "The  search- 
(Please  turn  to  page  89) 

FEBRUARY     •      1948 

Page  61 

ymiralty  Decisions 

By  HARDLD   S.  DDBB5    «/  ^-^^  Francisco  Bar 

Pier  Watchmen  Claim  Entitled  to  the  Benefits 
»f  Fair  Lahor  Standards  hd 

DURING  THE  LAST  FEW  YEARS,  various  groups 
of  employees  in  varied  fields  of  endeavor,  have  in- 
stituted actions  against  their  employers,  both  past  and 
present,  alleging  failure  to  comply  with  the  Fair  Labor 
Standards  Act.  Of  course,  their  purpose  in  bringing 
such  suits  is  merely  to  obtain  overtime  compensation  at 
the  rates  prescribed  by  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act. 
In  most  cases,  the  suits  covered  claims  for  a  period  of  as 
much  as  four  years  in  the  past.  It  is  easy  to  understand 
the  consternation  of  the  average  employer  when  faced 
with  such  a  suit,  without  having  had  any  prior  notice 
of  the  possibility  of  such  claims.  In  some  of  these  cases, 
the  judgments  in  favor  of  the  employee  on  behalf  of  a 
representative  group,  would  or  could,  bring  bankruptcy 
to  the  employer  named  because  of  his  inability  to  foresee 
the  possibility  of  such  a  claim. 

In  New  York  very  recently,  two  employees  of  a  pier 
construction  company,  instituted  actions  on  their  own 
behalf  and  also  in  a  representative  capacity,  for  all  other 
employees  similarly  employed,  to  recover  alleged  over- 
time compensation,  liquidated  damages  and  counsel  fees 
under  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act.  The  action  is  en- 
titled Philip  Tinyes,  et  al  r.  J.  Rich  Steers.  Inc.,  et  al. 
Under  the  penalty  provisions  of  the  Fair  Labor  Standards 
Act,  the  employer  is  liable  for  the  overtime  compensa- 
tion plus  an  equal  amount  as  liquidated  damages,  in  addi- 
tion to  counsel  fees,  when  it  is  subsequently  found  that 
he  has  violated  the  Act.  The  lower  court  adjudged  that 
plaintiffs'  duties  fell  within  the  provisions  of  the  Fair 
Labor  Standards  Act  and  the  matter  was  referred  to  a 
referee  in  order  to  determine  the  total  sum  due  the 
various  employees.  The  case  was  appealed  and  it  is  from 
that  appeal  that  I  make  this  report. 

At  the  times  in  question,  various  plaintiffs  were  em- 
ployed by  defendant  as  "steam  and  "land"  watchmen  in 
connection  with  the  construction  of  two  shipbuilding 
dry  docks,  piers  and  other  related  work  in  and  about  the 
New  York  Naval  Shipyard  at  Brooklyn,  pursuant  to  a 
government  "cost-plus"  contract.  It  was  admitted  that 
plaintiffs  were  not  engaged  in  the  production  of  goods. 
Their  activities  were  confined  principally  to  the  pro- 
tection of  their  employers'  undertaking.  The  "steam" 
watchmen  were  required,  among  other  things,  to  place 
warning  lamps  and  signals  on  various  work  boats  used 
in  the  project;  to  watch  tie-in  lines  of  boats  and  to  adjust 
them  with  the  flow  and  ebb  of  the  tide;  and  to  siphon 
out  dangerous  amounts  of  water  which  accumulated  in 
such  boats.  Included  among  the  duties  of  the  "land " 
watchmen  were  such  tasks  as  placing  warning  lamps 
and  signals  at  various  cross  streets  where  the  building 
operation  was  conducted  and  on  docks,  piers,  boats  and 

railroad  tracks;  to  control  and  direct  traffic  at  the  cross- 
roads upon  the  approach  of  railroad  trains  within  the 
shipyard  proper  and  at  both  ends  of  a  suspension  bridge 
when  it  was  elevated  to  permit  boats  to  pass  through; 
to  place  lamps  and  signals  upon  extension  piers;  and  to 
guard  and  adjust  mooring  lines  of  concrete  barges  and 
divers'  scows. 

The  burden  was  upon  the  plaintiffs  to  establish  that 
they  were  engaged  "in  commerce  '  within  the  meaning 
of  the  Act.  Warren-Bnuishair  Drilling  Co.  is.  Hall,  .t17 
U.  S.  88.  The  term  "commerce  ",  as  used  therein,  is  defined 
to  mean  "trade,  commerce,  transportation,  transmission, 
or  communication  among  the  several  states  or  from  any 
state  to  any  place  outside  thereof. "  29  U.S.C.A.  sec.  203 
(b).  The  test  to  be  applied  "is  not  whether  the  em- 
ployee's activities  affect  or  indirectly  relate  to  interstate 
commerce  but  whether  they  are  actually  in  or  so  closely 
related  to  the  movement  of  the  commerce  as  to  be  a 
part  of  it.  *  *  *  It  is  not  important  whether  the  em- 
ployer *  *  *  is  engaged  in  interstate  commerce.  It  is  the 
work  of  the  employee  which  is  decisive.'  McLeod  vs. 
Threlkeld,  319  U.  S.  491.  Activities  which  may  "remotely 
affect  interstate  commerce"  are  not  included  within  the 
scope  of  the  phrase  "in  commerce. "  Stoike  is.  First  Na- 
tiottal  Bank  of  City  of  New  York.  290  N.  Y.  195.  202. 

The  court  concluded  that  the  plaintffs  who  are  the  em- 
ployees in  this  case,  failed  to  sustain  their  burden  of 
proof.  While  their  activities  may  have  indirectly  affected 
commerce  in  the  sense  that  they  tended  to  lessen  the 
likelihood  of  interference  with  river  traffic  which  might 
possibly  result  if  work  boats  were  to  capsize  or  break 
free  of  their  moorings,  or  if  they  failed  to  display  proper 
anchor  lights  between  sunset  and  sunrise,  such  activities 
did  not  bring  the  "steam  "  watchmen  into  the  stream  of  j 
interstate  traffic.  The  evidence  failed  to  show  that  they  j 
were  closely  or  intimately  related  to  such  traffic  as  to 
be  a  part  of  it.  The  incidental  and  purely  negative  effect 
upon  river  traffic  which  might  have  followed  their  im- 
proper discharge  of  duties,  was  not  at  all  related  to 
interstate  commerce.  The  activities  of  the  employees  in 
this  case  were  purely  local  in  character  and  therefore 
did  not  come  within  the  provisions  of  the  Fair  Labor 
Standards  Act. 

The  court  also  found  that  the  same  rules  and  views 
would  be  applicable  to  the  "land  "  watchmen  because  the 
streets  and  bridge  over  which  they  controlled  traffic  were 
part  of  the  work  project,  and  when  the  work  was  com- 
pleted, they  became  an  integral  part  of  the  Navy  Yard. 
Their  work  did  not  require  them  to  engage  in  the  re- 
pair or  maintenance  of  an  instrumentality  of  interstate 

The  lower  court's  order  was  reversed  and  the  watch- 
men's complaints  were  dismissed. 

Page  62 


Sovereign  Immunity  —  The  Martin  Behrman  Case 

I'ndcT  the  laws  of  rhc  railed  St.itts  and  iitlicr  oiun- 
tries  as  well  a  sovereign  government  recognized  by  the 
United  States,  is  entitled  to  immunity  from  suit  upon 
(he  request  of  the  ambassador  or  suitably  recognized 
(.onsul  officer.  The  rule  is  an  outgrowth  of  the  theoretical 
Mixereign  and  unimpeachable  right  of  a  government  as 
Mich,  to  make  laws  and  set  up  rules  of  conduct  for  its 
subjects  without  giving  up  any  liberties  of  its  own  unless 
It  deems  it  necessary  or  advisable  to  do  so.  I  might  say 
that  it  is  a  rare  thing  nowadays  to  have  a  plea  of  sovereign 
immunity  entered  in  cases  pending  before  the  courts  of 
this  country  and  others,  because  in  most  cases  where  a 
plea  of  sovereign  immunity  would  be  recognized,  the 
government  involved  considers  that  from  a  political  and 
business  viewpoint,  it  is  better  to  recognize  a  just  debt 
or  recognize  a  just  difference  of  opinion  with  reference 
to  a  claim  or  debt,  and  not  brush  it  off  by  a  plea  of 
sovereign  immunity. 

During  the  month  of  November  1947,  the  plea  of 
sovereign  immunity  was  introduced  in  a  case  pending  in 
the  United  States  District  Court  of  New  York  entitled 
lihrandtsen  Company.  Inc.,  as  Chartered  Owner  and 
(operator  of  the  American  Steamship  Martin  Behrman, 
jud  as  Bailee  of  Her  Cargo,  etc.  vs.  Netherlands  East 
Indies  Government,  et  al.  After  the  surrender  of  Japan 
111  August  1945,  and  the  withdrawal  of  the  Japanese 
from  the  Dutch  East  Indies,  an  armed  movement  seeking 
independence  for  a  "Republic  of  Indonesia"  began,  and 
was  opposed  by  force  by  the  Government  of  the  Nether- 
lands. Early  in  1947,  libellant  Isbrantsen  Company,  Inc. 

chartered  the  American  Martin  Behrman.  owned  by  the 
United  States  Maritime  Commission  on  bareboat  charter 
and  sailed  her  with  a  cargo  to  Cheribon,  a  port  in  Java 
under  control  of  the  "Republic  of  Indonesia."  The  cargo 
having  been  discharged,  the  vessel  loaded  an  outward 
cargo  and  sought  to  depart,  but  was  intercepted  by  a 
Netherlands  warship  and  conducted  to  a  port  under  the 
control  of  the  Government  of  the  Netherlands  Ease 
Indies,  where  the  cargo  was  removed  from  the  vessel. 
The  operator  of  the  vessel  thereafter  filed  a  libel  in  the 
Federal  Court  of  New  York,  claiming  damage  for  inter- 
ference of  the  voyage  and  the  improper  removal  of  the 
cargo  in  the  sum  of  over  three  million  dollars.  A  claim 
of  immunity  was  thereupon  presented  to  the  court  by 
the  Attorney  General  acting  upon  the  request  of  the 
Acting  Secretary  of  State. 

The  request  of  the  Netherlands  East  Indies  was  con- 
tained in  a  communication  to  the  Acting  Secretary  of 
State,  in  which  the  Netherlands  Ambassador  stated  that 
the  Netherlands  and  the  Netherlands  East  Indies  are 
parts  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands,  which  is  a 
sovereign  state  and  has  in  no  way  given  its  consent  to 
be  sued  in  the  manner  before  the  court  in  any  court  of 
law  or  admiralty  in  the  United  States  of  America  either 
in  respect  to  the  Kingdom  or  any  of  its  constituent  parts. 

The  court  felt  bound  to  recognize  the  suggestion  of 
immunity  in  accordance  with  the  cases  of  Compania 
F.spanola  vs.  Nevemar,  30.^  U.  S.  68,  and  Mexico  vs. 
Hoffman.  .324  U.  S.  30.  Respondent's  motion  for  im- 
munity was  therefore  granted  and  the  motion  of  the 
libellant  for  a  default  decree  was  denied. 



Editor's  Note. — Mr.  Dickie  has  prepared  an  outline 
of  rule  interpretations  and  the  reasons  for  rule  changes 
which  he  has  encountered  in  his  work  with  insurance 
underwriters.  The  first  part  of  his  article,  dealing  with 
Safety  Requirement  Rules  1  to  9,  was  published  in  the 
January  Pacific  Marine  Review. 

No.  10  Wing  Athwartship  Doors 

The  wing  athwartship  doors  to  the  upper 
engine  room  on  the  main  deck  to  be  water- 
tight on  both  wood  and  steel  boats.  The  sill  of 
the  door  to  be  18"  above  the  deck. 

The  house  on  the  main  deck  in  which  the  galley  is 
located  does  not  extend  to  the  ship's  side.  The  ship's  side 
extends  up  to  the  boat  deck  enclosing  a  space  along  side 
of  and  aft  of  the  galley.  The  after  end  of  the  enclosed 
space  between  the  ship's  side  and  the  bait  boxes  is  open. 
On  some  boats  an  effort  has  been  made  to  close  the  after 
openings  with  tonnage  doors. 

The  forward  end  between  the  house  and  the  ship's 
side  has  been  closed  with  what  has  been  designated  a 
wing  athwartship  bulkhead,  usually  bolted  in  place  so 
machinery  can  be  removed.  The  doors  on  each  side 
through  the  wing  athwartship  bulkheads  have  been  desig- 
nated wing  athwartship  doors. 

There  is  not  space  at  the  moment  to  mention  all  the 
various  ways  the  sea  gets  in,  runs  along  the  alleyway 
and  over  the  sills  of  the  wing  athwartship  doors.  Origi- 
nally the  sills  were  made  6"  high — raised  to  10" —  to 
12"  and  finally  to  18"  above  the  deck  in  an  effort  to 
correct  the  trouble.  It  is  impractical  to  make  the  sill  any 
higher.  The  doors  were  made  in  halves  (Dutch  Doors) 
but  the  fishermen  persisted  in  leaving  even  the  lower 
half  open. 

The  proper  way  to  make  these  doors  is  of  steel  in  one 
piece  with  a  large  port  hole — fit  the  door  with  three 
Hydro-Hinges  and  require  that  the  door  be  devoid  of 
iCoiiliiiiied  on  Page  100) 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page  63 



LUCY  mu 

Under  full   load  conditions,  the   Ill-foot  welded   iteel  tuna  clipper, 

Lucy  Elena,  undergoes  her  first  trial  runs  in  San  Diego  Bay.  The  new 

vessel,  built  by  National  Iron  Works,  is  the  largest  welded  steel  tuna 

clipper    ever    built    in    San    Diego. 

The  largest  steel  tuna  clipper  ever  built  in  San  Diego, 
the  111-foot  Lucy  Elena  has  just  completed  her  trial  runs 
and  was  delivered  to  her  owners  on  January  21  by  the 
National  Iron  Works,  builders  of  the  craft.  The  new 
vessel-  was  put  through  her  tests  by  Machado  Medino, 
port  captain  at  National  Iron  Works'  San  Diego  plant 
and  a  veteran  fishing  fleet  skipper. 

The  Lucy  Elena  was  clocked  at  98  knots  in  her  speed 
tests  and  this  speed  was  made  while  the  ship  was  operat- 
ing under  full  load  conditions. 

The  Lucy  Elena  will  fish  for  the  People's  Packing  Com- 
pany and  was  built  for  John  Balestreri,  WiUiam  H. 
Schmidt,  Walter  A.  Seewald,  Julius  Cairns,  Linwood 
Champion,  George  Bullock,  Mark  W.  Crain,  Caesar  F. 
Pastore,  Francis  E.  Pastore  and  A.  T.  Procopio.  Balestreri 
will  be  in  command  of  the  new  ship. 

The  Lucy  Elena  is  on  the  raised-deck  tuna  fishing  type, 
constructed  of  electric  arc  welded  steel,  with  a  raked 
beam  and  a  modified  tuna  vessel  stern.  The  vessel  is  sub- 
divided with  six  transverse  oil  and  watertight  bulkheads 
and  a  transom  bulkhead,  extending  to  the  main  deck,  a 
cofferdam  for  chain  stowage,  a  forward  fuel  oil  deep 
tank,  a  machinery  space,  and  ten  brine  wells  arranged  in 
two  rows  of  five  each. 
Propeller ; 

Doran  Company  72"  x  56",  designed  especially  for 
the  Lucy  Elena  by  William  Lambie. 

Shell  plating  is  5  16"  steel  plate  in  the  engine  room 
and  wherever  floors  are  oil  tight.  Other  floors  are  Vi" 
plate.  A  5    16"  center  vertical  keel  is  provided. 

In  general  the  vessel  is  constructed  in  conformance 
with  the  rules  laid  down  by  the  American  Bureau  of 

Page  64 


KORT  Miim  M  w\i  m  um 

I  RIAL  runs  of  two  newly  designed  HUM)  H.P.  tow- 
l  boats,  the  ll'w.  Phi  and  the  Freedom,  have  demon- 
strated they  have  30  per  cent  more  "push  power"  than 
some  other  craft  in  the  same  type  of  service,  and  although 
the  hulls  are  smaller  the  additional  "push  power"  is  ob- 
tained through  the  use  of  lightweight,  high-speed  geared 
Diesel  engines,  improved  Kort  nozzle  efficiency  and  rela- 
tively greater  draft  than  riverboars  operated  under  similar 

Both  vessels  now  are  in  service  with  Dravo  Corpora- 
tion's Keystone  Division,  towing  sand,  gravel  and  coal 
in  the  Pittsburgh  area.  The  Freedom  was  launched  June 
19,  and  the  \Vm.  Pitt,  July  17. 

Tests  with  the  firm's  dynamometer  barge  showed  both 
craft  have  "push  power "  of  34,000  pounds  against  the 
dock  and  25,000  pounds  at  a  towing  speed  of  five  miles 
per  hour.  Maximum  towing  efficiency,  the  designers  ex- 
plained, is  dependent  upon  "push  power"  rather  than  the 
amount  of  shaft  horsepower  that  can  be  developed. 

Effective  thrust  of  the  vessels  is  increased  because  the 
new  hull  design  eliminates  the  necessity  of  stern  tunnels 
which  provides  additional  Kort  nozzle  area.  The  shape 
of  the  hull  allows  increased  and  freer  flow  of  water  to 
the  Kort  nozzles,  especially  in  shallow  water.  Kort  nozzles 
surround  each  propeller  and  control  the  direction  and 
velocity  of  water  passing  to,  through  and  away  from  it. 

Each  vessel  is  116  ft.  long  with  a  27  ft.  beam  and  10 
ft.  moulded  depth.  Draft,  with  %  fuel  and  supplies,  is 
7  ft. 

Power  for  each  towboat  is  supplied  by  two  General 

Kor«  nollles  surround  the  propellers.  New  hull  shape  eliminates 
necessity    of    stern    tunnels    providing    increased    Kort    noiile    area. 

Motors  supercharged,  6-cylinder,  2-cycle  Diesel  engines 
that  are  controlled  from  the  pilothouse.  Both  engines 
run  continuously  in  the  same  direction  and  drive  high- 
tensile,  manganese  bronze,  four-bladed  propellers  de- 
signed to  absorb  500  H.  P.  each  at  700  R.P.M. 

The  Vl'm.  Pitt,  and  a  sistership,  the  Freedom,  recently  demonstrat- 
ed 30  per  cent  more  "push  power"  than  other  vessels  in  this 
service.  The  new  1000  horsepower  boats  were  designed  and  built 
by  Dravo's  Engineering  Works  Division.  Improved  hull  design 
and  other  innovations  aro  responsible  for  the  increased  "push 
power"  that  results  in  maximum  towing  efficiency. 

FEBRUARY     •      194 

U(nt\  f^^UfUitm  Gn&wt^itcL 

by  "The  Chief" 

"The  Chief's"   department   welcomes   qpestions — lust   write   "The   Chief,"   Pacific   Marine   Review. 


^.S  X  lOO'-SSOfTLt^  fCi  S£; 

syox-to^  iyx>o  FT  lie  i  remit 

W  _y!20c/  horSe-C^in  do  wji':' 
Thiy^    iMi  have  the  danda^A 

f.i>o»t  10  Mm  ««ut«  «  *E 




Blackboard   figures    I    to  4 


There  are  two  things  that  the  juniors  and  even  perhaps 
the  unhcensed  men  aboard  the  ship  know  about  the 
horsepower.  One,  that  it  is  33,000  foot  pounds  per 
minute  and,  two,  that  the  power  of  an  engine  is  PLAN/ 
33,000.  We  propose  to  show  how  these  are  arrived  at 

Fig.  1  shows  a  one  horsepower  gasoline  engine  at 
about  4000  rpm,  an  electric  motor  at  one  horsepower 
1800  rpm,  and  a  horse,  all  drawn  to  about  the  same 
scale.  This  contrast  should  cause  some  questions  and 
perhaps  doubts.  It  is  clear  only  when  we  realize  that 
the  horsepower  is  a  compound  unit  (made  up  of  several 
factors)  and  is  a  rate  of  transfer  or  a  time  rate  unit. 
It  is  a  rate  of  conversion  of  energy,  i.e.,  foot  pounds  per 

minute,  just  like  speed  is  a  time  rate  of  covering  distance. 
Also  shown  is  the  conversion  to  seconds  by  dividing 
by  60.  The  interesting  thing  about  this  sketch  is  the 
poor  horse.  He  has  been  dragging  this  load  all  day  as 
indicated  by  the  setting  sun.  He  is  covered  with  perspira- 
tion and  tears  are  running  from  his  eyes.  It  has  been  all 
he  could  do.  Although  the  holdback  load  is  only  100 
pounds  it  has  tired  him  out.  He  could  easily  pull  6  or  8 
times  this  drag  for  a  short  haul  but  100  pounds  is  all  he 
could  pull  as  an  all  day  haul.  This  illustrates  accurately 
the  origin  of  the  unit  of  power.  In  the  days  of  James 
Watt  who  did  so  much  toward  the  development  of  the 
steam  engine,  the  horse  was  the  emblem  of  strength  and 
power,  and  why  not  rate  an  engine  in  terins  of  what  a 

Page  66 


horse  could  do?  So  they  tried  out  an  average  horse  as 
shown  in  the  sketch  and  arrived  at  the  engineering  con- 
clusion that  he  could  drag  a  load  which  required  100 
pounds  to  pull  all  day  and  at  a  speed  of  5.5  feet  per 
second.  This  gave  the  now  standard  figure  of  550  foot 
pounds  per  second. 

Note  that  the  foot  pound  is  a  unit  of  energy  or  work 
done,  being  that  of  overcoming  a  force  of  one  pound 
through  a  distance  of  one  foot.  The  horse  overcame  100 
pounds  through  5.5  feet  every  second  of  time.  Do  not 
confuse  the  pound  foot  with  the  foot  pound.  See  Fig. 
2.  Torque  or  twist  of  anything  is  measured  in  pound 
feet.  The  twisting  effect  that  an  engine  applies  to  a 
shaft  and  also  the  counter-twist  presented  by  the  load 
are  both  measured  in  Torque  of  which  the  unit  is  the 
pound  foot. 

As  indicated  in  the  figure  a  shaft  or  drum  winding  up 
a  rope  will  pull  up  the  rope  at  a  rate  of  speed  determined 
by  the  rpm  of  the  shaft.  A  weight  or  load  on  the  rope  will 
apply  a  resistance  to  being  pulled  up  and  thus  the  speed 
of  the  rope  and  the  weight  in  pounds  will  give  the  horse- 
power of  the  system  and  also  the  relation  between  torque 
times  rpm  and  speed  times  weight.  This  relation  is 
developed  in  Fig.  2. 

The  "land-mark"  or  figure  to  be  remembered  is  the 
3  which  is  the  torque  for  one  horsepower  at  1750  rpm. 
This  is  indicated  in  Fig.  3  where  also  is  given  a  list  of 
several  values  of  the  torque  and  corresponding  rpm,  all 
representing  one  horsepower.  From  this  we  may  know 
that  the  tail  shaft  of  our  ship  turning  at  100  rpm  and 
delivering  6000  HP  has  on  it  a  torque  of  52 J/^  times 
6000  or  315,000  pound-feet  of  torque  which  is  315,000 
pounds  applied  at  one  foot  from  the  center.  If  the  "bull" 
gear  of  the  gear  reducer  is  10  feet  in  diameter  or  5 
foot  radius  we  have  315,000/5  equals  63,000  pounds  of 
force  applied  to  the  gear  teeth  of  this  gear. 

Thus  we  have  two  formulas  for  HP.  One  for  a  force 
moving  along  a  line  and  the  other  for  a  torque  which  is 
also  turning.  Note  that  the  force  or  torque  is  not  power 
without  the  motion  or  rotation.  A  force  of  a  thousand 
pounds  screwed  up  in  a  vise  is  not  power.  In  fact,  if  it 
were  not  for  the  friction  in  the  worm  of  the  vise  and  a 
little  yield  or  spring  effect  in  the  vise  frame  it  would 
not  require  any  energy  or  work  to  set  it  up  to  1000 
pounds  although  it  would  require  a  force.  Force  is  not 
power  or  work,  and  speed  is  not  power  or  work  but  the 
product  of  the  two  is.  This  is  the  dual  nature  of  power. 

Applying  this  to  engines  we  note  at  once  that  an 
engine  capable  of  delivering  a  certain  torque  can  have 
any  horsepower  rating  we  may  care  to  give  it  from  one 
or  less  to  many  thousands,  all  depending  on  the  speed  we 
care  to  run  it.  When  this  fact  fully  impresses  our  mind 
we  at  once  wonder  why  we  do  not  have  engines  with 
more  power  and  less  weight.  This  is  exactly  the  question 
that  caused  DeLaval,  Parsons  and  Curtis  at  the  turn  of 
the  century  to  try  for  more  speed  using  their  steam 
turbines.  In  fact  they  had  a  form  of  engine  then  that 
could  run  at  such  a  tremendous  speed  of  500  rpm  that 
no  one  had  a  load  capable  of  being  driven  at  that  speed. 
Large  capacity  high  speed  gears  were  unknown  then. 
Therefore  it  is  speed  limitations  that  limit  horsepower. 
There  are  several  of  these  limits.  One  is  the  load,  but 

modern  gears  permit  almost  any  engine  speed  to  be 
geared  down  to  any  load.  For  instance,  turbines  in 
regular  use  are  running  at  over  10,000  rpm.  Gas  turbines 
may  run  up  to  20,000  rpm.  But  the  more  serious  limit 
is  that  of  the  weight  of  reciprocating  parts  of  the  steam 
and  diesel  engine.  And  if  this  limit  is  partly  overcome 
by  light  weight  metals  and  balance,  then  we  have  the 
more  serious  limit  of  the  speed  of  the  sliding  action  of 
the  piston  and  rings  on  the  cylinder  walls.  There  seems 
to  be  no  suitable  solution  of  this  limit  usually  referred 
to  as  piston  speed.  Even  if  we  could  take  care  of  the 
lubrication  we  would  find  that  the  valves  would  have  to 
be  too  large  and  would  be  mechanically  difficult.  Note 
that  increased  piston  speed  means  increased  steam  flow 
because  of  increased  HP.  This  means  larger  steam  lines 
as  well  as  valves.  Of  course  if  we  sacrifice  economy  and 
efiiciency  we  can  increase  piston  speeds  for  more  HP. 

Fig.  1  shows  relation  between  revolutions  per  minute 
( rpm )  and  piston  speed.  If  L  is  the  length  of  the  stroke 
in  feet  and  N  is  the  number  of  strokes  per  minute  the 
AVERAGE  piston  speed  is  LN  but  the  peak  is  about 
3/2  LN.  While  as  shown  the  typical  speeds  are  20  feet 
per  second,  some  special  engines  with  special  valves  have 
run  at  much  more  than  this.  The  piston  speed  of  diesel 
engines  is  also  limited  because  of  lubrication  and  tem- 
perature so  that  20  feet  per  second  is  high. 

Here  then  is  the  basic  reason  why  reciprocating  en- 
gines will  always  be  limited  in  capacity  or,  what  amounts 
to  the  same  thing,  to  weight  per  HP.  Even  the  reciprocat- 
ing gasoline  engine  for  aircraft  at  as  high  as  2000  rpm 
will  not  exceed  a  piston  speed  of  20  to  25  feet  per  second. 

The  weight  of  reciprocating  parts  is  also  a  limit.  First 
it  is  impossible  to  balance  out  the  reciprocating  forces  in 
all  directions.  To  exactly  balance  the  piston,  rod  and 
connecting  link  with  all  its  parts  such  as  crank  bearing, 
slipper,  and  so  on  in  the  direction  of  the  piston  stroke 
we  leave  large  uncompensated  forces  in  a  direction  at 
right  angles  to  the  shaft  and  stroke  due  to  the  balance 
weights  we  added.  We  therefore  compromise  on  balance 
weight.  The  drivers  of  a  large  modern  steam  locomotive 
may  easily  leave  the  rails  at  each  revolution  due  to  the 
weight  of  the  balance  weights  on  the  wheel,  at  some 
high  speed.  At  usual  speeds  these  forces  pound  the  rails, 
sometimes  breaking  them,  and  shake  the  ground  notice- 

Our  next  article  will  discuss  the  HP  formula  and  the 
solution  of  a   typical    problem. 

Maritime  Commission  Moves  in  8.  F. 

Effective  Monday,  February  16,  1948,  the  Pacific  Coast  Di.s- 
trict  Offices  of  the  United  States  Maritime  Commission,  presently 
located  at  220  Bush  Street  and  65  Sutter  Street,  in  San  Francisco. 
will  be  quartered  on  the  eighth  floor  at  180  New  Montgomery 
Street,  San  Francisco. 

All  correspondence  customarily  addressed  to  220  Bush  Street 
and  65  Sutter  Street  should,  on  and  after  February  16,  1948, 
be  addressed  to  the  Commission  at:  180  New  Montgomery 
Street,  San   Francisco  5,  California. 

The  telephone  number  at  the  new  location  will  be  chanwd 
to  GArlield    1-0125. 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page  67 

if  Off  ^^/ 


h^  "The  Skipper" 

Questions  Welcomed.    Just  Address  "The  Skipper,"  Pacific 
Marine  Review,  500  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  California 


/  Continued) 

Due  to  limited  space  it  was  impossible  in  the  last 
issue  to  complete  our  discussion  of  the  effect  of  the 
Earth's  Magnetism  on  the  ship  and  compass;  so,  let 
us  continue  by  taking  up: 

Transient  Magnetism 

The  term  transient  magnetism  does  not  relate  to  a 
particular  type  of  the  earth's  magnetism  which  is  chang- 
ing its  direction  of  flow  constantly  but  rather  is  a 
peculiar  type  of  magnetism  which  is  found  in  soft  iron 
only.  This  brings  up  the  question — what  is  soft  iron? 
Soft  iron,  as  we  think  of  it  in  our  study  of  magnetism, 
is  iron  or  steel  which  has  the  ability  to  become  magne- 
tized instantly  when  placed  in  a  magnetic  field  and  to 
instantly  lose  this  magnetism  when  removed  from  the 
magnetic  field  thus  allowing  the  line  of  demarcation  and 
the  distribution  of  red  and  blue  magnetism  to  change 
as  the  direction  of  the  mass  changes  in  relation  to  the 
lines  of  force. 

Semi  Circular  Deviation  Due  to 
Transient  Magnetism 

The  remaining  part  of  semicircular  deviation  which 
was  not  discussed  in  the  last  issue  is  due  to  the  Transient 
Magnetism  in  the  vertical  soft  iron  of  the  vessel.  This 
is  caused  by  the  unequal  distribution  of  vertical  soft 
iron  forward  and  aft  of  the  compass.  Usually  we  have 
a  greater  mass  of  vertical  iron  aft  of  the  compass  and  at 
a  height  which  is  nearer  the  height  of  the  compass  such 
as  stacks,  bulkheads  of  the  superstructure,  etc.  This  being 
true  and  remembering  that  vertical  iron  is  affected  only 
by  the  vertical  component  of  the  earth's  total  force  we 
can  picture  mentally  how  the  line  of  demarcation  and 
distribution  of  red  and  blue  magnetism  would  be  de- 
pendent on  the  magnetic  latitude  of  the  vessel  at  that 
particular  instant.  If  we  picture  in  our  minds  a  vessel 
in  North  Magnetic  Latitudes,  for  example,  near  San  Fran- 
Page  68 

Cisco,  the  plane  of  the  line  of  demarcation  between  the 
red  and  blue  magnetism  of  the  vertical  soft  iron  would 
pass  through  the  vessel  at  an  angle  of  about  28°  from 
horizontal  thus  being  at  right  angles  to  the  vertical  lines 
of  force  of  the  earth's  magnetism.  The  distribution  of 
red  and  blue  magnetism  would  be  red  in  the  lower  por- 
tion of  the  vessel  and  blue  in  the  upper  portion,  as  the 
following  sketch  shows. 


C-^oss    ?' 


From  these  sketches  we  can  easily  see  that  the  vertical 
iron  which  is  nearest  the  compass  and  because  of  its 
nearness  has  the  greatest  effect  on  the  compass  is  aft  of 
the  compass  and  has  blue  magnetism  wlien  in  North 
Magnetic  latitudes.  The  reverse  is,  of  course,  true  on 
vessels  in  South  Magnetic  latitudes.  Since  the  vertical 
soft  iron  is  usually  evenly  distributed  on  either  side  of 
the  center  line  of  the  vessel,  the  poles  of  the  red  and 
blue  transient  magnetism  of  the  vertical  soft  iron  is 
usually  assumed  to  be  on  the  centerline  of  the  vessel. 
By  the  following  sketches  it  will  be  quite  easy  to  see  how 
a  blue  magnetic  pole  aft  of  the  compass  would  cause  semi- 
circular deviation. 




s    repr 


t    Ma 


c    Mer 



Black    dot 

alt    of 
in   vert 






e    pole 


White  e 


of   con 


s   ne 




red   end 









.f    magn 

To  compensate  for  this  semi-circular  deviation  which 
is  caused  by  a  greater  amount  of  soft  iron  aft  of  the 
compass  than  forward  of  it,  we  simply  place  a  smaller 
mass  of  soft  iron  in  a  vertical  position  forward  of  the 
compass  and  nearer  to  it.  This  mass  is  called  the  Flinders 
Bar.  It  is  isolated  from  contact  with  any  other  magnetic 
material  by  means  of  a  brass  case  and  when  induced 
with  magnetism  it  also  has  a  line  of  demarcation  and 
a  distribution  of  red  and  blue  magnetism  with  the  blue 
magnetism  in  the  upper  end  and  nearest  to  the  compass 
card,  thus  counteracting  the  effect  of  the  blue  magnetism 
aft  of  the  compass.  The  reason  this  smaller  mass  is  able 
to  counteract  for  the  larger  mass  aft  is,  as  we  mentioned 

previously,  the  magnetic  force  varies  inversely  with  the 
square  of  the  distance  and  since  the  smaller  mass  is 
much  nearer  the  card  than  the  larger  mass,  the  magnetic 
force  exerted  on  the  card  is  the  same. 

To  finish  our  discussion  of  the  causes  of  semi-circular 
deviation  let  us  sum  them  up  briefly. 

1.  First  and  chief  cause  is  the  horizontal  component 
of  the  sub-permanent  magnetism  of  the  ship. —  Com- 
pensated for:  By  the  small  permanent  compensating 

2.  Second:  It  is  caused  by  the  vertical  component 
of  the  sub-permanent  magnetism  of  the  ship. — Com- 
pensated for:  By  the  sm.iU  permanent  compensating 

3.  Third  and  last  cause  is  the  transient  magnetism 
in  the  vertical  soft  iron  of  the  vessel. — Compensated 
for:   By  the  Flinders  Bar. 

Now  to  take  up  the  cause  ol^  Quadrantal  Deviation. 

Horizontal  Soft  Iron  and 
Quadrantal  Deviation 

Transient  magnetism  affects  horizontal  soft  iron  just 
as  it  does  vertical  soft  iron  and  the  line  of  demarcation 
and  the  resultant  distribution  of  magnetism  changes  as 
the  heading  of  the  vessel  changes.  In  our  consideration 
of  this  transient  magnetism  which  is  induced  in  the 
horizontal  soft  iron,  however,  we  have  to  consider  the 
fore  and  aft  and  athwartship  components  separately.  That 
is  to  consider  the  horizontal  soft  iron  which  is  forward 
and  aft  of  the  compass  as  having  two  poles  and  that 
which  is  athwartships  of  the  compass  as  having  two 
poles.  With  this  consideration  we  can  see  that  the  fore 
and  aft  component  would  cause  a  westerly  deviation  on 
a  North  East  heading  in  North  Latitude.  We  can  also 
see  how  the  athwartship  component  would  cause  easterly 
deviation  on  a  North  East  heading  in  North  Latitudes. 
Due  to  the  shape  of  our  vessel  we  have  more  horizontal 
soft  iron  forward  and  aft  of  the  compass  than  athwart- 
ships and  it  would  seem  that  the  fore  and  aft  component 
would  cause  the  greatest  amount  of  deviation  so  that 
we  would  have  a  remainder  of  westerly  deviation  on  a 
North  East  heading.  This  is  not  true  though,  because  the 
poles  of  the  fore  and  aft  component  are  farther  away 
from  the  compass  and  magnetic  force  varies  inversely 
with  the  square  of  the  distance.  So,  we  have  our  greatest 
force  in  the  athwartship  component  and  as  a  result  have 
only  to  consider  this  force  in  our  compensation  for 
Quadrantal  deviation.  Knowing  this,  we  see  that  this 
athwartship  pole  of  red  m.ignetism  on  the  port  side  of 
the  vessel  in  North  Latitude  would  repel  the  north  end 
of  the  compass  card  to  the  Eastward.  As  the  ship  swings 
around  to  East,  the  athwartship  poles  come  in  line  with 
the  magnetic  meridians  and  the  North,  South  axis  of  the 
compass  card  thus  causing  no  deviation.  Then  as  she 
swings  to  the  South  East,  the  athwartship  pole  of  red 
magnetism  is  to  be  Eastward  of  the  compass  needle,  thus 
repelling  it  to  the  westward  causing  westerly  deviation. 
Swinging  the  ship  to  a  south  heading,  we  see  the  athwart- 
ship poles  at  right  angles  to  the  north  south  axis  of 
the  card;  thus  one  pole  cancels  out  the  effect  of  the 
other   and   no  deviation   is  caused,  and   so  on   around 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page  69 

the  compass  card  as  is  shown  in  the  following  sketch. 







yadrantal    d( 
rlzonlal   soft 
Dashed    line 

s   repre 




e    t 

o   the 




P    c 




Black   ends 

of   com 


s   n 








Black   poles 

of   ho 




ron    r 



blue  mag 



Arrows   rep 

esent  n 



c    line 



with  in  order  to  make  good  the  desired  course.  However, 
it  will  cause  the  compass  card  to  have  an  undesirable 
characteristic  of  swinging  constantly  from  one  side  to 
the  other  as  the  vessel  rolls  and  surely  should  be  cor- 
rected for.  This  error  is  always  greatest  on  North  or 
South  headings. 

Heeling  error  is  caused  by  three  forces.  First  by  the 
sub-permanent  magnetism  of  the  vessel  in  that  it  changes 
the  position  of  the  poles  of  the  sub-permanent  magnet- 
ism of  the  ship  in  relation  to  the  center  line  of  the  ship 
thus  causing  a  change  in  the  deviation  caused  by  these 
poles.  Second  cause  is  the  Transient  magnetism  in  the 
vertical  soft  iron  of  the  vessel.  This  magnetism  causes 
no  deviation  on  a  NortH  or  South  heading  as  before 
stated  when  the  vessel  is  on  an  even  keel;  however,  if 
we  list  the  vessel  to  starboard  on  a  North  heading  in 
North  Latitude  we  can  see  that  the  pole  of  blue  magnet- 
ism would  shift  to  port  thus  deflecting  the  compass 
needle  and  causing  deviation.  Third  cause  is  Transient 
magnetism  in  soft  iron  which  is  horizontal  when  the 
vessel  is  on  an  even  keel  but  takes  on  vertical  character- 
istics when  heeled.  Again  on  a  North  heading  in  North 
Latitude  we  see  that  if  we  list  the  vessel  to  starboard  and 
this  horizontal  soft  iron  becomes  induced  with  magnetism 
from  the  vertical  component  of  the  earth's  total  force 
she  will  have  a  blue  pole  on  the  port  side  thus  causing 
deviation  when  heeled,  as  is  illustrated  in  the  following 

/"//fs  r   Cau%E 

Compensation  for  this  Quadrantal  deviation  in  hori- 
zontal soft  iron  is  accomplished  by  means  of  quadrantal 
spheres.  These  spheres  are  mounted  athwartships  of  the 
compass  card  and  are  not  connected  with  any  magnetic 
material  so  that  they  too  become  induced  with  magnetism 
from  the  horizontal  lines  of  force  of  the  earth's  magnet- 
ism thus  becoming  independent  magnets.  The  line  of 
demarcation  passes  through  the  center  of  these  spheres 
in  an  East  'West  direction  with  half  of  the  sphere  having 
red  magnetism  and  half  having  blue  magnetism.  Always 
that  half  which  is  nearest  the  North  has  the  red  magnet- 
ism. Since  the  athwartship  component  of  the  magnetism 
in  the  horizontal  soft  iron  of  the  ship  is  induced  by  the 
same  lines  of  force  that  afifect  the  Quadrantal  spheres, 
the  north  half  of  the  athwartships  horizontal  soft  iron 
will  also  have  red  magnetism  which  causes  deviation. 
But,  since  we  have  the  Quandrantal  spheres  mounted 
athwartships,  the  side  which  has  blue  magnetism  would 
be  nearest  the  compass  to  compensate  for  the  deviation 
caused  by  the  red  magnetism  of  the  horizontal  soft  iron 
of  the  ship — the  reverse  being  true  with  the  same  com- 
pensating effect  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  ship. 

Heeling  Error  causes  us  little  difficulty  with  present 
day  steam  vessels  because  when  a  vessel  rolls  or  heels  to 
one  side  causing  deviation  to  the  East,  she  usually  rolls 
almost  as  far  to  the  opposite  side  thus  causing  westerly 
deviation  or  counteracting  for  the  Easterly  deviation. 
This  was,  of  course,  not  true  in  the  days  of  sailing  ves- 
sels when  a  ship  might  be  heeled  over  to  the  same  side 
for  days  thus  causing  a  deviation  that  had  to  be  reckoned 

T Sfco/vo  Cao5,£ 


Th  1^0     C 1US£ 

^^''       J 

In  the  next  and  final  article  on  the  Magnetic  Compass, 
we  will  discuss  the  Practical  Compensation. 

Page   70 


^umtma  ^ca^^tA 






(See  Page  72) 

FEBRUARY     •      194 

Page   71 





(Details     on     Paqc     73) 

Among  the  newly  elected 
or  continuing  officers  of  the 
Pacific  American  Steamship 
Assn.  are  Albert  W.  Gatov, 
president,  whose  photo  ap- 
pears on  page  71,  John  E. 
Gushing  of  Matson  Naviga- 
tion Co.,  George  A.  Pope, 
Jr.  of  Pope  i  Talbot,  Hen- 
rietta T.  Smith,  secretary, 
and  David  N.  Lillevand  of 
Grace  Lines.  (Above  and 

Also,    be 


',    left 


right:    Ma 


nd   S. 


nington  of  Pa 

cific  Tr 


port  Lines 

,,  A, 

,  R.  Lin 


of  Ameri< 


Mail   L 


E.  Russell 

Lutz  of  Ar 


ican    Pre 


ent    L 


and    W. 





}   Line. 

'ACiFic  mmm  mmmv 
mimm  mm 

AlbtTt  W.  Gatov,  tor  the  past  two  years  executive  di- 
ector  of  the  Pacific  American  Steamship  Association, 
,vas  elected  president  of  the  group  at  its  annual  meeting 
n  San  Francisco  recently.  He  succeeds  E.  Russell  Lutz, 
■xecutive  Vice  President  of  American  President  Lines. 
A  R.  Lintner,  President  of  the  American  Mail  Line, 
s  re-elected  as  PASSA  Vice  President  for  the  Seattle- 
Pugct  Sound  Area.  Hillman  Lueddemann.  Pope  and  Tal- 
■)()t  Vice  President  and  Portland  Chamber  of  Commerce 
'^resident,  was  re-elected  as  Vice  President  of  the  steam- 
,hip  group  for  the  Columbia  River  Area.  Matson  Navi- 
gation Company's  Vice  President  Ralph  J.  Chandler  was 
Icacd  again  as  Vice  President  in  the  Los  Angeles-Long 
Ik.iih  Area. 
i  New  Vice  Presidents  in  San  Francisco  elected  at  the 
meeting  are  D.  N.  Lillevand,  Grace  Line  Vice  President 

and  Maitland  S.  Pennington,  Vice  President  of  the  Pa- 
cific Transport  Lines.  Henrietta  T.  Smith,  San  Francisco, 
was  re-elected  Secretary-Treasurer. 

John  E.  Cushing,  S.  P.  Fleming,  A.  R.  Lintner,  E.  Rus- 
sell Lutz,  T.  G.  Plant,  George  A.  Pope,  Jr.,  and  W.  T. 
Sexton  were  elected  to  the  Advisory  Board. 

Gatov  has  been  in  shipping  for  over  twenty  years, 
starting  with  the  Pacific  Steamship  Company  in  Los  An- 
geles in  1927.  He  was  an  Army  Major  in  World  War  II, 
serving  at  Fort  Mason  in  San  Francisco  and  overseas  in 
the  Persian  Gulf  Command.  Before  going  with  PASSA, 
he  served  for  a  time  with  the  War  Shipping  Administra- 
tion in  San  Francisco. 

The  Pacific  American  Steamship  Association  comprises 
the  sixteen  major  American  flag  steamship  companies 
operating  on  the  Pacific  Coast. 

;.  F.  mmm  ciue 

to  right,  top  Spedk3r  nt  th 
-president  and  presiding  for 
helping  to  row  the  boat.  . 
eral     Robert     Wylie     and     reti 

day,    Maitland    Pennington;    new 
le    day,    Ed    Harms;    lame    duck 
•    Geary.    Lower:    Port    manager 
dent     Miller     Laughton. 


Pictures  taken  at  the  head  table  during  the  January  meeting  of 
the  San  Francisco  Propeller  Club  during  which  Maitland  Penning- 
ton spoke  eloquently  in  favor  of  cooperation  in  Immediate  solving 
of  all  problems  affecting  the  movement  of  cargo  through  Pacific 
Coast     ports.     His     efforts     have     aroused     the     industry     to     action. 

mm  RECORD  m  mwym 

An  indication  of  the  remarkable  safety  record  at- 
tained by  Bethlehem-Alameda  Shipyard,  Inc.,  in  build- 
ing the  President  Cleveland  is  seen  in  the  fact  that 
during  the  month  of  June,  1947,  no  disabling  acci- 
dents were  experienced  and  the  months  of  October 
and  November  ran  consecutively  with  the  same  result. 

Although  shipbuilding  is  classed  as  one  of  the  more 
hazardous  occupations  in  industry,  and  thousands  of 
man  hours  exposure  were  worked  in  building  the 
Cleveland.  Bethlehem-Alameda's  frequency  rate  for 
the  year  ending  November  30,  1947,  was  only  5.14. 
This  means  that  there  were  only  5.14  disabling  in- 
juries per  million  hours  worked. 



Tmet  J.  McCormack,  Vice-pres.  &  Treas.,  Moore- 
s.  N.  Y.,  and  Eugene  F.  Moran,  Pres.,  Moran 
Y.,  before  they  sailed  for  Buenos  Aires  aboard 
k  Lines'  Argentina  on  her  first  postwar  voyage 
the  East  Coast  of  South  America.  The  liner  sailed 
North    River,    at    5 

January    15.    1948. 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page  73 

George  W.  Codrington.  general  m< 
General  Motors  Corporation;  and  J 
Review,   at  the   Press   Luncheon   held   Ja 

sveland  Die 
>s,  publishe 
Hotel    Biltn 


The  New  York  Motor  Boat  Show, 
January  9  to  17,  drew  a  tremendous 
attendance,  and  its  success  was  a 
great  tribute  to  George  W.  Codring- 
ton of  the  Cleveland  Diesel  Engine 
Division  of  General  Motors.  He  has 
been  president  of  the  Show  for  the 
last  two  years. 

The  picture  herewith  suggests  the 
country-wide  nature  of  the  motoi 
boat  industry.  George  Codrington  is 
from  Florida  while  his  office  is  in 
Cleveland.  Jim  Hines  is  from  Geor- 
gia while  his  office  is  in  San  Fran- 
cisco. They  meet  at  this  greatest  evi- 
dence of  interest  in  boating  in  tiie 
New  York  Show. 


The  Marine  Distributors  of  Series  71  GM  Diesel  en- 
gines from  the  United  States  and  Canada  attended  a  two- 
day  sales  conference  in  the  Biltmore  Hotel,  New  York 
City,  on  January  8  and  9.  This  annual  meeting  sponsored 
by  Detroit  Diesel  Engine  Division  of  General  Motors 
and  conducted  by  W.  C.  Gould,  Detroit  Diesel,  marine 
salesmanager,  preceded  the  opening  of  the  National 
Motorboat  Show  in  which  Detroit  Diesel  had  a  large 
exhibit  of  marine  engines. 

Among  the  distributors  attending  this  meeting  were 
executives  from  W.  H.  Moreton  Corporation,  Boston, 
Mass.,  Diesel  Marine  &  Equipment,  New  York,  N.  Y., 
Johnson  &  Towers,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  and  Baltimore,  Md., 

Paxton  Company,  Norfolk,  Va.,  Morgans  Inc.,  Savannah, 
Ga.,  Florida  Diesel  Sales,  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  Kennedy 
Marine  Engine  Company,  Biloxi,  Miss.,  George  Engine 
Company,  New  Orleans,  La.,  Stewart  &  Stevenson,  Hous- 
ton, Tex.,  Crofton  Diesel  Engine  Company,  San  Pedro, 
Calif.,  West  Coast  Engine  Company,  Oakland,  Calif., 
Gunderson  Bros.  Engineering  Company,  Portland,  Ore., 
Industrial  Marine  &  Equipment  Company,  Rochester,  N. 
Y.,  Western  Machinery  Company,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

There  were  many  present  from  Detroit  Diesel  Engine 
Division  including  W.  T.  Crowe,  General  Manager  and 
V.  C.  Genn,  General  Salesmanager. 

Page  74 


Forster  Shipbuilding 
Company  Begins 

"From  Rowboats  to  Battleships" 
is  the  slogan  of  the  Forster  Ship- 
building Company  which  has  just 
been  incorporated  out  of  the  facili- 
ties and  properties  of  the  Garbutt 
and  Walsh  Shipyard,  Terminal  Is- 
land, Calif. 

The  new  company  is  comprised 
of  Thomas  B.  Forster,  president, 
James  J.  Buntin,  secretary-treasurer, 
David  Walsh,  yard  superintendent, 
and  E.  A.  (Bill)  Wilson,  outside 
superintendent.  All  have  had  several 
years  experience  in  the  marine  field, 
Forster  3.^  years,  Buntin  31  years, 
Walsh  25  years,  and  Wilson  35 
years.  Forster  and  Buntin  were  as- 
sociated with  Bethlehem  Steel  Com- 
pany's Shipyard  Division  in  San 
Pedro,  Forster  as  head  of  the  yard 
there.  Walsh  has  been  with  Garbutt 
and  Walsh  for  approximately  twen- 
ty years.  With  their  well-rounded 
experience  the  company  members 
are  able  to  handle  all  types  of  diesel 
engine  and  hull  repairs. 

The  shipyard,  located  at  the  foot 
of  Ferry  Street  in  Terminal  Island, 
includes  a  well  equipped  machine 
shop,  electrical  shop,  blacksmith 
shop,  welding  shop,  store  rooms  and 
a  boat  building  shop.  It  has  twelve 
operating  marine  ways  with  lifting 
capacity  of  200  tons  and  repair 
wharves  with  25  ton  lift  derrick. 

During  World  War  II  the  Gar- 
butt and  Walsh  Shipyard  construct- 
ed plane  personnel  craft  and  barges 
for  the  war  effort.  They  have  just 
completed   a  45-foot  sailing  sloop. 

In  addition  to  present  yard  opera- 
tion, the  new  management  intends 
to  carry  on  waterfront  repairs,  which 
will  be  taken  over  by  Wilson,  who 
is  well  known  in  marine  repair 

Wheeler  Manufacturing 
Company  Moves 

Announcement  has  been  made  by 
Thomas  S.  Ryan  of  the  C.  H.Wheel- 
er Manufacturing  Company  of  Phil- 
adelphia that  their  San  Francisco 
office  has  moved  from  the  Rialto 
Building,  1 16  New  Montgomery  St., 
to  Suite  304-5  on  16  California  St. 

.eft  to  right;  James  J.  Buntin,  E,  A.  (Bil 
Vilson  Ttiomas  B.  Forster.  and  Davi 
Walsh,   all    of   Forster   Shipbuilding   Co. 

Gage  Lund 
[lected  to  Board 
of  Standard  Oil 
of  California 

Election  of  Gage  Lund  to  the 
board  of  directors  of  the  Standard 
Oil  Company  of  California  was  an- 
nounced following  a  recent  meeting 
of  the  board. 

Widely  known  in  the  oil  industry, 
Lund  has  been  chairman  of  the 
board  of  The  California  Company 
and  the  Standard  Oil  Company  of 
Texas,  both  wholly-owned  subsid- 
iaries of  Standard  of  California. 

A  native  of  Iowa,  Lund  studied 
at  Montana  State  College  and  Stan- 
ford University,  graduating  from 
Stanford  in  1924.  He  joined  Stand- 
ard the  following  year  and  worked  as 
a  geologist  and  drilling  foreman  in 
the  Rockies  and  Texas  for  the  next 
eleven  years  until  he  became  division 
superintendent  of  The  California 
Company's  Gulf  Coast  division,  with 
offices  in  Houston. 

In  1938  he  was  made  assistant 
manager  of  all  operations  of  The 
California  Company  and  Standard 
of  Texas,  and  three  years  later  was 
elected  president  of  The  California 
Company.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Automotive  Engineers, 
the  American  Association  of  Petro- 
leum Geologists,  and  the  American 
Petroleum  Institute. 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page  75 


rpHAT  THE  action  of  Republic 
-*-  Supply  Company  in  opening  a 
new  branch  in  Wilmington,  Califor- 
nia, has  served  a  useful  purpose  in 

the  marine,  petroleum  and  industrial 
fields  in  the  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach 
area  is  indicated  by  the  growing 
activity  in  and  about  the  warehouse. 

Now  readily  available  to  the  marme 
trade  is  a  well  selected  stock  of  such 
lines  as  Lunkenheimer  valves, 
Stockmen  valves  and  fittings,  Tube 
Turns  welded  fittings,  Watson-Still- 
man  forged  fittings,  Great  Western 
cordage,  Raybestos-Manhattan  Rub- 
ber hose  and  belting,  Plomb,  Stand- 
ard, Starrett,  and  Black  and  Decker 
tools,  Broderick  and  Bascom  wire 
rope  and  slings,  Boston  and  Lock- 
port  blocks,  and  a  large  assortment 
of  miscellaneous  supplies. 

Merrill  Advances  At 
National  Lead 

Lloyd  W.  Merrill  has  been  ap- 
pointed Assistant  Sales  Manager  for 
the  Central  Division  of  the  Pacific 
Coast  Branch  of  the  National  Lead 
Company  effective  January  1,  1948 
according  to  an  announcement  made 
by  James  L.  Caruth,  Pacific  Coast 
Manager  for  the  company. 

Merrill  started  with  the  company 
in  1940  as  a  sales  representative  in 
San  Francisco  and  was  transferred 
in  1942  to  the  San  Joaquin  Valley 
territory.  He  returns  from  that  terri- 
tory to  take  up  his  duties  in  San 
Francisco.  He  served  for  two  and 
one-half  years  in  the  Navy  during 
World  War  II. 

Quiz  Questions 

Where  is  it  possible  to  go  from 
coast  to  coast — from  the  Atlantic  to 
the  Pacific— for  only  $2.40? 

Yep,  you're  right.  Panama! 

On  the  Panama  Railroad  ,which  is 
owned  by  your  own  United  States  of 
America,  you  make  this  transconti- 
nental trip  for  the  small  sum  of  only 
two  dollars  and  forty  cents.  The  line 
itself  is  only  47  miles  in  length,  but 
it  extends  from  the  City  of  Panama 
to  Colon.  Of  course,  it  takes  a  slight 
additional  sum  to  get  from  wherever 
you  happen  to  be  to  Panama  City! 

At  that,  when  the  line  was  opened 
in  1855,  it  cost  quite  a  bit  more  to 
travel  on  it  than  it  does  now.  Yes 
indeedy!  To  discourage  travel,  so 
they  said,  they  charged  50  cents  a 
mile  and  5  cents  a  pound  for  bag- 

Page  76 


He  Laval  Changes 
ind  Promotions 

Major  executive  promotions  and 
Dfganizational  changes  affecting 
iiales,  production  and  engineering 
divisions  have  been  announced  by 
'[he  De  Laval  Steam  Turbine  Com- 
i)any,  Trenton,  New  Jersey. 
i  Under  the  reorganization  a  five 
member  executive  committee  has, 
[seen  created  consisting  of  H.  L. 
37atson,  president,  serving  as  chair- 
nan;  George  C.  Stoddard,  chairman 
)f  the  board;  Henry  W.  Johnson, 
rice  president;  C.  Richard  Waller, 
rice  president,  and  George  W. 
Jmith,  Jr.,  assistant  to  the  president. 

In  executive  promotions,  J.  P. 
Stewart  has  been  appointed  manager 
jf  the  newly  combined  commercial 
ind  marine  sales  divisions  succeed- 
ing H.  V.  Petersen,  who  has  re- 
ared after  thirty-four  years'  service. 
a.  G.  Bauer,  manager  of  the  marine 
livision,  has  been  appointed  execu- 
:ive  engineer  of  the  company.  J.  W. 
Eiertzler,    manager    of    worm    gear 

I  ales  since  1924,  has  retired  and  is 
ucceeded  by  W.  A.  Reynolds,  who 
lecomes  manager  of  the  combined 
MO  rotary  pump  and  worm  gear 
divisions.  C.  A.  Jurgensen  has  been 
.ippointed  acting  works  manager. 
Appointment  of  W.  A.  Neumann, 
Jr.,  as  factory  controller,  assistant 
treasurer  and  assistant  secretary  was 

,"  announced  previously. 

1 1  Earlier  this  year  Messrs.  Waller, 
Bauer  and  Reynolds  were  com- 
mended by  the  Bureau  of  Ships, 
Navy  Department,  for  outstanding 
jontributions  to  the  successful  prose- 
cution of  the  recent  war. 

Mr.  Stewart  came  with  De  Laval 
m  1946  to  handle  the  sales  of  its 
iinrrifugal  compressors  after  seven- 
th ii  years  capital  goods  experience 
Willi  the  Elliott  Company,  Jeanette, 
Pennsylvania  and  Borg-Warner  Cor- 
pcir.ition,  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin, 
where  he  held  engineering,  produc- 
tuin,  sales  and  executive  positions. 

Mr.  Bauer  joined  the  De  Laval 
organization  in  1937  after  extensive 
m.irine  engineering  and  shipbuild- 
nii;  experience  in  Europe  and  in  this 
Lduntry.  He  has  concentrated  on 
in.irine  activities  and  for  the  past 
iwd  years  has  been  manager  of  the 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 


marine  division. 

Mr.  Reynolds  became  associated 
with  De  Laval  in  1932  when  he  was 
made  manager  of  the  IMO  pump 
division,  which  he  still  retains  as 
part  of  his  new  position.  Previously 
he  was  assistant  to  the  vice  presi- 
dent and  general  manager  of  the 
Hendey  Machine  Coinpany,  Torr- 
ington,  Connecticut,  and  sales  en- 
gineer for  the  Dravo  Corporation, 

For  the  past  sixteen  years  Mr. 
Jurgen.sen  has  served  in  all  phases 
of  the  company's  production  opera- 
tions, and  until  his  new  appointment 
he  was  manager  of  manufacturing 
methods  and  standards.  During  his 

many  years  with  De  Laval,  Mr.  Jur- 
gensen has  introduced  and  developed 
many  advanced  metal  cutting  and 
manufacturing  processes  particularly 
adaptable  to  turbine,  gear  and  pump 

Pedley-knowles  Takes 
on  U  S  Rubber  Line 

Eric  Pedley,  president  of  Pedley, 
Knowles  &  Company,  San  Francisco 
ship  chandlers,  announces  that  his 
company  has  been  appointed  distri- 
butor for  the  complete  line  of 
mechanical  rubber  goods  manufac- 
tured by  the  United  States  Rubber 
Company.  This  includes  U.  S.  hose, 
packing  and  belting,  expansion 
joints,  electrical  wire  and  cable, 
mountings,  flooring  mats  and  mat- 

"The  addition  of  the  U.  S.  me- 
chanical rubber  merchandise  en- 
larges our  line  of  marine  merchan- 
dise carried  in  stock,"  says  Pedley, 
"which  includes  Pittsburgh  Plate 
Glass  Company  Marine  Finishes, 
Bethlehem  Wire  Rope,  Whitlock 
Cordage,  Boston  and  Lockport 
Blocks,  Condenser  Service  &  Engi- 
neering Company's  products,  as  well 
as  other  deck,  engine  room  and 
steward  supplies." 

Pedley-Knowles'  office  and  ware- 
house are  at  1 34  Sacramento  St., 
San  Francisco. 

Page  77 

M.  J.  Buckley  Appointed 
Senior  Vice  President 
of  API 

Appointment  of  M.  J.  Buckley  as 
senior  vice  president  in  charge  of 
planning  and  development  for 
American  President  Lines,  Ltd.  has 
just  been  announced  by  George  Kil- 
lion,  president  of  the  company. 

Buckley  has  devoted  his  business 
career  to  the  Maritime  Industry  and 
development  of  the  American  Mer- 
chant Marine.  For  fifteen  years  he 
was  associated  with  the  Pacific  Mail 
Steamship  Company,  and  in  1917 
was  appointed  president  of  Ocean 
Steamship  Agencies,  Inc.  In  1921  he 
became  assistant  manager  and  man- 
ager of  operations  for  the  United 
States  Shipping  Board,  Washington, 
D.  C.  He  was  associated  with  the 
Dollar  Steamship  Lines  for  sixteen 
years  as  freight  traffic  manager  and 
later  as  vice  president  in  charge  of 
freight  traffic.  In  1938  he  was  ap- 
pointed vice  president  in  charge  of 
freight  traffic  for  American  Presi- 
dent Lines  and  also  served  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  board  of  directors  and  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee 
of  the  company. 

During  the  course  of  his  career 
Buckley  has  traveled  extensively  to 
the  Far  Eastern  markets  served  by 
his  Company,  and  has  been  in  de- 
mand as  a  public  speaker  and  spokes- 
man for  the  industry  in  this  country 
and  abroad.  He  served  as  industry 
adviser  to  the  State  Department  at 
the  meeting  of  the  United  Maritime 

Consultative  Council  in  Amsterdam 
in  June  1946  in  connection  with  the 
over-all  problems  of  all  the  maritime 

Buckley  has  contributed  many 
widely-read  articles  on  shipping  and 
foreign  commerce  to  newspapers 
and  technical  publications  and  has 
taken  an  active  part  as  panel  leader 
and  speaker  in  the  annual  meetings 
of  the  American  Merchant  Marine 
Conference,  the  Propeller  Club  of 
the  United  States,  the  National  For- 
eign Trade  Council,  and  various  Pa- 
cific Coast  domestic  and  foreign 
commerce  groups.  He  has  been  ac- 
tive in  the  formation  and  develop- 
ment of  traffic  conferences,  pools 
and  related  organizations  in  various 
parts  of  the  world,  and  is  generally 
recognized  as  one  of  the  best  inform- 
ed shipping  experts  in  domestic  and 
foreign  trade. 

G.  Stewart  Brown  Ap- 
pointed By  Standard  Oil 
of  California 

Appointment  of  G.  Stewart 
Brown,  former  State  Department 
official,  as  manager  of  the  public 
relations  department  of  the  Stand- 
ard Oil  Company  of  California,  was 
recently  announced  by  the  company 
at  San  Francisco. 

Brown  was  a  LInited  Press  corre- 
spondent in  Europe  for  ten  years, 
serving  in  London,  Paris,  Geneva, 
Rome  and  Vienna.  In  19.39  he  was 
appointed  director  of  public  infor- 

Danlel    D.    Strohmcier  ^ 

Strohmeier  Heads  ] 
Bethlehem  Shiphuilding 

Daniel  D.  Strohmeier  has  beer 
appointed  to  succeed  the  late  W.  H 
Collins  as  vice  president  in  charge 
of  Bethlehem  Steel's  shipbuilding 

Assistant  to  the  vice  presideni 
since  1942,  Mr.  Strohmeier's  entire 
business  career  has  been  with  the 
shipbuilding  division  of  Bethlehem 

He  was  on  the  executive  staff  oi 
the  shipbuilding  division  during 
Bethlehem's  wartime  building  prO' 
gram  and  a  representative  of  the 
shipbuilding  industry  on  the  Gov- 
ernment's wartime  Shipbuilding 
Labor  Stabilization  Committee.  He 
also  served  as  a  representative  of  the 
industry  on  the  Shipbuilding  Com 
mission  of  the  War  Labor  Boa;'d. 

mation  for  the  American  Red  Cross 
in  Washington,  later  serving  as  vice 
chairman  in  charge  of  national  pub- 
lic relations  and  fund  raising  foi 
the  Red  Cross.  The  War  Depart- 
ment appointed  him  director  of  pub- 
lic relations  of  the  Allied  Commis- 
sion in  Italy  in  1945,  and  he  headed 
the  United  States  Information  Serv- 
ice in  Italy  when  the  Commission 

Prior  to  his  appointment  with 
Standard,  he  was  deputy  director  o( 
the  Office  of  Information  and  Edu- 
cational Exchange  in  Washington, 
He  is  a  graduate  of  the  University 
of  Arizona. 

Page  78 


Nrw   riinslniil  iiiii  —  |{i:i:iiii  il  il  inn  i  iii|  —  lliiiiiiirs 

vmm  %\imm  job  u  the  coast 

The  largest  "crack  arrestor"  or 
"strapping"  job  on  the  Pacific  Coast 
has  just  been  completed  at  Bethle- 
hem s  San  Francisco  Yard.  This  job, 
which  was  accomplished  in  the  rec- 
ord time  of  18  working  days,  was 
performed  on  the  T-2  tanker  Elk 
Basin,  recently  purchased  from  the 
U.  S.  Maritime  Commission  by  Gen- 
eral Petroleum  Company.  It  far  ex- 
ceeded requirements  set  up  for  this 
type  of  vessel  by  the  U.  S.  Coast 
Guard  and  the  American  Bureau  of 
Shipping  in  that  8  straps  were  in- 

stalled instead  of  4.  This  was  be- 
cause it  was  General  Petroleum 
Company's  wish  to  give  further  than 
the  required  protection  to  the  ship 
and  her  crew. 

The  eight  straps  were  installed  as 
follows:  one  on  each  side  of  the 
keel  on  the  bottom  and  Deck  of  the 
ship,  and  two  on  each  side,  one  just 
below  the  sheer  strake  and  one  just 
above  the  bilge  strake.  Cuts  in  the 
shell  and  deck  plating,  over  which 
these  straps  were  riveted,  were  made 
with  an  oxyacetlyene  burning  ma- 

chine specially  designed  by  engin- 
eers at  the  yard.  This  machine  will 
make  precision  flame  cuts  in  a  verti- 
cal or  horizontal  position  which  are 
free  from  any  irregularities. 

The  two  bottom  straps  were  in- 
stalled just  outboard  of  the  longi- 
tudinal bulkhead  with  two  rows  of 
rivets  on  each  side  of  the  cut.  The 
two  lower  side  straps  were  installed 
just  above  the  turn  of  the  bilge  and 
just   below    the   sheer   strake   with 

(Continued  on  Page  80 1 

FEBRUARY     •      1941 

Page  79 

three  rows  of  rivets  on  each  side  of 
the  cut.  The  two  bottom  straps  con- 
sisted of  %"  plate;  the  lower  side 
shell  straps  1"  plate  and  the  upper 
side  shell  straps  of  iVi"  and  1" 
plate;  the  two  deck  straps  1"  plate. 
In  addition  to  installing  eight 
straps  on  the  Elk  Basin,  Bethlehem's 
San  Francisco  Yard  also  carried  out 
the  latest  recommendations  of  the 
American  Bureau  of  Shipping  as  to 
stiffening  on  the  center  line  trans- 
verse bulkheads.  This  additional 
work,  which  was  accomplished  in 
conjunction  with  the  strapping,  re- 
quired considerable  planning  and  co- 
ordination. This  was  so  that  after 
bottom  straps  and  the  lower  side 
shell  straps  were  installed,  a  flood 
test  of  the  wing  tanks  above  the  side 
straps  could  be  conducted  to  insure 
tightness  of  the  straps  and  to  eli- 

Top:    Uppe 
Center:       R 


■ivets    wer 
for      the 


Basin  strapping  [ob, 
all  of  these  produced 
in  the  Bolt  and  Nut 
Departnnent  of  Bethle- 
hem Pacific  Coast  Steel 
Corporation's  South 
San     Francisco     Plant. 

shell    strap. 


(Continued  on  Page  85) 

Top:  Specially  designed  burning  machine  making  lower  side  shell  cut. 

Below:     Oxy-Acetylene     burning      machine,      designed     at      Bethlehem 

Steel    Company's    San    Francisco    yard,    shown    making    a    bottom    cut 

on    the    Elk    Basin. 



.  i  / 

Page   80 


n  E  111  S    F  L  e  S  H  E  s 


Date  for  the  opening  of  bids  for  the  reconversion  and  modernization  of 
the  SS  MONTEREY  has  been  postponed  from  January  30  to  February  27  at  the  request 
of  the  interested  shipyards.  Bids  are  being  taken  on  partial  completion  and  full 
completion.   It  is  understood  that  the  Mariposa  will  go  to  the  yard  that  gets 
the  Monterey. 


The  17,226  gross  ton  passenger  liner  SS  MATSONIA  will  be  withdrawn  from 
Service  and  offered  for  sale  when  she  completes  her  voyage  from  Honolulu  to  San 
Francisco  on  April  20. 

:^   ;{;   :(c   :):   :]e 


The  390-foot  liner  George  Washington,  a  familiar  name  to  thousands  of 
American  coastwise  travelers  before  World  War  II,  has  been  sold  to  the  Alaska 
Transportation  Company  for  passenger  service  between  Seattle  and  Alaska. 

The  vessel  was  purchased  for  $180,000  from  the  Maritime  Commission  but  an 
additional  $350,000  in  refitting  costs  will  be  necessary  to  put  her  into  shape. 
Bids  for  the  work  were  invited  from  yards  on  both  coasts. 

ii;     ilp     ^     :i:     ^ 


Postwar  calls  at  San  Francisco  by  United  Fruit  Company's  banana  ships  will 
be  re-established  about  February  26.  Six  of  the  company's  newest  fully  refriger- 
ated vessels — Junior,  San  Jose,  Limon,  Parasmina,  Fra  Berlanger  and  Camayagua — 
will  serve  San  Francisco  with  an  anticipated  weekly  discharge  of  35,000  stems. 


Contracts  totaling  approximtely  $50,000,000  for  the  construction  of  thir- 
teen new  "super  tankers"  were  awarded  recently  by  three  major  oil  companies  as 
part  of  a  program  of  replacing  obsolete  tonnage. 

Eleven  of  the  tankers  are  to  be  built  by  the  Sun  Shipbuilding  and  Dry 
Dock  Company,  Chester,  Pa. ,  and  two  are  to  be  built  by  the  Newport  News  Ship- 
building and  Dry  Dock  Company,  Newport  News.  Va. 

Of  the  tankers  to  be  built  at  the  Sun  yard,  two  are  for  the  Standard  Oil 
Company  of  New  Jersey,  New  York;  two  for  the  Gulf  Oil  Corporation,  New  York,  and 
seven  for  Tankers  Company,  Inc.,  to  be  chartered  to  Socony-Vacuum  Oil  Company, 

FEBRUARY  •   1948  Page  81 

Inc. ,  New  York.   The  tankers  to  be  built  at  the  Newport  News  yard  are  for  the 
Standard  Oil  Company  of  New  Jersey. 


The  SS  LURLINE,  Matson  Navigation  Company's  famous  passenger  liner  of 
prewar  days  now  being  converted  from  a  troop  transport  to  her  former  status, 
will  go  on  drydock  February  29  at  Bethlehem  Steel  Company,  Shipbuilding  Divi- 
sion, San  Francisco  Yard.   Here  the  underwater  body  of  her  hull  will  be  sand- 
blasted and  painted,  her  rudder  will  be  removed  for  repairs,  both  tailshafts 
will  be  drawn  for  examination  and  two  spare  propellers  will  be  installed.   In 
addition,  sea  valves  will  be  overhauled  and  renewed,  and  double  bottom  tanks, 
cofferdams,  deep  tanks,  etc.,  will  be  tested. 

The  ship  will  be  on  drydock  approximately  two  weeks,  following  which  she 
will  be  returned  to  Pier  36  where  her  outfitting  will  be  completed.   She  is 
scheduled  to  resume  her  regular  passenger  service  to  Los  Angeles  and  Honolulu 
April  15. 











USAT  LANGFITT  (Ft.  Mason) 





U.S.  Army  Trans.  Corps 

Pillsbury  &  Martignoni 

U.S.  Army  Trans.  Corps 

Kerr  S.S.  C. 

Pillsbury  k   Martignoni 

Matson  Nav.  Co. 

A. P.  Lines 

U.S.  Army  Trans.  Corps 

Matson  Nav.  Co. 

U.S.  Army  Trans.  Corps 

U.S.  Lines 

A. P.  Lines 

A. P.  Lines 

Pac.  Coast  Aggregates 


Conv.  &  Eng.  Rep. 


Main  Eng.  Repairs 


Rep.  &  Alteration 

Routine  D.  D. 


Rep.  &  Alteration 

D.D.  &  Repairs 

Survey  &  Repairs 

Routine  D.  D. 

Misc.  Repairs 

Survey  &  Repairs 


There  is  31,000  feet  of  Bethlehem  Steel  elevator  cable  in  the  New  I. 
Magnin  Company  building  in  San  Francisco.   Elevators  are  Westinghouse. 


In  the  face  of  its  decision  to  withdraw  from  westbound  intercoastal 
operations  for  the  duration  of  the  walking  boss  strike  in  San  Francisco,  Luck- 
enbach  Line  went  ahead  with  a  program  to  purchase  16  C-type  ships  for  domestic 

James  Sinclair,  president  and  general  manager  of  the  line,  said  in  New 
York  that  the  firm's  new  fleet  plan  envisaged  the  acquisition  of  11  C-3  and 
five  C-2  freighters  from  the  Maritime  Commission.   It  was  estimated  that  this 
fleet  will  cost  the  line  a  minimum  of  $24  million.   The  line  expects  the  first 
deliveries  in  the  C-3  group  to  be  made  as  early  as  October. 

Despite  persistent  rumors  that  Luckenbach  was  planning  to  use  the  ships 
in  offshore  trade,  Mr.  Sinclair  insisted  that  the  entire  fleet  would  be  used 
in  the  domestic  trades  as  long  as  the  volume  of  cargo  was  sufficient  to  keep 
them  full. 

i\:      ^      ^.      ^      ^ 


During  the  month  of  December,  15  new  factories  were  established  in  Los 
Angeles  County  with  a  total  investment  of  SI. 591.000,  and  creating  490  new  jobs 
for  factory  workers.   Thirty-five  existing  plants  were  expanded,  calling  for 
an  additional  investment  of  $3,399,000  and  creating  885  new  industrial  jobs. 

Page   82 


Total  investment  in  the  50  new  and  expanded  units  was  $4,990,000,  creating 
i  total  of  1,375  new  jobs. 

For  the  year  to  date,  215  new  factories  were  established  with  a  total 
investment  of  169,852,000,  and  creating  7,811  new  jobs;  417  existing  plants 
irere  expanded,  calling  for  an  additional  investment  of  $54,959,500,  and  creat- 
ing 13,535  new  industrial  jobs. 

Total  investment  for  the  year  to  date  in  the  632  new  and  expanded  units 

(iias   $124,811,500,  creating  a  total  of  21,346  new  jobs. 
I  ***** 


President  W.  R.  Herod  of  the  International  General  Electric  Company  Inc. 
las  announced  that  a  contract  has  been  signed  in  Buenos  Aires  between  General 
Electric  S.A. ,  Argentina,  and  the  Argentine  State  Railways,  under  which  General 
Electric  will  supply  Argentina  with  95  diesel-electric  locomotives  within  the 
lext  three  years. 

Covering  60  single-unit  and  35  double-unit  engines,  plus  spares,  the 
contract  will  approximate  $18,000,000,  Mr.  Herod  said.   Deliveries  are  scheduled 
-.0    begin  early  in  1949  and  will  continue  for  a  15-month  period. 


San  Francisco  Port  of  Embarkation  sent  6,520,762  measurement  tons  of  cargo 
Dverseas  to  Pacific  bases  in  1947. 

Fully  90  per  cent  of  the  total  cargo  was  carried  in  commercial  bottoms 
operated  by  private  shipping  firms.  Of  the  more  than  two  and  one-half  million 
tons  lifted  in  the  San  Francisco  Bay  Area  every  ton  handled  at  Army  piers  was 
Loaded  by  private  stevedoring  firms  operating  under  Army  contracts  and  that 
noving  over  commercial  piers  was  handled  by  the  shipping  firms  themselves. 


Ij      Award  of  contract  for  the  $2,697,970  worth  of  pier  construction  which  will 

•create  thirteen  additional  berths  at  Long  Beach  Harbor  was  made  recently.  Two 
pier  building  jobs  involved  in  the  contracts  are  the  extension  of  Pier  B  and 
creation  of  a  new  Pier  C  midwise  in  the  Outer  Harbor,  running  southward  from  El 
Embarcadero.   The  500-foot  wide  Pier  B  will  be  extended  southward  for  1200  feet 
and  Pier  C  will  measure  600  by  2476  feet.   The  project  will  create  more  than 
40  acres  of  new  land  in  the  Long  Beach  Harbor  Area.   It  is  expected  that  the 

,  construction  on  the  new  1150-by-200-f oot  transit  shed  on  Victory  Pier,  which 

l|iiras  awarded  several  weeks  ago,  will  start  promptly. 



The  general  contract  for  the  construction  of  the  new  two  million  dollar 
G-E  motor  plant  in  San  Jose  has  been  awarded  to  Parker,  Steffens  &  Pearce,  San 
Francisco,  according  to  an  announcement  by  John  Hood,  Manager  of  the  General 
Electric  Company's  Oakland  works  which  includes  San  Jose  manufacturing.  The 
plant  will  be  completed  and  operating  by  Fall. 

tv  ***** 


The  Netherlands  merchant  fleet,  half  of  which  was  lost  during  the  war, 
is  nearing  prewar  levels,  according  to  a  report  reaching  here  from  Holland. 
The  nation's  present  total  shipping  tonnage  is  approximately  2,450,000  tons 
compared  to  2,875,000  in  1939. 

Shipping  of  approximately  some  300,000  tons  is  currently  being  built, 
while  the  purchase  of  more  American  vessels  is  being  negotiated.   It  is  the  aim 
to  achieve  the  country's  1930  total  of  3,000,000  tons. 

FEBRUARY  •   1948  Page  83 

U\i   STUK 

mmm  damage 

Above     picture    shows    damage 

suffered     by    the    4.883-ton     diesel 

freighter     Brimanqer    in    a     recen 

collision    off     Baranquilla,    South 

America,   with  the  Grace   Line  ves 

el.  Santa   Monica.    The  Brimanger. 

built    in    Newcastle,     England,    in 

1929    and    owned    by    the    Westfal- 

Larsen    Co.,    is    shown    at    Bethleh 

em    Steel    Company,    Shipbuilding 

Division.    San    Francisco    Yard,    wh 

ere    damage    to    her    shell    plating. 

after     quarters    and     internal     fra 

me     members     is    being     repaired. 

General    Steamship    Compan 

are    agents    for    the    vessel. 

U.  S.  Army  Transport.  David  C.  Shanks,  gets  new  streamlmed  stack. 
This  ship  is  now  undergoing  a  modernization-conversion  at  Bethle- 
hem Steel  Company's  San  Francisco  Yard.  The  stack,  28  ft.  high. 
25  ft.  long  and  IS  ft.  wide,  is  made  of  '/■>"  aluminum  plate  rein- 
forced   with   steel    and   aluminum    bracings.    It   was   completely   fabri- 

cated   and   erected    by    Bethlehem. 

The    U.    S.    Army   Transport,    Fred    C.    Ainsworth.    also    ur.c'e'going    a 

conversion   at    Bethlehem's    San    Francisco    Yard,    will    get   a    .imilar 

stack    in   the    near   future. 


The  Muhlenberg  Victory,  -which  made  the  news  last 
year  as  a  specially-constructed  cattle  carrier  taking  beef 

The    bottom    of    the    Muhlenberg    Victory    presents    a    honeycomb 

effect  on  the  drydock  at  the  Todd   Brooklyn  shipyard  after  nearly 

alt  of  her  plates  have  been  burned  away. 

on  the  hoof  to  Europe  for  the  starving  millions,  entered 
the  Todd  Brooklyn  shipyard  during  December  for  -what 
is  considered  to  be  the  largest  bottom  job  ever  performed 
by  Todd  on  a  freighter.  She  ran  aground  last  October 
off  San  Juan,  Porto  Rico,  and  the  resultant  damage  re- 
quires the  renewal  of  80  plates,  the  repair  of  30  more, 
and  the  replacement  of  more  than  50^  <  of  the  "floors" 
in  the  double-bottom. 

The  Muhlenberg  Victory  is  a  familiar  tenant  at  the 
Todd  yard,  which  twice  previously  converted  her  for  new 
service.  In  June,  1946  Todd  converted  the  cargo-carrier 
to  a  troopship;  then  about  a  year  later,  changed  her  once 
again,  this  time  to  a  bovine  boat,  complete  with  "first 
class"  accommodations  for  860  beefy  passengers.  About 
a  year  ago,  she  was  converted  once  more  back  to  her 
original  status  as  a  cargo  carrier  and  chartered  from  the 
Maritime  Commission  by  the  Porto  Rico  Line. 

After  the  repair  job,  which  also  includes  opening  up 
her  turbines  for  inspection  and  overhaul  where  necessary, 
she  will  be  returned  to  the  Maritime  Commission. 

Page   84 


Pope  &  Talbot  Lines  Intercoastal  Service 


Modern  Cargo  Ships  Every  15  Days— Each  Way 

Ability  to  meet  to<lay"s  sales  and  tlistriliiilioii  jnol)leins  in  serviiif;  old 

markets  and  opening  new  ones,  is  materially  enhanced  with   Pope  & 

Talhot  Lines'  dej)cndable,  frequent   and  coinplele   Intercoastal  Service. 

Regular  schedules,  latest  equii>nu'nt   for  loading  and   unloading,  ample 

terminals  with  rail  facilities,  modern  handling  methods,  personnel  with 

a  comi)lete  knowledge  of  the  shipping  jol)  to  he  done  .  .  .  these  are  factors 

that  merit  your  consideration  of  Pope  &  Talliot   Lines  when  you  ship 


Write,  litre  or  phone  nearest  office  for  sailing  schedules  and 
information  that  trill  assist  yoti  in  your  shipping  problems. 



FXKcmvi:  OKn<;i> 

VIM  HUM  \ 

^^^  nuMisco  i 


(itiil  Tt'rtiiinnls 



LOS    ANGELES    15 
NEW   YORK    6 




SAN    JUAN,    P.R.    18 

Foreign  Agency  -  Offices 

VANCOUVER,    B.    C. 

Strapping  Job 

iLoiitinued  /row  Page  80 1 

minate  the  problem  of  flooding  the 
centerline  tank. 

Another  impottant  feature  of  the 
work  on  the  Elk  Basin  was  the  in- 
stallation of  a  three-cargo  pipe  seg- 
regation system,  enabling  the  vessel 
to  carry  three  types  of  oil  cargo  at 
any  one  time  without  the  danger  of 
one  contaminating  the  other. 

On  completion  of  the  above  work, 
all  wing  cargo  tanks,  port  and  star- 
board were  filled  and  headed  to  8' 
above  the  main  deck  to  insure  tight- 
ness between  the  tanks  and  to  check 
the  stoppers  in  way  of  the  newly  in- 
stalled straps.  In  connection  with 
this  work  it  was  also  necessary  to 
remove  and  relocate  a  total  of  16 
wheel  stands  and  operating  rods 
and  install  new  ones  for  operating 
the  new  3-cargo  pipe  segregation 

In  addition  to  strapping  the  Elk 
Basin,  installing  a  3-cargo  pipe  seg- 
regation system  and  performing  var- 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

ious  structural  modifications,  Beth- 
lehem also  performed  normal  voyage 
repairs  on  the  vessel,  removed  the 
complete  mechano  flight  deck,  the 
gun  foundations  fore  and  aft,  the 
magazine  in  the  fore  peak  and  after 
peak  tanks  and  restored  these  tanks 
to  the  required  additional  stiflfening 
of  their  original  design. 

All  strapping  and  structural  modi- 
fications were  performed  under  U.S. 
Coast  Guard  and  American  Bureau 
of  Shipping  inspection. 

Painting  Guide 

The  Sales  Training  Department 
of  Devoe  &  Raynolds  Co.,  Inc.,  has 
just  released  a  book  entitled  "Devoe 
Painting  Guide." 

The  book  was  written  to  insure 
the  proper  use  of  paint  and  related 
materials.  The  method  of  painting 
each  major  type  of  surface  —  walls, 
furniture,  woodwork,  floors,  etc.  — 
is  given  on  a  single  double  page 
spread  which  also  gives  spreading 
rates,  drying  time,  surface  prepara- 

tion and  a  short  description  of  the 
products  recommended. 

Its  unusual  cover  is  the  index, 
which  simplifies  locating  any  desired 
information.  No  reading  through 
unnecessary  materials  to  find  what 
is  needed  immediately. 

Copies  may  be  obtained  by  send- 
ing 50  cents  to  Sales  Training  Dept., 
Devoe  &  Raynolds  Co.,  Inc..  787 
First  Ave.,  New  York  17,  N.  Y. 


Pane    85 



There    is    but    one    genuine 

Self-Lubricating  Rope  made  and 
placed  on  the  market  by  FITLER, 
patented  by  FITLER  and  easily 
identified  as  a  FITLER  product 
by  the  Self  -  Lubricating 
"Green  Yarn  Center" 


Beware  of  imitations  — 

Ask  for  "LUBRICORE,"  the 
Self  -  Lubricating  Green  Yarn 
Center  Pure  Manila  Rope  made 
by  FITLER. 

The  Edwin  H.  Filler  Co. 



ROPE  SINCE  1804 

Sperry  Introduces  Mag- 
netic Compass  Pilot  at 
Motor  Boat  Show 

Reliablt  means  for  automatic,  un- 
attended steering  for  yachtsmen, 
fishermen  and  work  boat  operators 
was  the  central  feature  of  the  Sperry 
Gyroscope  exhibit  at  the  thirty- 
eighth  annual  National  Motor  Boat 
Show.  It  is  called  the  Magnetic  Com- 
pass Pilot. 

Prior  to  its  public  debut  at  the 
show,  a  few  models  were  installed 
for  operational  testing  on  fishing 
boats  and  yachts.  "It  tends  the  helm, 
while  we  tend  the  nets,"  is  the 
thumbnail  description  given  the 
Sperry  pilot  by  a  dragger  skipper 
operating  off  Long  Island.  In  other 
words,  for  fishermen  and  commer- 
cial operators,  such  automatic  con- 
trol relieves  the  helmsman  for  other 
duties  when  an  extra  "hand"  is  most 

The  Magnetic  Cumpass   Pilot   is 

the  first  of  its  kind  in  that  it  success- 
fully combines  a  standard  magnetic 
compass  with  reliable  control  mecha- 
nisms. The  equipment  is  simple  and 
easy  to  operate,  and  Sperry  officials 
forecast  its  use  by  craft  as  small  as 
25-30  feet.  Using  either  32  or  110 
volt  DC,  the  pilot  requires  very  lit- 
tle power. 

A  controller,  with  a  knob  and 
course  indicator,  is  attached  to  the 
top  of  a  standard  magnetic  compass. 
An  operator  turns  this  knob  to  "dial 
his  course",  and  the  boat  will  turn 
to  course  and  hold  it  automatically 
until  a  new  course  is  set  in.  This  is 
done  by  a  pickoff  which  senses  the 
compass  reading  and  applies  con- 
trol through  an  electronic  amplifier 
to  the  steering  engine. 

A  component  of  the  equipment  is 
a  remote  controller.  It  is  a  small, 
hand-held  device  with  a  flexible 
cable  which  permits  rudder  changes 
to  be  made  from  any  point  on  deck 
away  from  the  helm. 










m)     is 


erved     by 




r.    ab 


his    yacht 


steamer  Service  to  Cafallna 


TUGBOAT  OFFICE:  Berth  82,  San  Pedro,  California 
TELEPHONE  NUMBERS:  Terminal  2-4292;  Terminal  2-4293;  Long  Beach  636-563 
~~  WHISTLE  CALL  FOR  TUGS:  1  long  —  3  short 

GENERAL  OFFICE:  Catalina  Terminal,  P.  O.  Box  847,  Wilmington,  Calif. 

Phones:  Terminal  4-5241;  Nevada  615-45;  Long  Beach  7-3802 

Member  —  American  Waterways  Operators 

Portable  Cleaner  Stand 
Saves  Time 

The  Tivit  Portable  Parts  Cleaner 
Stand  manufactured  by  Kelite  Prod- 
ucts, Inc.,  Los  Angeles,  is  a  sturdy 
welded  steel  unit,  which  can  be 
wheeled  right  up  to  the  job.  It  holds 
a  standard  five-gallon  can  of  Kelite 
Formula  555 — a  new  fire-safe, 
quick-acting  cleaner — and  a  five- 
gallon  rinse  can. 

The  mechanic  merely  drops  the 
grimy  parts  into  the  basket  as  they 
are  removed  from  the  job.  After  a 
short  soak  the  basket  is  lifted  out 
and  dunked  in  the  rinse  can.  Parts 
come  out  clean  and  bright — easy  to 
repair  and  reassemble. 

Lamont  Given 
Honor  Award 

I'lir  Ins  wartime  services  in  the 
liclJ  of  shipbuilding,  R.  J.  Lamonr. 
\Kc  president  of  Todd  Shipyard 
(  (irporation,  recently  received  a 
Presidential  Certificate  of  Merit. 

Lamont,  wartime  head  of  the 
Indd-Pacific  Shipyards,  was  pre- 
sented formally  with  the  award  by 
F<car  Admiral  George  H.  Fort,  1  3th 
Naval  District  commandant,  at  the 
Seattle  Naval  Station. 

The  citation,  signed  by  President 
I  ruman,  praised  the  Seattle  execu- 
ti\e  for  "outstanding  fidelity  and 
meritorious  conduct  in  aid  of  the 
war  eflort  against  the  common 
enemies  of  the  United  States  and  its 
allies  in  World  War  II." 

The  Harbor  Island  yard  at  Seattle 
winch  Lamont  headed  produced  a 
fleet  of  destroyers,  several  of  which 
m.ide  sea  history  in  battles  against 
Axis  navies. 

Westinghouse  Booklet 
Describes  Point  to  Point 


I  he  new  point-to-point  radio 
Liiiiimunication  equipment  is  des- 
cribed in  a  new  booklet  of  the  West- 
ii\i;liouse  Electric  Corporation.  Typi- 
cal .ipplications  for  this  equipment 
are;  ship-to-shore;  between  airports; 
and  industrial  communication  sys- 
tems such  as  mining,  lumbering 
.md  construction. 

Ihis  8-page  booklet  shows  the 
.ul.iptability  of  the  Westinghouse 
type  MV  equipment  to  cover  all 
radio  communication  demands  by 
offering  all  these  types  of  service 
from  one  transmitter:  on-off  tel- 
egraphy, frequency  shift  keying,  fac- 
simile, MCW  and  radio-telephony. 

The  center  spread  chart  illustrates 
the  inherent  "building-block"  de- 
sign, by  which  only  those  units 
needed  to  perform  .specific  tasks 
need  be  incorporated  in  any  final 

■  Copies  of  the  booklet  (8-3945) 
i  may  be  obtained  from  the  Westing- 
I  house  Electric  Corporation,  P.  O. 
■  Box  868,  Pittsburgh  30,  Pa. 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

I'  J.  Lamont  shown 
■  ith  Rear  Admiral 
George  H.  Fort.  13th 
Naval  District  Com- 
mandant. Seattle  Naval 





•  DECK 





821-825    FOLSOM    STREET 
DAY    PHONE   EXBROOK   2-4500 


Page   87 

Stability  and  Trim  Eiiperimental  Tank 

iCviiliiiueil  from   Page   51 1 

evaluated.  The  Cadet-Midshipman  at  this  point  in  the 
course  is  well  acquainted  with  stability  principles.  The 
reader  of  this  article  who  is  not  similarly  equipped  may 
find  the  demonstration  somewhat  difficult  to  follow. 

Demonstration    11 — Free   Surface 

1.  To  show  the  effect  of  slack  tanks  on  a  vessel's  sta- 

2.  To  show  how  the  effect  of  free  surface  on  metacen- 
tric height  and  the  stability  curve  can  be  calculated 
and  used  to  advantage  in  correcting  or  preventing 
a  poor  stability  condition. 

Facilities   and   Equipment 

1.  Tank  and  model    (Inclining  gear  attached). 

2.  Meter  and  hose. 

3.  Ballast  weights  and  adjusting  blocks. 

4.  Graph  paper. 

General  Description  of  Demonstration 

Select  any  given  condition  of  displacement  and  GM. 
Flood  one  or  more  tanks  so  that  in  each  case  the  tank  is 
slack.  Calculate  the  GM  and  draw  up  a  statical  stability 
curve  for  the  condition.  The  free  surface  correction  table 
may  be  used  to  make  corrections  to  initial  stability.  In 
drawing  up  the  statical  stability  curve  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  the  reduction  in  righting  arms  due  to  the 
virtual  rise  of  the  center  of  gravity  is  only  valid  for  ini- 
tial stability,  that  is,  for  about  10  degrees  of  inclination. 
The  free  surface  correction  may  increase  very  slightly  for 
moderate  angles  of  inclination,  then  decrease  rapidly  as 
"pocketing"  occurs.  The  extent  of  these  changes  will  vary 
with  the  length-breadth  ratio  of  the  tank  and  the  depth 
of  water  within  the  tank.  If  the  virtual  GG'  is  used  to 
calculate  the  correction  to  righting  arms  for  all  angles  of 
inclination  the  curve  will  show  less  stability  than  the 
vessel  actually  possesses  at  large  angles  of  inclination. 
There  is  no  known  method  of  rapidly  computing  the 
actual  reduction  to  righting  arms  at  larger  angles  of  in- 
clination due  to  "pocketed"  free  surface. 


14.20  in. 


12.91  in. 

GM:  (  - 

-)      1.29  in. 

1.51  in. 


1.51  in. 

In  the  demonstration  pocketing  should  be  ignored  in 
drawing  the  calculated  curve;  inclining  the  model  and 
measuring  actual  righting  arms  will  produce  the  proper 
curve.  The  Cadet-Midshipman  will  then  be  able  to  make 
up  his  own  mind  on  any  possible  approximation  for  in- 
creasing righting  arms  at  large  angles  over  that  cal- 

Demonstration    11 — Free   Surface 

Data   Sheet 

Displacement   Condition   2    (c) 

Wcisht  Vertical 

in  lbs.  VCG  Moments 

Model,  light                1035  10.8  11178 

100  lb,  weights            400  1 1.0      4400 

Top  weights                    135  35.0  4725 

No    3  Hold,  flooded     200  13.0  2600 

(Compensating  (  Free  Su 

Other    I  Blocks!                 30  I  1.0  3  30 

TOTALS              1800  23233    ( Corrected  »   GM:  f  —  I        .22  in. 

STEP  1 :  Calculate  GM,  corrected  for  free  surface  as 

STEP  2:  Draw  a  statical  stability  curve  for  this  con- 
dition. ( See  Graph ) 

STEP  3:  Incline  the  model.  Compare  actual  stability 
characteristics  with  stability  characteristics 
as  shown  in  calculated  curve. 

STEP  4:   Conclusions. 

OFF  100  LB.  WTS. 

2.  GRAPH  REVEALS  A  LIST  OF  SOME  10°  OR  11°,  AL- 



The  Department  of  Nautical  Science  at  Kines  Point 
hopes  that  future  merchant  marine  officers  will  learn 
from  the  model.  Miss  Calculntion.  an  expert  and  confident 
knowledge  of  stability  which  will  prevent  them  from 
miscalculating  when  it  counts;  when  they  have  to  make 
decisions  which  may  mean  the  saving  or  loss  of  their 
ship  and  their  shipmates. 

BOOK  umn 

PRISCILLA  OF  FALL  RIVER,  by  Roger  Williams 
McAdams;  published  by  Stephen  Daye  Press.  Price  S3. 75; 
224  pages;  6V4"  x  9V2". 

The  Priscilla,  which  made  her  first  voyage  on  June  25, 
1894,  was  the  acknowledged  queen  of  the  Fall  River 
Line.  She  was  beloved  by  millions  of  Americans  who 
knew  her  during  the  forty-three  years  she  sailed  Long 
Island  Sound. 

Priscilla  of  Fall  River  contains  many  amusing  episodes 
and  exciting  tales  of  danger  and  heroism.  It  adheres 
strictly  to  fact,  although  it  is  written  in  conversational 
style  and  moves  like  a  novel.  The  author  is  a  recognized 
authority  on  this  era  of  American  life.  He  is  the  grandson 
of  a  Rhode  Island  builder  of  sailing  vessels,  growing  up 
in  the  tradition  of  Sound  shipping,  and  his  life  and  ex- 
perience have  been  closely  interwoven  with  the  history 
of  which  he  writes.  The  Priscilla  had  a  long  life,  and  her 
story  makes  good  reading. 

TROOPSHIPS  OF  WORLD  WAR  II.  by  Roland  W. 
Charles,  Naval  Architect,  with  foreword  by  Maj.  Gen. 
Edmond  H.  Leavey,  Chief  of  Transportation,  U.  S.  Army. 
Sponsored  by  The  Army  Transportation  Association. 
Price  $3.25;  374  pages;  6"  x  9";  360  illustrations. 

Here  in  one  volume  is  packed  authentic  and  detailed 
information  about  the  vessels,  large  and  small,  that  were 
utilized  in  the  biggest  ocean  troop  movement  in  history. 
The  naval  architects  and  engineers  who  designed  these 
ships,  the  shipbuilders  and  yard  workers  who  constructed, 
converted  or  repaired  them,  and  the  miUions  of  troops 
who  rode  them  into  battle  zones,  will  find  this  book  a 
treasured  lore.  Libraries,  ship  owners  and  operators,  ma- 
rine insurance  and  salvage  companies,  custom  house 
brokers,  stevedoring  companies,  newspaper  offices  and 
all  others  interested  in  ships  will  find  Troopships  of 
World  War  II  indispensable  as  a  reference  work 

Page  88 


mBmm  wmmm 

{Cunti'iueiJ  jrom  Pjge  61) 
light  turns  to  premiums,  on  commissions,  on  conditions, 
on  the  agency  system,  on  the  whole  industry  itself.  And 
being  flexible  the  industry  moulds  itself  to  meet  new  cir- 
cumstances. The  moulding  is  not  always  easy  and  many 
interests  are  frequently  involved,  but  friction  is  avoided 
by  co-operation  between  representative  bodies,  and  I,  for 
one,  look  forward  to  the  time  when  all  those  bodies  in  the 
industry  will  be  knit  even  closer  togerher  than  they  are 
at  present,  so  that  insurance  can  be  developed  on  the  best 
possible  lines  to  an  unassailable  position." 


"Lloyds:  By  An  Observer,"  is  the  title  of  a  timely 
article  in  "Lloyd's  Diary  for  1948,"  printed  and  issued 
by  the  Corporation  of  Lloyd's,  London,  England.  After 
pomting  out  that  the  history  of  Lloyd's  goes  back  for 
over  two  and  a  half  centuries  to  the  year  1687-8 — at  that 
time  it  was  a  coffee  house  in  the  City  of  London  fre- 
quented by  shipowners,  seafaring  men  and  merchants 
who  had  a  common  interest  in  shipping  and  marine  in- 
surance— the  article  proceeds: 

In  spite  of  the  growing  complexity  of  business  and 
:he  increasing  supervision  of  the  Committee,  in  spite  of 
the  many  changes  necessitated  by  two  world  wars,  in 
spite  of  restrictive  foreign  legislation,  the  spirit  of  free 
underwriting  and  the  exercise  of  individual  judgment 

"From  1940  to  1945  w-ar  cur  the  connection  between 
I  loyd's  and  many  of  its  friends  in  Europe,  but  the  old 
ties,  one  by  one,  are  being  restored;  former  policy- 
holders are  turning  to  Lloyd's  again;  and  as  men  revert  to 
the  normal  routine  of  commerce,  as  the  economic  prob- 
lems that  "War  bequeaths  to  Peace  are  solved,  as  ex- 
changes thaw  and  the  chains  are  removed  from  interna- 
tional trade,  Lloyd's  Underwriters  are  rendering  again 
rheir  traditional  service  to  the  World." 


Being  converted  to  a  cargo  carrier,  the  former  LSM  il  gets  a 
face-lifting"  treatment  at  Bethlehem  Steel  Company's  Staten 
Island  Yard.  Weighing  56,000  pounds  and  extending  40  feet  in 
length.  20  feet  in  height  and  26  feet  in  width  at  its  widest,  the 
new  peacetime  bow  being  swung  into  place  here  was  prefabri- 
cated at  the  yard  and  replaces  the  craft's  former  landing-ramp 
bow.  The  vessel  also  will  be  fitted  with  an  after  pilot  house,  stack 
cargo     booms     and     hatches     for     the     Portuguese     coastwise     trade. 

OS&Y  Rising  S*em 
Bronze  OS*.'  ^^E 

^'=''^%""       ttble    «here 
Especially    f."'  inside 

?::::.  Nor763».,No.763sc..ea. 


Complete     me    of    st         ^^^^.^^ 

S'"*"^  'ofking  pressures  up  to  50 
steam  worKmfe  f  Uoawelobcvalves 
pounds.  Alsoextraheavyg^^^    ^^^^, 

for  P«f  "'"^'^  "Vo.  752G  shown. 
Bolted  bonnets,  inc. 

Bronze   150  ponnd  hose^^    ^ 
non-metaU.c     isc.  ^j^t,  „p 


approve,  by  Unaer^;-" 

Laboratories.  '"",„£ 

300  LB.  HOSE  GATE  VALVE^^^^. 

Non-rismg   stem,   *°  ,  packing. 

Urge  stuffing  box,  asb-t^^P   ^^^^ 

Screwed  HyP^^i,"     No.  1064. 
Sizes  l^'Z     and  2  2   • 


valveforpre^uresuptoj       F^^^    ^^ 
Prompt  delivery. 

STABILITT  ">■•-'  1854 


i-EBRUARY     •      1941 


765  Folsom  St  •  EXbrook  2-3144 
San  Francisco  7  •  California 

L»  Aaiil'i  •  Senile  •  Poilind  •  Silt  like  Cll)  •  Dentei  •  El  Pi»  •  Men  Toik  •  Hirtttrl  •  lasllntM.  I.C. 

Page  89 

Ship  Forms 

iCoiiliiiued  from  pugc  -4() I 

resistance  of  a  new  ship  by  Taylor's  Standard  Series  or 
any  other,  for  that  matter,  is  that  the  horsepower  curve 
so  derived  is  not  that  of  the  new  ship — it  is  merely  that 
for  a  Standard  Series  form  having  the  same  hull  charac- 
teristics as  the  new  ship.  Since  Taylor's  parent  form  was 
that  of  a  fine-lined  naval  vessel,  his  curves  were  for  many 
years  useful  only  for  estimating  the  resistance  of  high 
speed  passenger  vessels.  The  slow  cargo  vessels  were  tar 
out  of  range.  'With  today's  cargo  vessels  approaching  the 
speeds  of  yesterday's  passenger  ships,  the  model  tank 
curves  are  falling  nearer  the  results  of  a  Standard  Series 
calculation.  Some  beamy  shallow  draft  vessels  will  have 
less  resistance  than  that  indicated  by  Taylor's  curves. 

In  1927  A.  L.  Ayre  presented  a  method  of  approxi- 
mating the  effective  horsepower  of  a  new  ship  which  was 
based  on  the  results  of  some  model  tests  as  well  as  general 
practice.  Additional  model  tests  showed  the  need  for  re- 
visions which  were  published  in  1933.  By  this  method 

where  Cj  is  a  coefficient  whose  basic  value  is  taken  from  a 
set  of  curves  by  entering  with  'V/\/L  and  L/D'''^  The 
value  obtained  is  then  corrected  for  variations  in  beam- 
draft  ratio,  block  coefficient  and  position  of  the  longi- 
tudinal center  of  buoyancy.  The  standard  beam-draft  ratio 
is  2.0,  the  standard  block  coefficient  is  1.08 — 'V/2\/L 
while  the  ideal  position  of  longitudinal  center  of  buoy- 


BLOCK   COEF  •  .SW  PRI5  00£F  •  .iB3        MIPiECT  CO£r  -  .  987 

ancy  is  as  follows  in  terms  of  percentage  of  ship's  length 
forward  or  aft  of  the  midship  station:  — 

V/VL  0.5       0.6       0.7       0.8       0.9       1.0 

Single  Screw,  o/o  2F  1.9F  1.6F  1.2F  0.2F  I.IA 
Twin  Screw,  o/o     IF     0.9F     0.7F     0.2F     0.8A     2.1A 

These  positions  for  the  longitudinal  center  of  buoy- 
ancy are  based  on  McEntee's  experiments  of  1918;  recent 
experiments  seem  to  point  to  a  slight  movement  aft  of 
the  values  noted. 

In  Great  Britain,  it  is  common  practice  to  give  the  re- 
sults of  model  tests  in  Froude's  notation,  i.e.  by  (C) 
curves  plotted  on  'V/\/L  or  (P)  which  equals 
'V/1.34\/PL  where  P  is  the  prismatic  coefficient.  The 
value  of  (  P)  is  an  indication  of  the  wave-making  resist- 
ance of  a  particular  form.  The  (C;  curves  are  usually 
for  a  ship  400  feet  long — Froude's  original  base  was  300 


















BLOCK   COEF- .t07       PRIS  C0EF-.62Z         MJDSECT   COEF  ■  ,976 

feet.  The  correction  factors  for  other  lengths  are: — 

Length  Deduct 

450  .007 

500  .013 

600  .024 

700  .033 

800  .041 

900  .048 

1000  .054 

In  choosing  a  (C)  value  for  estimating  the  resistance 
of  a  new  ship,  all  characteristics  and  a  section  area  curve 
of  the  parent  model  should  be  available  for  comparison. 
For  a  given  prismatic  coefficient  the  (C)  value  increases 
rapidly  above  a  certain  V/\/L  value — this  point  is  de- 
termined by  inspection  from  the  curves  and  its  value  used 
in  determining  E.H.P.  With  present  knowledge  of  hull 
forms  it  is  possible  to  obtain  for  ordinary  slow  cargo 
vessels  a  ( C )  as  low  as  0.60. 

"While  it  is  impossible  to  condense  the  entire  procedure 
of  ship  design  into  a  few  paragraphs  it  will  not  be  amiss 
to  note  a  few  important  points  relative  to  resistance.  A 
ship  owner  desiring  to  build  an  addition  to  his  fleet  must 
study  the  requirements  of  his  particular  trade  and  furn- 
ish at  least  the  following  information  to  the  naval  archi- 

1.  Type  of  cargo  and  required  deadweight  or  cubic 

2.  Size  restriction,   i.e..  maximum  length,  breadth  or 
draft.     . 

3.  Trial  or  sea  speed. 

4.  Length  of  trip  or  maximum  distance  between  bunk- 
ering ports. 

I  Please  turn  to  page  92) 

Page  90 



Type    TMSF   Towinq    Winch 


"Experience  and  Know  How"  were  the  answers 
when  we  inquired  into  the  phenomenal  rise  in 
popularity  of  Markey  Towing  Machines  in  the 
Bay   Area.     "We   find   it   more   economical  to 
use  wire  rope,  especially  for  harbor  work.    We 
save  plenty  in  material,  manpower,  and  over- 
all operation." 

There's    a    tip    in    that    for    you.     Be    wise    — 
investigate  the  Markey  Towing  Machines  .  .  . 
Cut  operating  costs  .  .  .  Enjoy  the  benefits  of 
great    flexibility    and    absolute    dependability. 

Write  for  descriptive  literature,  without  obligation,  giv- 
ing any  information  that  will  enable  our  engineers  to  give 
you   the   full    benefit    of    Marliey's   sea-tested    experience. 

Towing  Machines 
HoJsfs      •      W 


s      •       Steer 

•      W>nd/ass 
ing  Engines 



ented  by 

Geo.  E. 

Sweft  & 

Co.,   San 


J.  H.  M 


Sales  Co.,  New  Orleans 

Let's  keep  o 

ur   Me 


Marine  — 
Prosperity   In 




Thicknesses  from  '4*  to  li  inches. 
Sheets  40  x  40  inches  and  larger, 

Feeding  mix  for  Garlock  7021 
into  sheeters  at  Garlock  factory. 

(y^  AND  H 


GARLOCK  7021  Compressed  Asbestos  Sheet 
Packing  was  specially  developed  by  Garlock 
for  severe  oil  service.  It  is  strong  and  tough,  yet 
resilient.  Gaskets  cut  from  Garlock  70''21  give 
superior  service  on  pipe  lines  and  other  equipment 
handling  gasoline,  oil,  gas  or  steam  at  ex- 
treme pressures  and  high  temperatures. 

T  San  Francisco  Los  Angeles 




EBRUARY     •      I  948 

Paae   9! 

Ship  Forms 

{Cuntiniieil  from  page  90) 

5.  Type  of  machinery  preferred. 

6.  Number  of  passengers,  if  any. 

Unfortunately,  or  perhaps  fortunately  for  the  naval 
architect,  there  is  no  simple  formula  which  can  be  run 
through  on  a  slide  rule  to  give  the  dimensions  of  a  ship 
from  the  above  requirements.  Speed  is  the  primary  re- 
quirement for  but  few  classes  of  vessels;  therefore,  in 
normal  merchant  practice  the  hull  dimensions  cannot  be 
chosen  solely  on  the  basis  of  low  resistance.  From  the 
viewpoint  of  resistance,  length  is  advantageous  but  add- 
ed length  increases  the  cost  of  building  and  increases  the 
hull  scantlings.  Increased  draft  aids  in  reducing  resistance 
but  unfortunately  this  dimension  is  the  most  liable  to 
be  restricted.  Adding  to  the  beam  without  fining  the 
hull  form  usually  added  to  the  resistance. 

Passenger  ships  have  been  and  probably  will  continue 
to  be  tailored  for  some  particular  run.  Cargo  ships,  on 
the  other  hand,  have  been  built  for  general  service  with  a 
trend  toward  increased  speeds.  Fifteen  years  ago  10  knots 
was  the  common  speed;  today  it  is  15-16  knots  and  20 
knot  cargo  ships  are  proposed. 

In  the  past  it  was  normal  practice  to  select  a  suitable 
block  coefficient  for  the  operating  V/\/L  from  one  of 
the  following:  — 

(Block  coef.)    =/,=0.39\/L,/V  or  V  =sea  speed. 
=1.08—     ^    /y     V  =  trial  speed. 

Modern  practice  is  to  choose  a  prismatic  coefficient 
and  let  the  block  coefficient  come  as  it  will.  A  suitable 
prismatic  coefficient  may  be  chosen  from 



Prismatic  coef.^  Midsec.  coef.       2  ( Midsec.  coef. )  \/L 

=     1.02- 

=     1.15—0.6 

10  D  ^e 

V  L 

An  unduly  fine  prismatic  will  increase  length  of  a 
given  displacement  with  the  attendant  disadvantages 
previously  noted. 

When  choosing  a  prismatic  coefficient  the  value  of  (  P ) 
should  be  investigated  as  an  indication  of  wave-making. 
When  (P)=\/Vl,\/4/5,\/4/9,\/4/13,etc.the  form 
will  have  high  wave-making  resistance;  low  wave-mak- 
is  indicated  by  (P)=V4/3,  \/4/7,  VVH,  V4/15 
etc.  Should  a  poor  value  of  (P)  be  unavoidable,  the  criti- 
cal values  may  be  shifted  a  little  up  or  down  on  the  speed 
scale  by  the  use  of  straight  or  hollow  entrance  lines  re- 
spectively. A  particularly  bad  combination  of  a  wave 
crest  at  the  bow  with  a  hollow  at  the  end  of  the  entrance 
is  indicated  by  V  =  1.09  VLength  of  entrance.  Under 
no  circumstances  should  this  occur  in  conjunction  with 
a  poor  (P)  value.  The  spreading  of  the  entrance  and 
run  shoulders  will  help  to  reduce  critical  wave  combi- 

Once  the  dimensions  and  coefficients  of  form  of  a  new- 
ship  have  been  settled  the  following  are  the  important 
(Please  turn  to  page  94) 




FROM    BOILERS    ,;>'iV-" 
AND    STACKS  ':    .''i.'' 



'VT'OU  CAN  CHECK  the  effi- 
ciency  of  XZIT  in  your 
boiler  room.  Stack  temperatures 
definitely  prove  that  XZIT  sub- 
stantially increases  operating 
efficiency  and  improves  heat 
transfer  by  removing  soot  and 
fire-scale  from  all  surfaces  of  the 
firebox  and  stack. 

XZIT,  fed  into  the  flame,  does 
its  work  while  the  boiler  is  in 
operation.  It  keeps  the  boiler 
free  of  soot  and  fire-scale  when 
used  at  regular  intervals.  Try 
XZIT  today— stocks  are  available 
in  all  localities. 


FIRE    SCALE    & 

158    -    14th    STREET.    HOBOKEN,    N.    J. 

Page  92 


New  "Package" 
Steam  Cenerator 
by  Foster  Wheeler 

l-oster  Wheeler  Corporation,  New 
^iirk,  announces  its  entry  into  the 
held  of  package  steam  generators 
up  to  and  including  27,000  lb.  per 
hour  range.  These  Foster  Wheeler 
units  are  assembled  at  the  factory, 
uicluding  refractory  and  insulation, 
.uid  are  ready  to  generate  steam 
wlien  delivered  and  installed. 

Designs  immediately  available 
provide  for  both  oil  and  gas-firing, 
and  a  coal-fired  unit  will  be  ready 
sliortly.  Two  series,  low  pressure 
I  up  to  250  lb.),  and  high  pressure 
I  up  to  850  lb.),  are  being  produced 
at  present. 

Basic  engineering  design  provides 
f(  ir  installation  of  superheaters 
cuher  as  original  equipment  or  for 
later  addition.  This  means  that 
plant  operators  are  being  offered 
complete  steam  generators,  factory- 
built,  which  embody  the  same  fea- 
tures found  in  central  station  units. 

C'ombustion  controls  provide  full 
111  semi-automatic  operation,  as  de- 
bired,  and  are  an  integral  part  of  the 
"package".  Operation  of  the  units 
from  a  central  control  panel  is  sim- 
ple— only  a  minimum  of  attention 
is  necessary. 

1       A  bulletin  contain 

ing  full  infor- 

(  mation  is  available  on  request. 







-  '"^efl 







li       .   ^ 

r--  ■  ■■— 


1  948 

kwi  Catalog 
of  Tube  Cleaners 

Thomas  C.  Wilson,  Inc.,  has  in- 
troduced a  new  catalog  of  tube  clean- 
ers covering  the  complete  Wilson 
line  of  tube  cleaners  for  use  in  re- 
fineries, power  plants,  marine  boiler 
rooms,  locomotives,  and  chemical 
process  plants.  The  catalog,  contain- 
ing 48  pages,  is  printed  in  three 
colors,  and  is  replete  with  excellent 
illustrations  and  conveniently  ar- 
ranged tables. 

Virtually  every  type  of  cutter-head 
is  described  in  detail,  as  well  as 
brushes  and   air,   steam,   and   water 

driven  motors.  Electrically-driven 
tube  cleaning  equipment  and  all  ac- 
cessories are  also  described  and  il- 
lustrated. One  section  of  the  book 
is  devoted  to  special  equipment  and 
shows  a  variety  of  "custom-made" 
cleaners  which  are  typical  of  the 
solutions  which  Wilson  technicians 
have  developed  to  meet  difficult  and 
tuiusual  tube  cleaning  problems. 

All  listings  are  organized  for  easy 
reference,  and  include  application 
data  as  well  as  technical  information, 
operating  hints,  and  other  pertinent 
data.  Copies  of  Wilson's  Tube 
Cleaner  Catalog  No.  76  may  be  ob- 
tained by  writing  to  Thomas  C.  Wil- 
son, Inc.,  21-11  44th  Ave.,  Long  Is- 
land City  1,  N.  V. 



All  cargo  tanks  on  the  U.  S.  NAVAL  TANKER  MISSION  PURISIMA 

were  converted  from  black  oil  to  white  gas  by  Sopac's  machine  cleaning 
methods.    Pyrate  Tank  Cleaning   Machines  were  used  In  this  operation. 

Specialists  in 


Also  Specialists  in 




soPHc  SHIP  mmmEi  co. 

1168  BATTERY 


Phone  SUtter  1-5890 



Ship  Forms 

{Continued  from  page  92) 

items  that  affect  resistance; 

1.  The  shape  of  the  sectional  area  curve. 

2.  The  shape  of  the  load  waterline,  particularly  at  the 
fore  end. 

3.  The  shape  of  the  sections  at  the  ends. 

4.  The  type  of  stern. 

F.  H.  Todd  notes  the  following  features  governing  ship 
performance : 

affect  the  speed  when  the  ship  is  pitching  in  heavy 
weather.  This  was  demonstrated  by  the  M.  V.  Silverpine 
which  was  designed  for  10  knots  and  made  11.85  in 
ballast  on  trials.  The  owners  required  a  large  poop  space 
which  gave  full  lines  above  the  water  at  the  stern.  In 
heavy  weather  her  speed  fell  to  an  average  of  6  knots. 

Thus,  in  brief,  are  some  of  the  important  steps  in  the 
development  of  hull  forms  and  the  continuing  studies  of 
ship  resistance.  In  spite  of  the  vast  storehouse  of  modern 
knowledge  of  hull  forms  and  their  resistance,  it  is  still 


Below  0.5 



Best  type 
of  bow 


of  L.C.B. 

convex  with 
fairly  large 

forward  of 

hollow  and  becoming    straight  with 

small  en-  increases  in 

trance  V/L 

aft  of  mid-  changing      midships  at 

ships  to              high  speed 

Above  1.0 
straight   with 
medium  angle 
of  entrance 


At  the  stern,  bow  wave-making  is  automatically  guar- 
anteed if  the  lines  are  carefully  drawn  to  eliminate  eddies. 
The  length  of  run  may  be  determined  from 

L     =  4.08  \  Midsection  Area 

which  is  to  be  measured  from  the  stern  frame  and  not 
the  after  perpendicular  on  single  screw  ships.  While 
Froude's  general  observation  that  V-sections  are  helpful 
in  reducing  wave-making  at  the  stern  is  still  true,  studies 
of  lines  of  flow  to  the  propeller  disk  indicate  that  for 
good  propeller  action  a  more  U-shaped  section — some- 
times known  as  the  club-footed  section — is  to  be  pre- 
ferred. A  rounded  waterline  aft  is  suitable  for  slow  speed 
vessels  but  for  high  speed  it  should  be  nearly  straight 
and  drawn  out  as  far  as  possible;  a  deep  cruiser  stern 
is  helpful  in  accomplishing  this.  After  waterlines  should 
not  exceed  a  slope  of  20°  from  the  centerline  as  far  aft 
and  as  high  as  possible  but  must  fair  into  the  stern  frame 
without  an  abrupt  change  of  shape. 

If  U-sections  are  used  at  the  bow,  care  must  be  taken 
to  avoid  flat  spots  on  the  bottom  which  may  be  liable  to 
damage  from  pounding.  The  bow  profile  on  fast  vessels 
should  have  a  decided  slope  forward  with  a  good  cut 
away  to  meet  the  requirements  of  a  fine-ended  sectional 
area  curve  without  creating  sections  that  are  structurally 

While  the  form  of  the  immersed  body  of  a  ship  is 
usually  the  naval  architect's  main  concern,  the  above 
water  shape  must  not  be  overlooked.  Vertical  stems  with 
sharp  flares  high  up  tend  to  slow  down  a  ship  when  pitch- 
ing into  head  seas;  the  flare  should  start  from  as  near 
the  load  waterline  as  possible  and  be  gradual.  Raking 
the  bow  profile  forward  in  conjunction  with  a  rounded 
stem  in  place  of  the  old  style  bar  will  enable  the  above- 
water  lines  to  be  drawn  in  nearly  parallel  to  the  load 

In  shaping  a  cruiser  stern  above  the  water,  care  must 
be  taken  that  it  is  not  too  U-shaped  in  section.  The  added 
frictional  and  eddy  resistance  of  such  a  stern  will  seriously 

possible  to  design  a  poor  ship — naval  architecture  re- 
mains an  art  as  well  as  a  science. 

Typical  (C)  Curve  Data  Calculated  from  Published 
Curves: — (C)  on  Basis  of  400  Foot  Ship 

Pris.  Coef. 
Block  Coef. 
Midsect.  Coef. 
Des.   Speed 



1961     1 






V_    (C) 
9    .765 

10  .833 

11  .833 

12  .924 

13  1.004 

14  1.315 

15  1.695 



yi    (C) 
9     .737 

10  .737 

11  .714 

12  .697 

13  .705 

14  .702 

15  .706 

16  .707 

17  .729 

18  .788 

Pass.  &  cargo 



y_  (C) 

10  .745 

11  .727 

12  .717 

13  .707 

14  .704 

15  .707 

16  .714 

17  .732 

18  .712 

19  .862 

Good  Neighbor  Fleet 




JV  (C) 

15  .757 

16  .753 

17  .750 

18  .755 

19  .763 

20  .770 

21  .778 

22  .784 

23  .805 

24  .860 

(Continued  from  page  45) 

Santos,  Montevido,  and  Buenos  Aires.  On  her  northbound 
voyage  she  will  touch  the  same  ports  in  the  reverse  order, 
and  will  also  call  at  Port-of-Spain,  Trinidad.  Later,  when 
the  two  sister  ships,  the  Brazil  and  the  Urt/gna)  return  to 
service,  the  fleet  will  make  fortnightly  sailings  calling  at 
the  ports  listed. 

Page  94 



!  SHIP 













i20       KW   120V  DC  30  HP  GM   2  cyl.   1200  RPM. 
100     KW  3/60/450AC   150  HP  GM  3  cyl.   1200  RPM. 
200     KW  3/60/450AC  450   HP  GM   8  cyl.    1200  RPM. 
1200  KW  525V  DC    1700   HP   GM    16  cyl.  750   RPM. 


225     HP  GM   2100   RPM   6  cyl. 
1800  HP   Fairbanks-Morse   800    RPM    10   cyl.   O.P. 
1700   HP   GM    16   cyl.   750    RPM. 
,900      HP   GM   Electromotive   12  cyl.  744  RPM. 


Gross  Tons,  L.S.T.;  900  Gross  Tons,  L.S.M.;  400  Gross  Tons,  L.C.I. 






Attractively  Priced  Immediate  Delivery 






LOS  ANGELES:  NEvada  6-2571 

Cable:   NACOR 

FBRUARY     •      1948 


ATLAS  knows 
the  marine  paint  field 

ATLAS     PAINT    &     VARNISH     CO. 

LOS    ANGELES     •      1922    Eji!    boge    Avo.,    Phone    Kimball    6214 

SAN  FRANCISCO  •   Habor  Supply  Co..  821   Folsom  St..  Phone  EXbrook  2-'(500 

SEATTLE     •     lA.-r.time    Pacific   Supply   Co.,    1917   First  Ave.,    Phone   ELiot    Mil 

WILMINGTON     •     ??'<   No.   Avalon    Blvd.,    Phone  TErminal  4-3251 

GALVESTON  and  HOUSTON,  TEXAS     •     Galveston   jhip  Supply  Co. 

MOBILE,    ALABAMA     •     Seaboard    Supply   Co. 

NEW    ORLEANS,    LOUISIANA     •     n„!f    f„^,r,^r-nnr,    Cn       In- 


Page  95 


SHIPBUILDERS     •     ENGINEERS     •     MARINE     WAYS     •     REPAIRS 

All  types  of  diesel  and  hull  repairs 




TErminal  2-4527        •        Ferry  Street 

P.  O.  Box  66,  Terminal  Island  Station 


Los  Angeles  Harbor 

Garbutt  &  Walsh 


(Continued  from  Page  4S) 

in  the  harbor.  The  following  table  shows  various  types  of 
vessels  and  facilities  involved  in  the  violations: 


(2  g 




6  S 





1       2 


1           1 

1-22    .1 

1-             I 

Approximately  27  of  the  preceding  cases  have  been 
successfully  prosecuted  by  the  United  States  and  213  by 
the  State  of  California.  Generally,  where  the  State  has 
successfully  prosecuted  a  case.  Federal  prosecution  has 
not  been  recommended.  A  number  of  cases  have  not 
been  prosecuted  by  the  United  States  because  the  spill 
was  not  due  to  negligence,  or  was  minor,  and  a  clean-up 
crew  was  promptly  ordered  to  remove  the  oil.  In  such 
cases,  a  warning  or  reprimand  by  letter  has  been  deemed 

Over  a  period  of  10  years  (  1936-1946),  approximate- 
ly 33  complaints  concerning  the  violation  of  the  refuse 
and  debris  laws  were  investigated  by  this  office  and  de- 
veloped into  cases.  Some  of  these  violations  consisted  of 
disposal  of  garbage  into  the  navigable  waters,  dumping 
of  trash  and  industrial  waste  into  streams  emptying  into 
navigable  waters,  dumping  of  raw  sewage  into  navigable 
waters,  pollution  of  beaches,  etc.  Of  these  33  cases,  11 
were  referred  to  the  State  and  were  successfully  prosecut- 
ed. This  office  recommended  four  cases  for  prosecution  by 
the  Federal  Government  and  one  conviction  was  obtained. 
Prosecution  was  not  recommended  on  the  remaining  18 
cases,  but  letters  of  warning  or  reprimand  were  sent  to 
the  violators. 

Two  of  a  trio  of  Army  transports  now  at  Todd  Brooklyn  yard  for  , 
modification  and  repair.  The  622.foot  General  W.  P.  Richardson  I 
(left)  is  in  for  a  general  overhaul  before  being  turned  back  to 
the  Maritime  Commission.  The  General  C.  H,  Muir  is  in  for  a 
complete  modification  in  the  Army's  "Safety-at-Sea"  program 
to  meet  the  latest  Coast  Guard  regulations.  The  General  C.  C. 
Ballou.  a  C-4  type,  like  the  Muir  is  berthed  out  of  sight  behind 
the  Richardson,  and  is  getting  a  similar  going-over  before  they 
both    return    to    the    New    York-Bremerhaven    troop-ferrying    service. 

m\  MEM]  JOB 

Three  large  Army  transports  entered  the  Todd  Brook- 
lyn shipyard  withm  the  past  month  for  modification  and 
overhaul,  the  second  phase  of  a  general  program  of  re- 
pairs and  rehabilitation  of  Army  vessels  undertaken  with- 
in recent  months.  The  latest  arrivals  are  the  496-foot 
C-4  types  General  Ballon,  and  General  C.  H.  Muir.  which 
entered  the  yard  on  December  5  and  10  respectively,  and 
the  622-foot  General  W.  P.  Richardson,  which  was 
berthed  December  15. 

The  General  C.  C.  Ballou  and  General  C.  H.  Muir  will 
both  undergo  the  same  modifications  as  were  completed 
recently  by  Todd  on  the  General  Callan  and  Getieral 
Harry  Taylor.  This  is  part  of  the  Army  Transportation 
Department's  "Safety-at-Sea"  program  to  bring  its  active 
transports  within  the  very  latest  Coast  Guard  regulations. 
The  improvements  include  changes  to  insure  water- 
tight integrity,  a  complete  new  lifeboat  set-up  for  the  full 
capacity  of  1650  persons,  extensive  fire-retarding  instal- 
lations in  the  form  of  Marinite  bulkheads  and  magnesite 
decking  throughout,  overhaul  of  the  fire  alarm  system 
and  replacement  of  fire  extinguishing  chemicals. 

The  General  W.  P.  Richardson,  which  was  built  for 
the  Navy  in  1944,  and  turned  over  to  the  Army  in  1946, 
is  being  generally  overhauled  to  be  restored  to  her  origi- 
nal condition  prior  to  being  turned  back  to  the  Maritime 

The  work  on  the  two  C-4's  is  expected  to  take  at  least 
two  months  each,  while  the  Richardson  will  probably  re- 
quire less  than  a  month's  lay-up  for  repairs. 

Page  96 


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Water  Treatment 

iConliiu/eil  jrom  page  55) 
traced  to  one  or  a  combination  of  the  following: 

1.  Low  pH  of  the  boiler  water. 

2.  Dissolved  oxygen  entering  the  boiler  with  the  feed- 

3.  Sea  water  entering  the  boiler  with  the  feedwater. 
Low  pH  causes  general  attack  or  corrosion   of   the 

metal  surface.  Carbon  dioxide  or  sea  water  will  cause  low 
pH.  The  remedy  for  this  situation  is  to  add  sufficient  al- 
kali with  the  treatment  to  raise  the  pH  to  the  desired 
value,  namely  10.5  or  greater.  Caustic  soda  is  to  be  pre- 
ferred for  this  purpose  since  soda  ash  breaks  down  to 
give  off  carbon  dioxide  in  the  boiler,  which  carbon  dio- 
xide will  make  the  steam  corrosive. 

Dissolved  oxygen  is  the  usual  cause  of  pitting  of  metal. 
Low  pH  aggravates  or  increases  the  pitting.  ( Figs.  2,  3, 
and  A.) 

In  general  two  procedures  are  followed  for  eliminat- 
ing corrosion  from  dissolved  oxygen: 

1.  The  source  of  the  dissolved  oxygen  is  found  and 

2.  Chemical  treatment  is  applied  to  the  boiler  water. 

With  respect  to  1.,  in  finding  the  source  of  the  dis- 
solved oxygen,  it  is  often  necessary  to  make  dissolved 
oxygen  tests.  That  is,  samples  of  representative  waters  are 
tested  for  oxygen  and  in  this  manner  the  source  located. 
Pumps  and  traps  are  the  usual  sources  and  of  course  occa- 
sionally an  unknown  leak  is  found,  oftentimes  in  a  con- 
nection normally  thought  to  be  closed.  Proper  operation 
of  the  deaerator,  of  course,  also  is  required  in  order  to 
hold  the  dissolved  oxygen  as  low  as  possible.  In  an  effort 
to  eliminate  all  corrosion  from  oxygen,  especially  at  high 
pressures,  an  oxygen  scavenger  such  as  sodium  sulfite  is 

Sea  water  also  may  cause  serious  corrosion,  due  chiefly 
to  magnesium  chloride  present.  This  material  may  react 
with  water  by  a  process  called  hydrolysis  to  form  free 
acid  (HCl  )  which  of  course  is  very  corrosive.  Fortunate- 
ly maintaining  the  proper  alkalinity,  that  is  a  pH  above 
10.5  counteracts  this  effect  and  will  eliminate  this  type 
of  corrosion. 

Caustic  embrittlement  is  a  special  form  of  corrosion 
that  takes  place  when  a  leak  permits  a  very  high  con- 
centration of  the  boiler  water  to  take  place.  At  this  high 
concentration  the  caustic  soda  or  sodium  hydroxide  pres- 
ent in  the  concentrated  boiler  water  attacks  steel  under 
certain  conditions  and  causes  it  to  become  brittle.  The 
problem  of  caustic  embrittlement  has  been  combatted 
in  two  ways. 

1.  By   improved   design   of   equipment,   for  example 

elimination  of  seams  and  rivets  by  using  welded 

2.  By  chemical   treatment  with   inhibitors.   Materials 

known  to  be  effective  in  preventing  embrittlement 

are  nitrates,  tannin  and  possibly  phosphate. 
Another  problem  of  the  corrosion  type  is  the  corrosion 
of  steam  and  condensate  piping.  Such  corrosion  is  usual- 
ly due  to  low  pH  water,  although  disolved  {)xygen  may 
accelerate  this  type  of  corrosion.  The  source  of  the  carbon 
dioxide  is  leakage  of  air  and  the  breakdown  of  bicarbon- 
ates  and  soda  ash  used  as  a  water  treatment  in  the  boiler. 
Because  of  the  latter,  soda  ash  should  not  be  used  as  a 
water  treatment  for  marine  use.  The  method  of  combat- 
ting this  type  of  corrosion  is  to  raise  the  pH  of  the  steam 
and  condensate  to  a  value  between  7.0  and  8.5  at  which 
pH  steam  is  not  corrosive.  Volatile  alkalies  are  available 
for  this  purpose. 

Scale  and  Sludge 

Scale  and  sludge  problems  usually  can  be  traced  to 
dissolved  solids  which  enter  the  boiler  due  to  sea  water 
leakage  into  the  feedwater,  or  to  the  use  of  make-up  con- 
taining scale  forming  salts.  Cement  washed  tanks  are 
often  a  source  of  scale  forming  salts.  With  respect  to 
distilled  make-up,  great  care  should  be  exercised  to  elim- 
inate carryover  from  evaporators  which  of  course  will 
contaminate  the  distillate.  In  general,  scale  is  formed  by 
the  calcium  and  magnesium  compounds  which  enter  the 
system  in  the  above  manner.  Figure  5  shows  a  bad  case 
of  scaled  tube. 

The  only  sure  way  to  prevent  scale  and  sludge  diffi- 
culties is  to  remove  these  materials  from  solution  either 
in  the  feedwater  or  in  the  boiler  water  and  to  condition 
the  precipitates  so  formed  so  that  they  will  not  adhere 
to  metal.  The  actual  removal  from  solution  is  done  by 
the  addition  of  chemicals  either  soda  ash  or  sodium  phos- 
phate. By  so  doing,  a  sludge  is  formed  which  eliminates 
the  danger  of  true  scale  but  there  is  still  danger  of  sludge 
baking  on  to  metal.  Because  of  this  danger  of  baked-on 
scale,  a  coagulant  is  often  used  to  "condition"  the  sludge 
so  that  it  will  not  adhere.  Organic  coagulants  have  proven 
highly  successful  in  this  respect.  The  action  of  the  coagu- 
lant is  twofold. 

1.  It  coagulates  the  particles  or  gathers  them  together 
giving  them  sufficient  weight  so  that  they  drop 
rapidly  to  the  lower  parts  of  the  boiler  where  they 
can  be  blown  out. 

2.  It  acts  as  a  protective  colloid,  that  is,  it  coats  the 
particles  with  a  layer  of  organic  material  which 
makes  them  non-adherent  to  each  other  as  well  as 
to  metal. 

In  the  case  of  scotch  marine  boilers,  it  is  common  to 
operate  with  low  or  near  zero  hardness  either  with  or 

Pining  in  piece  of  boile 
feed   trough. 

Page  98 



•    San  Francisco:    53  Stephenson  St. 


Yukon  60600 
Yukon  62614 

Wilmington:     140  N.  Marine  Avenue 
Phones:     Nevada  61076 
Terminal  4-4650 


Peacock    Bros.,    Ltd. 
t'ancouver,  B.C. 

Plione:   Marine  3623 


•  Portland:      Harris  Supply  Company 

240  S.W.  First  Avenue 
Phones:      Atwater4119 

•  Seattle:     Atlas  Packing  &  Rubber  Company 

63-65  Columbia  Street 
Phone:      Elliott  4697 




Boiler  Feed  Pumps 
Bulkhead  Stuffing  Tubes 
Cargo  Pumps 
Condenser  Tubes 
Circulating  Pumps 



Condensate  Pumps 

CO;  Compressors 

Deck  Line  Valves  (Steam) 

Deck  Line  \alves  (Cargo) 

Electric  Cable  Stuffing  Boxes 

•  Condenser  Tube  Protectors 

•  Condenser  Tube  Plugs  (Fiber) 

•  Freon  Compressor  Seals 

•  Gaskets  and  Casket  Sheet  (All  types) 

•  Gasket  Sealing  Compounds 

Electric  Cable  Terminal  Tubes  Gauge  Glasses 

Expansion  Joints  (Steam)  Pistons 

Expansion  Joints  (Diesel)  Rudder  Posts 

Fuel  Oil  Pumps  Steam  Rods 

Fuel  Injection  Valves  Steam  Valves 

•  Packing  Hooks  (Flexible) 

•  Packing  Lubricants 

•  Pipe  Joint  Compounds 

•  Piston  Ring  Water  End  (Bakelite) 

•  Pump  Valve  Discs  (Bakelite) 


Steam  Valve  Rods 
Stern  Tubes 
Steering  Engines 
Turbine  Throttles 


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Seattle  Los   Angeles  New   Orleans  Norfolk  New    York 

Portland  Galveston  Mobile  Baltimore  Boston 


This  ingenious  whirligig,  technically  known  as  a  completely 
portable  turning  lathe,  is  one  of  the  many  precision  machines 
in  the  shops  of  GEDDCO.  It  was  designed  by 
C.  W.  "Slim"  Tydeman,  superintendent  of  pre- 
cision tool  department,  to  turn  down  crankpins 
without  removing  shaft,  with  resulting  savings  in 
time  and  money  that  ship  operators  have  been 
quick  to  appreciate. 

an  Francisco  —  machine  shops,  pier  facilities  for  general  repair, 
.lameda  —  machinery,  hull  and  Industrial  repairs — one-half  mile  on 
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t  Continued  from  Page  98) 
without  the  use  of  phospliate.  In  many  cases  good  results 
are  obtained  without  the  phosphate,  though  with  some 
types  of  water  the  phosphate  is  necessary  to  eliminate 
scale.  In  all  cases  better  results  are  obtained  if  a  coagulant 
is  used  along  with  the  chemical  treatment.  At  high  pres- 
sures phosphate  is  almost  always  necessary  to  insure 
satisfactory  results.  In  fact,  excess  phosphate  should  be 
maintained  in  the  boiler  water  at  all  times.  If  this  is  done 
there  is  little  danger  of  true  scale  even  if  silica  is  present. 
Since  phosphate  sludges  are  troublesome  from  the  stand- 
point of  adhering  to  metal  as  baked-on  deposits  and  also 
may  cause  carryover,  good  coagulants  should  be  used  to 
supplement  the  regular  chemical  treatment. 

Oil  and  grease  are  often  a  problem  in  marine  water 
treatment.  In  combatting  these  difficulties  their  source 
should  be  eliminated  if  possible.  Small  amounts  of  oil  and 
grease  can  be  eliminated  in  the  boiler  through  the  use 
of  proper  coagulants,  for  example,  organic  colloids. 

Evaporators  have  been  designed  to  operate  indefinitely 
in  some  cases  with  physical  cleaning  only  but  in  most 
cases  some  scale  forms  and  the  efficiency  is  impaired. 

Chemical  treatment  has  been  found  to  be  very  effective 
in  eliminating  deposits  from  evaporators,  both  evaporat- 
ing fresh  water  and  salt  water. 

Foaming  and  Priming  or  Carryover 

Priming  which  is  the  "spewing  or  belching"  over  of 
boiler  water  with  the  steam,  is  usually  due  to  design  and 
operational  characteristics.  These  factors,  therefore,  are 
to  be  investigated  in  eliminating  priming.  Foaming,  on 
the  other  hand  is  a  function  of  the  condition  of  the  boiler 
water.  Foaming  is  caused  by  the  combined  effects  of  dis- 
solved solids  and  suspended  matter  in  the  boiler  water. 
These  materials  cause  steam  bubbles  as  they  rise  through 
the  boiler  water  to  become  stabilized  and  they  collect  as 
foam  on  the  surface  of  the  water. 

Since  foaming  is  caused  by  the  joint  effect  of  dis- 
solved and  suspended  solids,  reduction  of  either  will  de- 
crease foaming.  Slowdown  is  the  only  manner  in  which 
the  dissolved  solids  can  be  decreased  but  the  suspended 
solids  can  be  decreased  in  another  way,  namely  through 
the  use  of  a  coagulant.  The  coagulant  causes  the  suspend- 

ed material  to  settle  out  into  portions  of  the  boiler  from 
where  it  can  be  blown  out.  Through  this  reduction  of 
suspended  matter,  foaming  is  decreased  or  eliminated. 
Bottom  flash  blows  are  required  to  eliminate  suspended 
matter  in  this  manner. 

Control  of  Treatment  and  Instruction  of 

The  use  of  water  treatment  without  proper  control 
and  instruction  may  be  compared  to  the  operation  of  a 
steam  plant  without  adequate  meters,  thermometers  and 
gages.  For  this  reason  great  emphasis  must  be  placed  on 
these  aspects  of  water  treatment. 

For  proper  control  of  the  treatment,  a  test  kit  is  neces- 
sary. This  kit  makes  possible  the  ready  determination  of 
the  chief  constituents  in  boiler  water.  As  a  ready  means 
for  interpreting  the  results  of  these  analyses,  charts  have 
been  found  very  helpful.  These  charts  have  coliHiins,  for 
example,  for  hardness,  alkalinity,  etc.  After  making  the 
analysis  the  hardness  value,  for  example,  is  referred  to 
the  chart  and  directly  opposite,  the  corrective  measure  to 
be  applied  is  listed.  This  takes  the  guess  work  out  of 
water  treatment  and  makes  possible  very  exact  control. 
Charts  are  available  for  various  types  of  boilers  at  low 
and  high  pressures. 


Much  progress  has  been  made  in  recent  years  in  water 
treatment.  Methods  are  now  available  for  completely 
eliminating  corrosion,  scale  and  carryover.  Through  prop- 
er use  of  these  methods  and  the  maintaining  of  ptoper 
control,  good  results  are  obtained,  provided  personnel  are 
instructed  properly  in  the  use  of  the  method.  Through  a 
combination  of  these  factors  excellent  boiler  operation 
is  insured. 


(Continued  from  Page  63 ' 
any  method  of  holding  it  open.  The  Hydro-Hinges  will 
at  least  close  the  door  when  someone  goes  in  or  out.  In 
case  of  emergency  the  dooi  can  be  dogged  shut  but  for 
ordinary  ingress  and  egress  the  Hydro-Hinges  will  hold 
it  shut. 

No.  11  Engine  Room  Bulkhead 
Bulkhead  at  the  after  end  of  the  engine  room 
to  be  watertight  in  all  vessels  with  the  piping 
made  tight  at  the  bulkhead  and  a  stuffingbox 
or  suitable  collar  fitted  at  the  shaft.  If  a  door  is 
fitted  to  the  bulkhead  at  the  after  end  of  the 
engine  room  leading  to  the  shaft  alley  in  wood 
and  steel  boats,  it  must  be  watertight. 
The  intent  here  is  to  have  a  bulkhead  that  is  pump 
tight — that  is  if  a  small  amount  of  water  gets  into  the 
vessel  it  will  be  confined  until  it  can  be  disposed  of.  Also 
the  intent  is  that  the  bulkhead  will  be  sufficiently  tight 
to  be  of  value  for  salvage  purposes. 

No.  12  Engine  Hatch  Grating 
A  low  coaming  6"  high  to  be  built  around 
the  engine  hatch  grating  and  the  companion- 
way  opening  to  the  engine  room  ladder  within 
the  forecastle. 
The  purpose  is  to  have  some  small  measure  of  pro- 
tection against  water  that  enters  the  doors  and  which 
would  otherwise  flow  down  the  hatch.  If  the  water  is 
confined  on  the  main  deck  until  the  doors  can  be  closed 

Page    100 



it  may  save  the  ship.  On  many  occasions  water  has  come 
through  the  door,  poured  over  the  edge  of  the  hatch 
opening  and  ruined  the  electric  work  and  motors  so  the 
ship  was  lost. 

The  proper  way  to  build  the  engine  hatch  is  to  sur- 
round it  with  a  solid  bulkhead  extending  from  the  main 
deck  up  to  the  boat  deck.  A  door  with  an  8"  sill  above 
the  deck  would  give  access  to  the  lower  engine  room 
and  the  companionway  hatch  would  be  dispensed  with. 
Here  again  adequate  ventilation  must  be  provided. 

No.  13  Binboards 

Binboards  to  be  fitted  athwartships  and  fore 
and  aft  on  deck  so  fish  can  be  stowed  and  pre- 
vented from  sliding. 

In  one  case  that  presented  itself,  all  of  the  calculations 
showed  that  the  vessel  should  not  have  had  trouble. 
However,  it  developed  that  the  binboards  were  missing 
and  when  the  vessel  took  a  slight  lurch  the  fish  flowed 
to  the  low  side.  She  still  did  not  overturn  but  she  did 
take  a  list  sufficient  to  submerge  the  bottom  of  the  wing 
athwartship  door  on  the  low  side.  The  water  went  be- 
low and  put  all  the  motors  out  of  commission. 

No.  14  Bilge  Pumps 

At  least  two  pumps  to  be  connected  to  the 
bilge.  The  sizes  given  are  for  two  pumps  but 
two  or  more  pumps  of  equivalent  capacity  will 
be  satisfactory. 

Boats  under  70  feet  long  over  all — Two  2" 
pumps  or  equivalent  capacity. 

Boats  70  to  100  feet  over  all — one  2"  and 
one  3"  pump  or  equivalent  capacity. 

Boats  100  to  125  feet  over  all — Two  3" 
pumps  or  equivalent  capacity. 

Boats  125  feet  long  over  all  and  over — 
One  2"  and  two  3"  pumps  or  equivalent 

The  bilge  pumps  have  been  a  problem  all  through  the 
fishing  fleet.  Only  recently  a  vessel  met  with  a  fortuitous 
accident  and  after  a  lengthy  sojourn  in  the  shipyard 
undergoing  repairs  she  was  provisioned  for  sea  and  was  at 
the  oil  dock  taking  aboard  the  final  fuel,  gasoline,  lubri- 
cating oil  and  water.  When  the  crew  appeared  in  the 
morning  she  sat  down  on  the  bottom  of  the  bay  like  a 
(Continued  on  Page  102) 

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FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page    101 


(Comhir/eJ  jrum  Page  101 1 
tired  hen.  The  priming  arrangements  had  not  been  prop- 
erly worked  out  and  had  simk  the  vessel. 

To  get  the  capacity  in  a  small  space  centrifugal  pumps 
are  required  and  centrifugal  pumps  have  to  be  primed 
or  they  will  not  start.  Lately  there  has  been  a  %"  con- 
nection installed  from  the  sea  valve  to  the  bilge  pump 
to  prime  it.  This  is  a  dangerous  practice  and  has  been  a 
source  of  considerable  expense  to  the  underwriters.  A 
check  valve  is  placed  in  the  bilge  suction  to  prevent  sea 
water  from  flowing  from  the  sea  into  the  bilge  and  the 
bilge  pump  prime  line  has  a  continuous  flow  to  restart 
the  intermittent  suction  of  the  pump. 

Where  a  centrifugal  pump  with  a  horizontal  shaft  is 
used  for  the  bilge  service,  there  is  difficulty  in  getting  it 
started.  To  overcome  the  starting  problem  the  pump  is 
left  running  all  the  time.  Where  a  centrifugal  pump  is 
left  running  continuously  with  a  small  amount  of  water 
in  it  the  pump  heats  up  to  the  point  where  the  water  will 
boil.  To  overcome  the  heating  problem  the  connection 
from  the  sea  to  the  pump  was  installed — all  of  which  is 
wrong  in  principle. 

Several  flooding  losses  have  occurred  because  of  the 
failure  of  the  check  valves  to  work  and  they  are  totally 
unreliable  due  to  chips  and  other  dirt  in  the  bilge.  The 
writer  fitted  a  bronze  foot  valve  with  a  swing  check 
valve  ahead  of  it  in  several  boats  but  even  the  double 
valve  arrangement  failed  on  occasion. 

Lambie,  Newby  and  the  writer  discussed  the  problem 
at  considerable  length  in  1937.  The  question  of  the  size 
of  the  boat — the  space  available — and  the  cost  enter  into 
the  picture. 

The  original  intention  was  to  restrict  the  duty  of  the 
bilge  pumps  solely  to  that  of  pumping  the  bilge  but 
where  the  owners  are  required  to  install  two  pumps  they 
feel  that  either  one  or  both  should  be  used  for  more  than 
one  purpose  and  it  is  this  multiple  use  that  has  caused 
all  the  trouble. 

Where  a  pump  is  used  for  fire  and  bilge  there  must  be 
a  connection  to  the  bilge  and  also  a  connection  to  the  sea 
and  if  both  shut-off  valves  are  defective,  as  usually  hap- 
pens in  time,  there  is  bound  to  be  a  leak  of  sea  water  into 
the  bilge. 

The  remedy  for  this  installation  is  to  fit  what  is  known 
as  a  brass  three-way  cock  close  to  the  suction  of  the 
pump.  The  cock  is  turned  either  open  to  the  bilge  suc- 
tion or  open  to  the  sea  suction  but  cannot  be  turned 
open  to  both  at  the  same  time.  It  is  easily  taken  care  of 
as  the  stop  valves  on  the  sea  and  bilge  suction  can  be 
closed  and  the  three-way  cock  dismantled. 

What  should  be  done  is  to  fit  a  2"  vertical  spindle 
pump  down  in  a  sump  in  the  shaft  alley  connected  to  a 
motor  above  so  when  the  motor  is  started  the  pump  will 
automatically  prime  itself  as  it  will  be  under  water  in  the 
sump.  There  are  many  devices  on  the  market  that  will 
start  the  pump  when  a  predetermined  amount  of  water 
accumulates  in  the  sump  so  the  pump  will  not  have  to 
operate  all  the  time.  The  usual  overboard  discharge  is 
led  from  the  discharge  side  of  the  pump. 

A  pipe  connection  is  taken  from  the  discharge  line  of 
the  submerged  sump  pump  to  the  suction  of  the  second 
pump  as  two  pumps  are  required  in  all  cases  and  an  ad- 
ditional or  third  bilge  pump  is  required  on  the  larger 

boats.  By  this  means  we  have  a  fool-proof  arrangement 
as  No.  1  pump  is  permanently  submerged,  self  priming, 
self  starting,  and  should  be  bronze.  No.  2  pump  is  primed 
by  No.  1  pump — all  of  the  water  used  by  both  pumps 
comes  from  the  inside  of  the  boat — and  there  is  no  con- 
nection to  the  sea. 

If  the  owner  wants  one  of  the  pumps  to  have  a  sea 
connection  so  the  pump  can  be  used  for  fire  purposes, 
the  three-way  valve  prevents  the  sea  suction  connection 
from  being  used  for  priming  purposes  when  it  is  de- 
sired to  pump  the  bilge  with  No.  2  pump.  Care  must  be 
taken  not  to  put  the  priming  connection  from  No.  1 
pump  so  it  enters  between  the  three-way  valve  and  pump 
No.  2  or  the  water  will  run  from  the  sea  through  the 
three-way  valve  back  through  No.  1  pump  into  the  ship 
when  the  connections  are  open.  In  this  way  there  is  no 
harm  done  if  the  check  valves  are  out  of  order,  as  they 
usually  are. 

Pacific  Pumping  Company  specializes  in  building  and 
installing  vertical  spindle  non-clog,  self-priming  pumps 
suitable  for  this  service  and  the  pumps  will  run  contin- 
uously or  intermittantly  wet  or  dry.  The  only  change 
from  the  use  of  a  standard  pump  is  that  the  lubrication 
must  be  oil  instead  of  grease. 

Any  pump  that  is  connected  to  the  bilge  or  to  the 
bilge  and  sea  combined  should  be  a  vertical  spindle  pump. 
As  a  matter  of  fact  some  of  the  early  boats  that  had  the 
pumping  arrangements  engineered  were  fitted  with  verti- 
cal spindle  pumps  for  all  uses  except  the  5"  brine  trans- 
fer pump  which  is  now  omitted  on  some  of  the  recent 

No.  15  Fuel  Oil  Pumps 
A  transfer  pump  to  move  fuel  oil  from  any 
one  tank  to  any  other  tank  to  be  connected  to 
a  suitable  manifold  on  each  side  of  the  pump. 
The  pump  preferably  should  be  about  2"  and 
must  be  a  non-return  flow  type  so  fuel  cannot 
flow  through  the  pump  from  the  high  side  to 
the  low  side  when  the  vessel  has  a  list. 
It  is  common  practice  to  carry  fuel  in  any  of  the  wells 
or  tanks  where  an  excess  amount  of  fuel  is  required  to 
take  the  vessel  to  a  distant  fishing  ground.  Especially  is 
this   true  when  the  vessel   is  making  the  first  voyage 
where  the  requirements  are  not  known  to  the  master. 

On  several  occasions  the  vessels  have  had  trouble 
where  there  has  been  a  cross  connection  between  a  well 
on  one  side  and  a  corresponding  well  on  the  other  side. 
Usually  there  is  a  tee  in  the  center  of  the  cross  connection 
with  a  pipe  from  the  tee  to  the  pump.  When  the  cross 
connection  is  left  open  under  the  supposition  that  the 
pump  will  draw  equally  from  each  of  the  port  and  star- 
board tanks,  the  fuel  is  free  to  run  to  the  low  side. 

After  the  vessel  has  acquired  a  list  there  is  no  way 
to  balance  the  tanks  by  pumping  fuel  from  the  low  side 
to  the  high  side.  The  rule  provides  that  a  pipe  from  each 
well  shall  be  led  to  the  manifold  at  the  pump  so  fuel  can 
be  pumped  from  one  side  tank  through  the  manifold  to 
the  other  side  tank. 

No.   16  Bait  Well  and  Brine  Pumps 

A  transfer  pump  to  be  connected  between 

the  bait  wells  in   the  hold  and  between  the 

brine  tanks  in  the  brine  boats  to  enable  the 

brine   to   be   transferred    from   tank   to   tank. 

I  Please  turn  to  Page   lO^i 

Page    102 


ttieHtedl  Xeadet^kifi 

Quality  material,  superior  workmanship  and  over  30  years 
experience  are  the  components  of  every  Chief  Sandusky 
Centrifugal  Casting. 

Ship  owners  and  operators  realize  the  added  value  of 
years  of  experience  and  specify  "Sandusky"  on  their  new 
construction  and  repair  contracts. 

Sandusky  has  a  complete  nonferrous  centrifugal  foundry 
and  machine  shop  for  producing  propeller  shaft  sleeves, 
stern  tube  bushings,  rudder  stock  sleeves  and  pump  liners 
from  3"  to  46"  in  diameter  and  In  lengths  up  to  347". 

Specify  Chief  Sandusky  Centrifugal  Castings  on 
your  next  application. 

JNDUSKY   CfJ^r/i/FI/04l  CASr/^CS 




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addition,  it  "GamlemzeB"  the  metal 
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Service  and  Stocks  in  All  Principal  Cities  and  Porli 

FEBRUARY     •      I  948 

Page    103 


I  Continued  from  Page  102) 

The  practice  on  this  system  has  changed  several  times. 
Originally  there  was  a  pumping  system  that  moved  the 
brine  from  any  selected  tank  to  the  manifold  on  the 
pump,  usually  in  the  engine  room  and  thence  back  to 
any  other  tank.  Then  a  tank  was  introduced  to  mix  salt 
with  the  sea  water  and  cool  it  for  make-up  brine  and  the 
piping  was  changed  to  service  the  brine  strengthening 

Later  the  individual  circulating  pumps  were  connected 
.  to  a  common  salt  water  header  and  the  salt  was  added  to 
each  well  simplifying  the  piping.  Some  of  the  brme  that 
has  been  used  to  cool  a  well  of  fish  is  pumped  from  the 
header  to  a  fresh  well  to  help  with  the  cooling  process. 

No.   17  Fresh  Water  Transfer 
There  must  be  no  free  connection  between 
fresh  water  tanks.  Where  tanks  are  cross  con- 
nected a  check  valve  must  be  installed  in  the 
cross   connection   to   prevent   flow    from   one 
tank  into  another. 
The  trouble  arose  in  this  case  from  having  a  cross  con- 
nection between  the  water  tanks  with  a  tee  in  the  center 
from  which  a  pipe  was  led  to  the  pump.  Everyone  aboard 
was  busy  with  catching  and  stowing  fish  and  with  the 
fishermen  over  the  side  in  the  racks  the  vessel  took  a 
list  from  the  water  running  to  the  low  side.  There  was 
no  way  to  get  it  back  to  restore  the  proper  balance  of  the 

No.  18  Propeller  Shafts 
Propeller  shafts   to  be  carefully   calculated 
as  to  size,  of  forged  steel,  monel  or  bronze  in- 
stead of  cold  rolled  steel. 
The  tuna  vessels  change  shape  quite  a  little  due  to  the 
loading  at  sea  and  later  discharging  upon  arival.  This 
was  carefully  worked  out  in  the  June  1940  issue  of  the 
Pacific   Marine   Review.   There   were   so   many   broken 
propeller  shafts  that  for  a  while  many  of  the  boats  were 
fitted  with  Monel  propeller  shafts  as  the  Monel  seemed 
to  be  capable  of  running  out  of  line  safely. 

No.  19  Sea  Chests 
Cast   iron   and   threaded   nipple  sea   chests 
serving    the    pumps    will    not    be    acceptable. 
Either  a  bronze  sleeve  through  the  hull  or  a 
lead  sleeve  with  a  bronze  connection  on  the 
inside  to  be  fitted  on  the  wood  boats,  and  on 
the  steel  boats  the  sea  chest  to  be  built  as  part 
of  the  hull. 
This  was  only  an  attempt  to  bring  the  boats  up  to 
good  standard  practice.  The  derelictions  arose  out  of  a 
lack  of  knowledge  on  the  part  of  the  builder. 

No.  20  Ventilation 
A  2000  cubic  feet  per  minute  inlet  and  2500 
cubic  feet  per  minute  exhaust  blower  to  be  fit- 
ted to  ventilate  the  engine  room.  Where  the  en- 
gine is  fitted  with  a  supercharger  the  exhaust 
blower    may    be    omitted.    Foregoing    recom- 
mendation not  mandatory  if  surveyor  decides 
sufficient  ventilation  obtainable  by  alternative 
The  ventilation  requirement  arose  out  of  the  demand 
by  the  men  that  the  wing  athwartship  doors  be  left  open 

for  ventilation  thereby  endangering  the  satety  oi  the 
vessel.  Also  the  engineers  complained  that  foul  air  in 
the  engine  room  caused  them  to  fall  asleep.  The  owners 
objected  at  first  to  spending  the  money  but  there  is  sel- 
dom any  question  now  about  the  suitability  of  proper 

No.  21  Fish  Racks 
The  fish  racks  to  rest  down  solid  on  top  of 
the  guard.  The  bulwarks  to  be  cut  off  at  the 
proper  height  to  be  comfortable  for  the  fisher- 
men from  the  fore  end  of  the  bait  boxes  to  the 
This  rule  arose  out  of  a  near  disaster  to  one  of  the 
steel  boats.  There  never  was  any  restriction  of  the  kind 
placed  on  the  large  wood  vessels  but  one  of  the  steel 
vessels  had  an  excessively  high  bulwark.  To  enable  the 
men  to  toss  the  fish  over  the  rail,  the  fish  racks  had  been 
mounted  about  10"  to  12"  above  the  guard.  To  get  the 
fishermen  down  close  to  the  water  as  possible  for  fishing 
purposes  they  had  so  filled  the  tanks  that  the  deck  was 
10"  under  water. 

Needless  to  say  with  that  much  water  on  deck  aft 
there  was  considerable  loss  of  buoyancy  and  stability  due 
to  free  surface.  As  the  fishermen  were  thoroughly  fright- 
ened at  the  way  the  vessel  acted  there  was  no  opposition 
to  making  the  correction  and  the  rule  is  to  serve  as  a 
warning  that  there  is  a  potential  disaster  present. 

No.  22  Fire  Extinguishers 
The  size,  type,  loading  and  inspection  of  the 
fire  extinguishers  to  be  reported. 
This  rule  came  about  on  account  of  a  small  fire.  When 
the  crew  attempted  to  use  the  fire  extinguishers  it  was 
found  that  they  had  not  been  recharged  for  several  years. 
Their    presence    had    been    reported    but    nobody    had 
thought  to  test  them  to  see  if  they  were  still  active. 

No.  23  Bait  Boxes 
The  bait  boxes  must  be  so  constructed  that 
each  bait  box  can  be  emptied  in  not  more  than 
5  minutes  in  any  condition  of  trim. 
This  rule  arose  out  of  the  loss  of  one  of  the  steel  ves- 
sels. When  the  sister  ship  was  being  investigated  it  was 
found  the  time  required  to  empty  each  bait  box  was  in 
the  neighborhood  of  14  to  16  minutes.  As  the  crew  of  the 
lost  ship  reported  that  she  sank  in  6  minutes  and  that 
they  could  not  release  the  water  in  the  bait  boxes  it  was 
found  necessary  to  change  the  overflow  arrangement  to 
empty  the  bait  boxes  in  a  reasonable  time. 

No.  24  Instructions  to  Master 
The  Instructions  to  Master  prepared  by  the 
Naval  Architect  must  be  posted  in  the  Pilot 
House,  and  Galley. 
The  naval  architect  who  makes  the  stability  inclina- 
tions is  able  to  see  which  tank  it  is  proper  to  fill  to  trim 
the  vessel  and  which  ones  must  be  left  empty  at  the 
start  so  as  not  to  overload  her.  This  information  is  in- 
corporated is  a  sheet  of  Instructions  to  Master  so  any 
skipper   can   come   aboard   and   know   where   potential 
danger  lies. 

Page    104 




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in  Principal  Citiei  ot  ihe  World 

metal  can  absorb 
erosive  and  corrosive  action 
inside  condenser  tubes.  For  24 
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proved  this.  AAade  of  same 
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The  technical  experts  of  the 
American  Bureau  of  Shipping  have 
been  making  elaborate  tests  of  liber- 
ty ship  structure  in  order  to  elimi- 
nate certain  mechanical  failures 
which  have  bothered  the  industry 
during  and  since  the  war.  Some  of 
these  failures  have  been  very  serious 

In   several   recent    issues   of   the 

Pacific  Marine  Review  there  have 
been  articles  on  the  cracking  of 
decks  and  sides  of  welded  vessels 
and  It  would  appear  that  the  causes 
and  solution  of  this  trouble  have 
been  discovered. 

It  also  appears  that  there  have 
been  many  rudder  and  propeller 
shaft  failures.  In  his  annual  report 
to  the  membership  of  the  American 

Bureau  of  Shipping,  President  J. 
Lewis  Luckenbach  describes  the  mis- 
haps and  the  action  taken  by  the 
Bureau  to  prevent  their  repetition. 
The  rate  of  incidence  of  serious  fail- 
ures in  these  vessels  has  been  re- 
duced from  4.1 'c  to  less  than  0.5% 
of  ships  in  service  through  rein- 
forcing or  replacing  the  rudders  and 
the  determination  of  a  safe  propel- 
ler speed  for  the  protection  of  the 
propeller  shaft. 

A  first  result  of  the  reports  of 
failures  of  the  rudders  was  the  im- 
mediate halting  of  the  manufacture 
of  spare  or  replacement  rudders  un- 
til new  units  could  be  developed, 
and  the  Bureau  also  instructed  sur- 
veyors, owners  and  operators  in  the 
examination,  repair  and  reinforce- 
ment of  the  old  type  rudder  still  in 
service.  Out  of  approximately  1700 
vessels  operating  and  in  class  with 
the  Bureau,  about  500  have  had 
either  the  improved  design  rudder 
installed  or  the  original  rudders 
reinforced,  and  there  have  been  no 
subsequent  reports  of  failures  in 
such  instances.  Shipyards  are  still 
replacing  or  reinforcing  rudders  at 
the  rate  of  20  to  35  per  week.  The 
illustrations  on  pages  106  and  108 
show  methods  of  reinforcement  sug- 
gested by  the  Bureau. 

Proper  Shaft   Failures 

The  solving  of  the  problem  of 
liberty  ship  propeller  shaft  failures 
has  progressed  to  the  point  where 
specific  recommendations  or  correc- 
tions are  about  to  be  announced. 

Liberty  ships  were  in  operation 
from  the  first  delivery  in  1941  to  the 
end  of  1945  before  the  percentage 
of  propeller  shaft  failures  began  to 
exceed  the  averages  for  other  types 
of  ships. 

The  failures  fell  into  two  distinct 
categories.  One  type  was  due  to  cor- 

Page    106 







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ary  Member  of  the  Propeller  Club;  Harry  Summers,  principal  surveyor  at  Los  Angeles-Long 
.  vice  president,  Matson  Navigation  Company;  William  B.  Warren,  principal  surveyor  on 
ireau  of  Shipping;   and  J.   Lewis    Luckenbach,    president,   American    Bureau    of   Shipping. 

rosion  fatigue  and  was  indicated  by 
a  circumferential  groove  around  the 
shaft  at  the  end  of  the  liner.  This 
type  was  caused  by  a  defective  seal 
at  the  propeller  and  the  records  for 

1947  indicate  that  failures  from  this 
cause  have  been  practically  elimi- 
nated. The  other  type  of  failure  took 
the  form  of  a  line  hair  line  crack 
starting  from  the  forward  end  of  the 

Page    108 

keyway  on  the  driving  side.  A  tor- 
sional vibration  analysis  of  the  pro- 
pulsion system  was  made  by  the 
Staff  and  the  General  Electric  Com- 
pany was  retained  by  the  Bureau  to 
carry  out  torsiograph  tests  aboard 
the  Liberty  ship  Ira  Nelson  Morris, 
and  they  verified  the  staff's  findings. 
The  tests  showed  that  there  is  a  third 
order  critical  speed  in  the  normal 
operating  range  of  about  4500 
pounds  per  square  inch.  This  vibra- 
tory stress  is  sufinciently  high  to 
cause  the  type  of  failure  noted,  but 
only  after  the  shafting  has  been  run 
at  or  near  the  peak  for  a  consider- 
able length  of  time. 

The  tests  indicate  that  the  peak 
occurs  at  about  78  RPM  when  the 
vessels  are  completely  light  and  at 
about  74  RPM  when  they  are  fully 

The  third  order  critical  speed 
should  be  at  least  10%  to  15% 
above  the  maximum  operating 
speed,  depending  mainly  on  the 
type  of  governing  employed  to  con- 
trol the  speed  regulation.  This 
would  indicate  that  the  engines 
should  be  operated  between  63  and 
66  RPM  when  loaded  and  between 
GG  and  70  RPM  when  completely 

Pending  a  complete  analysis,  the 
Bureau  recommends  that  the  engine 
speed  on  these  vessels  should  not  be 
allowed  to  exceed  66  RPM  and  that 
means  for  governing  should  be  pro- 
vided so  that  this  speed  will  not  be 



MARCH  1948 

w<n  Hoisting  Cargo,  Hay,  or  Hods... 

men  who  know  choose  COIUMBIAN  ROPE 

Whether  you  are  in  marine  service — towing,  loading,  or  fishing;  farming  or 
ranching;  construction  or  other  field  .  .  .  you'll  find  the  rope  that  does  your  job  best 
carries  the  red-white-blue  markers  of  Columbian — the  Rope  of  the  Nation. 

In  selection  and  preparation  of  the  fibers — manila,  nylon,  hemp,  jute,  or  sisal; 
in  waterproofing  for  durability  and  flexibility;  and  in  producing  with  a  lay  that  assures 
perfect  balance  .  .  .  Columbian's  knowledge  and  experience  result  in  the  rope  that  is 
right  for  the  purpose. 

Insist  on  Columbian  .  .  .  look  for  the  red-white-blue  surface  markers  (on  sizes 
'^"  and  larger). 

COLUMBIAN     ROPE     CO.,  400 -90  Genesee  St.,  Auburn,  "The  Cordage  City",  N.  Y. 



For  mooring  and  tow  lines,  speci- 
fy SUPERCORE  —  the  outstanding 
leader    in    the    marine    field. 




MARCH,    1948 





.  N.  DeROCHIE.  Jr. 



Pacific  Cooif 
Advertlting  Mgr. 
Los  Angtiet  Offic* 

(AVID    J.    DeROCHIE 

Lot  Angeles 


Advertising  Mgr. 
Son  Froncltco 

16   West   5th   Street,   Zone    13 
Telephone — Michigan  3129 


Telephone— GArfleld   1-4760 

jubscriptiofi  rates: 

tie  year,  $2.00;  two  years, 
.50;  three  years,  $5.00;  for- 
gn,  $1.00  additional  per  year; 
gle  copies,  25c. 

Noah    •    Editoruil  By  T.  Doiu^  M.icMullcn     . 

Pacific  Far  East   Line  .  ■  •  •  ■ 

Bethlehem  Reconditions  108-Ton  Crankshaft  By  Peter  MacDonald 

New    Ship  Structure  Materials  By   David  Maelntyre  . 

Port  of  Seattle  By  Wallace  V.  Maekay       .... 

Tramp  Shipping         .....■••• 

Early  San  Francisco  Shipping  By  Alexander  J.  Dickie 

U.  S.  Naval  School,  General  Line,  Monterey     .... 

Modern   Oil  Tanker  Design  By  Frank   L.   Pavlik 

Pacific  World  Trade 

Ob.servations  on  Shanghai,  Hongkong  and  Manila  By  Elliott  M 

Netherlands-Indies  Import  Trade 

Documents  on  Private  Trade  Shipments  to  Japan 

World  Trade  Exposition 

Foreign  Trade  Zone  for  San  Francisco  Approved 

The  Howlands  (and  Frank) 
Marine   Insurance  ......•• 

The  London  Letter 
Coast  Guard  Graduating  Officers      ....... 

Admiralty  Decisions  By  Harold  S.   Dobhs  .  .  .  .  • 

Ship  Collision 
With  the  Port  Engineers  ....■• 

Port  Engineers  of  the  Month:  Vincent  E.  Foell,  William  Billings 

Membership  Roster,  Society  of  Port  Engineers,  San  Francisco 

Your  Problems  Answered  By  "The  Chief"  .... 

Ratings  and  Limitations  of  Reciprocating  Engines 
Steady  As  You  Go!  "The  Skipper" 

The  Magnetic  Compass 

Coast  Commercial  Craft   ......••■ 

Specifications  for  the  Boat  "Lucy  Elena" 

On  the  Ways  ...••••••■ 

Bethlehem  Converts  LSM 

The  Magnolia 

Todd  Readies  52  Tankers  to  Combat  Oil  Shortage 

One  New  Tanker  Equal  to  Four 

Running  Lights  .....■■■■ 

Letter  to  the  Editor  ...•■■■• 
Keep  Posted       .......  ... 










3000  H.P.  BaUuin  Locomoth 
— equippeti    with    Bendix- 
Scintilla  Fuel  Injection. 




Buckeye  Machine  Company's  latest 
stationary  engines  depend  on  Bendix- 
Scintilla  Fuel  Injection  Equipment. 

Wherever  Diesels  are  at  work  producing  power,  Bendix- 
Scintilla*  Fuel  Injection  Equipment  can  be  found  adding 

efficiency,  reliability  and  economy.  In  railroad,  marine,  or 
stationary  engine  use  there  is  a  marked  preference  for 

Bendix-Scintilla  wherever  there  is  no 
jjf  compromise  with  quality. 





Page  36 


SIDNEY,   N.   Y. 




NE  SARDONIC  DEFINITION  OF  GRATITUDE  is  "the  hope  of  favors 
yet  to  come."  It  mi^ht  not  be  amiss  to  apply  some  gratiude  of  this  type  to  the 
shipping  industry  and  to  the  armed  services.  The  "favors  yet  to  come"  may  be 
just  around  the  corner!  The  journey  of  the  Freedom  Train  but  emphasizes  a 
seeming  unwillingness  to  anticipate  a  crisis.  Perhaps  existence  is  too  smug,  and 
we  forget  that  tomorrow's  tyrants  come  from  those  who  today  are  too  poor  or  too 
rich  or  too  fat.  This  applies  to  nations  as  well  as  to  individuals.  Tyranny  can  be 
short-lived,  but  the  destruction  it  brings  may  be  thus  wrought  the  sooner. 
Noise  and  commotion  in  the  world  may  be  a  sign  of  calculated  trouble  ahead. 
To  those  who  protect  our  heritage  of  freedom  we  suggest  the  need  for  "grati- 
tude." For  shipping,  a  sound  plan  is  to  determine  every  possible  requirement 
and  build  it — not  wait  for  emergency.  Lay  up  the  ships  if  necessary,  but  h//ild 

After  4800  years  Noah  is  still  newsworthy.  He  was  no  procrastinator.  It 
wasn't  raining  when  he  built  his  ship.  He  knew  that  the  time  to  prepare  for 
rain  is  when  the  sun  is  shining  brightest.  And  he  got  full  cooperation  from 
those  who  were  to  be  protected.  Those  who  would  build  ships  today  get  some- 
thing less  than  full  cooperation. 

The  American  people  and  the  government  and  the  shipping  industry  should 
unite  in  defensive  plans,  and  shipping  people  should  make  their  collective  voice 
heard  for  preparation.  They  should  not  scatter  their  shot,  but  work  together, 
for  they  seem  to  find  it  harder  to  work  and  live  together  than  for  their  sons  to 
die  together! 

MARCH      •      1948  Page   37 


PACIFIC  FAR  EAST  LINE,  INC.,  put  its  hrst  ship 
on  berth  in  July  1946.  Today,  less  than  two  years  later, 
it  is  one  of  the  largest  operators  of  commercial  tonnage 
on  the  Pacific  Coast,  maintaining  nine  sailings  monthly 
on  six  separate  regular  services  between  California  ports 
and  the  Orient.  It  operates  in  all  35  large  freighters,  in- 
cluding nine  fully  refrigerated  vessels,  and  seven  C2 
full  scantling  t}pe  dry  cargo  freighters,  five  of  which  it 
has  purchased  from  the  Government  as  the  nucleus  of  its 
future  fleet. 

Pacific  Far  East  Line  services  are: 

1.  A  sailing  every  second  Friday  from  California  ports 
to  Manila,  Iloilo,  Cebu,  and  other  Philippine  out- 
ports  as  inducements  offer; 

2.  A  sailing  every  second  Friday  from  California  ports 

to  the  major  ports  of  Japan,  China,  North  China, 
Korea,  and  French  Indo-China.  The  above  two  serv- 
ices alternate  to  provide  a  sailing  every  Friday  from 

3.  A  monthly  service  between  California  ports,  Taku 
Bar,  Inchon  (Jinsen),  Korea; 

4.  A  monthly  dry-cargo  service  to  Guam,  sailing  the 
15th  of  each  month; 

5.  A  refrigerator  service  every  10  to  11  days  between 
California  ports,  Manila,  Hong  Kong  and  Okinawa. 

6.  A  refrigerator  service  every  9  to  10  days  between 
California  ports  and  Japan. 

The  Line  is  also  agent  for  the  North  Pacific  Steamship 
Company,  Ltd.,  a  Canadian  organization  which  main- 
tains a  monthly  easterly  round-the-w'orld  service  from 
Canada,  terminating  at  Los  Angeles. 

In  addition,  the  Line  is  a  sub-contractor  for  the  move- 
ment of  pipe  line  to  the  Middle  East  in  connection  with 
the  Arabian  American  Oil  Company's  development  there. 

To  maintain  these  extensive  operations.  Pacific  Far 
East  Line  uses  seven  C2  full  scantling  type  dry  cargo 
freighters,  thirteen  Victorys,  nine  fully  refrigerated  ves- 
sels and  six  Libertys. 

Although  postwar  conditions  have  necessitated  the  use 
of  other  types  of  tonnage,  the  C2  steamer  will  be  the 
Line's  standard  cargo  carrier.  The  C2  was  considered  as 
the  most  efficient  hull,  carrying  more  space  through  water 
for  the  least  operating  cost.  Her  selection  was  the  result 
of  consultation  between  the  combined  heads  of  traffic, 
operating,  stevedoring  departments,  the  marine  superin- 
tendent,   and    port    captain.    The    five    company-owned 

MARCH     •      I  948 

Thomas  E.  Cuffe, 

vessels  include  the  Piicific  Rear.  Indian  Bear,  California 
Bear,  China  Bear  and  the  Philippine  Bear.  Of  the  dif- 
ferent types  of  C2's  the  Line  chose  the  C2-SAJ-1,  known 
as  the  full  scantling  type.  This  is  the  standard  C2  vessel 
with  certain  internal  structural  strengthening,  giving  it 
more  deadweight  lifting  capacity.  The  ship  represents  a 
combination  of  .speed,  capacity,  and  economical  operat- 
ing cost.  It  should  be  able  to  hold  its  own  against  in- 
creasingly tougher  foreign  competition.  The  vessel  is 
propelled  by  General  Electric  6600  shaft  horsepower  tur- 
bines with  reduction  gears.  Boilers  are  of  diflPerent  makes. 
The  Pacific  Bear  has  a  Combustion  Engineering  Corp. 
boiler.  Foster-Wheeler  boilers  are  used  in  the  Indian  Bear 

Page  39 

and  Cultfnniia  Bear,  and  Babcock  &  Wilcox  boilers  in 
the  China  Bear  and  Philippine  Bear. 

All  have  a  capacity  of  about  10,610  deadweight  tons 
with  an  approximate  speed  of  16  knots.  They  have  gyro 
compasses  and  are  equipped,  or  in  process  of  being 
equipped,  with  radar,  loran  and  radio  phones.  They  were 
built  by  the  North  Carolina  Shipbuilding  Company,  of 
Wilmington,  North  Carolina. 

The  five  company-owned  vessels  cost  close  to  $10 
million.  The  other  two  C2's  in  operation  are  under 
private  time  charter. 

The  nine  fully  refrigerated  vessels,  which  are  under 
U.  S.  Maritime  Commission  bareboat  fleet  charter,  are  of 
two  types.  Six  are  steamer  and  three  are  diesel. 

The  steamer  reefers  have  General  Electric  turbines 
with  reduction  gears.  Three  of  the  six  have  Foster 
Wheeler  boilers  and  three  have  Babcock  boilers.  Built 
by  Moore  Dry  Dock  Company  of  San  Francisco  and 
Oakland,  they  have  320,000  cubic  feet  of  reefer  capacity 
or  6960  to  757.T  deadweight  tons.  They  have  a  speed  of 
16  knots  approximately. 

The  three  diesel  reefers  were  built  by  the  Sun  Ship- 

building Corp.  of  Chester,  Pa.  They  have  Sun-Doxford, 
5-cylinder  diesel  engines  with  Foster- Wheeler  auxiliary 
boilers.  Their  speed  is  approximately  I6V2  knots.  They 
have  320,000  cubic  feet  of  reefer  capacity,  or  8595  dead- 
weight tons. 

The  thirteen  Victorys  in  use  are  of  two  types:  Eight 
are  AP3's  of  8500  horsepower,  producing  a  speed  of  17 
knots  approximately.  Five  are  AP2's  of  6500  horsepower 
and  approximate  speed  of  1 5  knots.  Both  types  of  ton- 
nage have  a  cargo  capacity  of  between  10,680  and  10,825 
deadweight  tons.  All  are  turbine  driven  with  high  pres- 
sure boilers.  These  ships  are  under  U.  S.  Maritime  Com- 
mission bareboat  fleet  charter. 

The  five  Libertys  also  are  under  U.  S.  Maritime  Com- 
mission bareboat  fleet  charter.  They  are  the  regular  EC2 
types  with  reciprocating  engines  mostly  built  by  Joshua 
Hendy  Company. 

The  Line  has  under  private  time  charter  a  special 
Liberty  type.    This  is  the  Z-EC2-SC5,  which  was  con- 

Page  40 


verted  during  the  war  to  facilitate  tiie  movement  of 
tanks  and  planes.  The  usual  five  hatches  have  been  re- 
duced to  four  and  made  larger.  Also  there  is  unusually 
high  head  room  in  the  holds.  The  vessel  described  is 
the  Lorenzo  G.  McCarthy. 

The  executives  who  are  responsible  for  the  record 
development  of  Pacific  Far  East  Line  are  nationally 
known  in  the  steamship  industry. 

Top  man  in  the  organization  is  President  Thomas  li. 
Caiffe,  one  of  the  small  group  of  planners  who  organized 
the  company.  CufTe  resigned  as  vice  president  of  Amer- 
ican President  Lines,  in  charge  of  U.  S.  A.  Eastern  Terri- 
tory, to  start  Pacific  Far  East  Line.  He  has  been  in  trans- 
pacific shipping  during  all  his  business  career,  starting 
as  a  shipping  clerk  30  years  ago. 

Vice  President  and  General  Manager  is  John  R.  Wag- 
ner, whose  entire  career  has  likewise  been  spent  in 
Pacific  shipping. 

E.  V.  Nevin,  Secretary-Treasurer,  formerly  held  a 
similar  post  with  American  Export  Lines  of  New  York. 

T.  S.  Lowry  is  Vice  President  in  Charge  of  Operations. 
Lowry.  who  recently  resigned  as  Chief  of  the  Water 
Division,  Army  Transportation  Corps,  Washington,  had 
a  brilliant  war  career  as  port  commander  in  Hull,  Naples, 
and  Marseille,  and  later  in  the  Philippines  with  the  Sixth 
Army.  He  started  his  steamship  career  with  the  old  U.  S. 
Shipping  Board,  later  going  with  Isbrandtsen-Moeller 
Steamship  Company. 

A.  L.  Papworth,  vice  president  in  charge  of  sales,  is  a 
nationally  known  sales  executive,  resigning  last  year  as 
national  sales  manager  of  Moore,  Ltd.,  to  become  associ- 
ated with  Pacific  Far  East  Line. 

L.  G.  Dunn,  recently  appointed  Freight  Traffic  Man- 
ager, is  an  authority  on  traffic  problems  and  rates,  and 
thoroughly  experienced  in  cargo  handling  and  freighter 
operations.  He  has  been  in  shipping  since  19.^1. 

Other  executives  of  note  are:  Hubert  Brown,  Assistant 
to  President;  R.  J.  Pries,  Assistant  to  Freight  Traffic 
Manager;  V.  J.  Bahorich,  Superintending  Engineer;  W. 
T.  Lion,  Port  Captain;  H.  A.  Steiner,  Port  Engineer;  J.  J. 
Presser,  Purchasing  Agent;  T.  D.  Hardcastle,  Port  Purser; 
W.  C.  Juergens,  Claims  Agent;  F.  L.  Dwinnell.  Industrial 

Relations  Counsel. 

The  Line's  special  Chinese  Department  is  headed  by 
two  well  known  Chinese  shipping  men.  These  are  T.  Y. 
Tang,  who  is  advisor  on  Chinese  affairs,  and  Frank  W. 
Chinn,  Chinese  General  Agent  in  San  Francisco. 

Another  factor  in  Pacific  Far  East  Line's  success  is  the 
financial  and  business  caliber  of  the  company's  board  of 
directors.  These  are  S.  D.  Bechtel,  president  of  W.  S. 
Bechtel  Company;  Alden  G.  Roach,  president  of  Con- 
solidated Steel  Corporation,  Los  Angeles;  Joseph  Di 
Giorgio,  president  of  the  Di  Giorgio  Fruit  Corp.;  Rich- 
ard Wagner  and  Howard  J.  Klossner,  president  and  vice 
president  respectively  of  The  Chicago  Corporation,  lead- 
ing Middlewest  investment  house;  John  A.  McCone, 
president  of  Joshua  Hendy  Iron  Works  of  Los  Angeles. 
T.  E.  Cuffe,  president,  is  also  a  director. 

Executive  headquarters  of  the  Line  is  at  141  Battery 
Street,  San  Francisco,  with  the  Freight  and  Passenger 
departments  at  315  California  Street.  The  latter  are 
located  on  the  ground  floor  for  the  convenience  of  ship- 
pers. Although  primarily  a  freight  service  line,  many  of 
the  company  vessels  have  modern,  comfortable  passenger 
accommodations  for  from  10  to  12  persons.  Passenger 
accommodations  are  usually  booked  many  months  ahead 
mostly  by  business  men  with  interests  in  the  Orient. 

Outside  of  its  executive  headquarters,  Pacific  Far 
East  Line  has  branch  offices  in  Los  Angeles,  Chicago, 
New  York  and  Washington.  It  has  agents  at  Seattle, 
Portland,  Detroit  and  Cleveland.  Overseas  it  has  offices 
at  Manila,  Shanghai,  Hong  Kong  and  Yokohama;  and 
agents  in  the  following:  Balboa,  Canal  Zone;  Bahrein, 
Persian  Gulf;  Bangkok,  Siam;  Calcutta  India;  Cebu,  P.  I.; 
Chinwangtoa,  China;  Colombo,  Ceylon;  Cristobal,  Canal 
Zone;  Davao,  P.  I.;  Guam,  M.  L;  Honolulu,  T.  H.; 
Hulutao,  China;  Iloilo,  P.  L;  Keeking,  Taiwan;  Kobe, 
Japan;  Panama,  R.  P.;  Saigon,  Fr.  Indo-China;  Takao, 
Taiwan;  Taku  Bar,  China;  Tientsin,  China;  Tsingtao, 
China;  Vancouver,  B.  C. 

It  is  also  represented  in  the  major  ports  of  Japan  and 
has  agency  presentation  in  the  principal  ports  of  the 

The  Line  has  won  the  reputation  in  the  shipping  in- 

Left,  w.  T.  Li< 
Port  Captaii 

Right,  H.  A.  Steii 
Port  Engineer 

MARCH     •      194: 

Page  41 

dustry  of  bringing  a  modern  point  of  view  to  steamship 
transport.  While  ofiicials  hold  fast  to  precedures  whose 
efficiency  has  been  developed  and  proved  by  experience, 
they  welcome  all  new  ideas  that  may  improve  cargo 
handling  methods,  packaging,  stowage,  freight  solicita- 
tion, documentation  and  personnel  relations  on  shore  and 
ship.  There  are  few  steamship  lines  with  higher  staff 

Among  modern  methods  adopted  is  creation  of  a  spe- 
cial Sales  Department.  The  Line  felt  that  traffic  officials 
should  devote  all  their  attention  to  procuring  space,  while 
a  specialist  should  take  over  the  task  of  solicitation.  This 
will  assure  the  shipper  of  well-rounded  service  and  at 
the  same  time  coordinate  field  activities  with  all  parts 
of  the  business,  resulting  in  better,  more  friendly  service. 
The  traffic  men,  meanwhile,  can  give  more  time  to  im- 
proving the  mechanics  of  traffic  operations.  Some  im- 
provements already  have  been  put  into  effect.  The  freight 
document  section  has  been  expressly  placed  on  the 
ground  floor,  readily  available  to  the  public  so  that  docu- 
ments can  be  cleared  without  loss  of  time. 

The  Line  also  has  adopted  snap-out  bills  of  lading  and 
export  declaration  forms.  Among  loading  improvements 
adopted  is  the  establishment  of  a  tail-gate  delivery  at 
dockside  in  San  Francisco  so  that  trucks  can  load  and 
unload  directly  from  the  receiving  platform. 

The  Line  also  has  given  considerable  attention  to  in- 
dustrial relations — shipside  and  shoreside.  A  special  de- 
partment had  been  set  up  to  this  end  under  an  experi- 
enced director,  Frank  L.  Dwinnell. 

Of  ancedotal  interest  is  the  fact  that  a  Pacific  Far 
East  Line  vessel  last  year  moved  the  first  civilian  ship- 
ment from  Japan  to  California,  following  the  opening 
of  that  country  to  free  trade  August  1947. 

Below,  ofFicers  of  Pacific  Far  East  Line.  Top,  left  to  right 
John  Wagner,  Vice  President  and  General  Manager;  T.  S, 
Lowry,  Vice  President;  A.  L.  Papworth,  Vice  President 
Bottonn,  left  to  right:  Edward  V.  Nevin,  Secretary-Treasurer 
L.  G.  Dunn,  Freight  Traffic  Manager;  Hubert  Brown,  As 
sistant  to   President. 

Page  42 


Bethlehem  Reconditions  a  lOH-Ton 



Foreman,  Machine  Shop,  Bethlehem  Steel  Company 

Shiphuildinq  llivisinn,  San  Francisco  Yard 


OMPLETELY  REASSEMBLING  a  6,000  HP  diesel 
Vengine  which  had  been  stripped  to  tlie  bed  plates  .  .  . 

Reconditioning  a  108-ton  crankshaft  whose  stub  end 
and  pins  had  shown  signs  of  loosening  .  .  . 

This  job,  which  was  successfully  completed  recently 
by  the  San  Francisco  Yard  of  Bethlehem  Steel  Company, 
Shipbuilding  Division,  is  said  to  be  the  first  of  its  type 
ever  to  be  performed  in  a  West  Coast  shipyard.  The  ves- 
sel involved  was  the  Navy  Supply  Ship  KA8,  now  known 
as  the  MV  Algorab,  which  was  recently  purchased  by 
foreign  interest,  and  which  was  operated  by  the  Navy  in 
the  Pacific  during  rlie  war. 

When  she  came  to  Bethelems  San  Francisco  Yard  in 
September,  1947,  her  Sun  Doxford  diesel  engine  had 
been  stripped  to  the  bedplates  and  the  parts  stored  in  the 
vessel's  cargo  holds.  These  were  taken  out  of  the  ship  and 
removed  to  one  of  the  yards  warehouses  where  they  were 
inspected  and  their  identification  checked  before  being 
reassembled.  Before  this  was  done  the  cylinders  and 
guides  were  relined,  as  well  as  the  thrust  and  line  shafts. 
The  engine  bed  was  checked  and  the  holding  down  bolts 
inspected  and  renewed  where  ncessary. 

Peter  MacDonald 

Upon  inspection,  stub  ends  and  pins  on  the  four  sec- 
tion crankshaft  showed  signs  of  loosening.  It  was  decided, 
therefore,  to  remove  the  entire  shaft  from  the  ship.  This 

At  left  is  the  Algorab  on  dry- 
dock  and  right,  cylinder  hous- 
ing being  removed  from  the 
Algorab   by   sheerlegs   crane. 





194  8 

Page  43 

was  taken  out,  section  by  section,  and  dismantled  in  the 
machine  shop  by  pressing  the  stub  end  and  pins  from  the 

Pins  and  stub  ends  were  then  built  up  by  means  of 
welding.  This  was  done  with  a  mechanical  welding 
machine  and  then  remachined  to  fit  the  webs  which  had 
previously  been  rebored  in  the  yard's  machine  shop. 
Webs  were  then  heated  to  a  temperature  between  600 

I  Please  turn  to  page  4(>) 

Pressing    out    crank    pin    with    hydraulic    ram.    Web    is    being    heated 
pressure  is  applied  to  pin. 

2.    George   Vogensen.   machinist,   finishing   boring   crank   web   for  crank    pin 
on  k"  horizontal  boring  rrill. 

3.  Welding  stub  end  of  crank  shaft  section  where  it  fits  into  crank  web. 
Stub  end  is  clamped  in  lathe  chuck  and  revolves  while  stub  end  is 
welded  with  mechanical  welding  machine.  B.  A,  Brookman  is  operat- 
ing welding  machine. 

4.    Welding   crank   pin   using   same  method   as  stub   end.     Henry   Smith  and 
McKinley   Doda   are  operating   welding   machine. 

5.  Gus  Molin.  machinist, 
machining  crank  pin  to 
si7e.  after  welding,  for 
shrink   fit   into   web. 

6.    Alec    Weber,    machinist, 
inspects    stub    end    which 

down    to    designated    di- 
ameter for  shrink  fit  into 

Page  44 


I  Arthur  Tambcrq,  E.  Par- 
tels  and  Don  Sheridan 
conduct  first  shrinking 
operation.  Pin  is  being 
shrunk  into  web  section 
which  has  been  expand- 
ed  by  heating. 

2.    Heating 

torches    prior    t 
in  stub  end 

MARCH     •      1941 

Page  45 

iContinued  from  page  44) 
and  700°  F.  before  the  pins  and  stub  ends  were  shrunk 
in  place.  All  shrinking  was  done  in  a  vertical  position 
to  eliminate  any  distortion. 

Following  the  shrinking  operation  each  crank  section 

West  Coast  Waterfront  Payrolls 

But  Foreign 

West  Coast  waterfront  payrolls  jumped  to  over  $57 
million  dollars  in  1947,  a  17  million  dollar  increase  over 
1946.  The  situation  in  seafaring  employment  on  the 
Coast  was  different,  with  a  lO^^r  reduction  occurring  dur- 
ing 1947. 

This  information  and  other  factors  in  West  Coast 
Maritime  employment  were  contained  in  a  joint  report 
released  by  the  Waterfront  Employers  Association  of  the 
Pacific  Coast  and  the  Pacific  American  Shipowners  Asso- 

The  40%  increase  in  longshore  payrolls  compared 
closely  with  the  50' <  total  cargo  increase  in  1947  for 
all  West  Coast  ports,  recently  reported  by  the  industry. 
The  difference  is  accounted  for  by  the  preponderance  of 
lumber  and  wheat  cargoes  contained  in  the  1947  increase, 
which  require  a  minimum  of  longshore  work. 

Individual  port  longshore  payroll  totals  in  1947  were: 
1946  1947 

San  Francisco  $18,146,321       $27,550,000 

Los  Angeles 8,411,368         13,623,000 

Portland    .  5,673,542  7,952,288 

Seattle 8,451,879  7,944,282 

$40,683,110       $57,069,570 

was  checked  in  the  lathe  for  trueness.  Main  journals 
were  remachined  and  cranks  were  lined  up  and  new 
coupling  bolts  fitted. 

The  reconditioned  crankshaft  was  then  reinstalled  in 
the  Algorab  section  by  section. 

at   New  High- 
Lines  Are  Getting  the  Cargoes 

Of  the  $27.5  million  in  San  Francisco,  $23.3  million 
was  earned  by  a  total  of  5,712  "regular  registered"  long- 
shoremen. Average  annual  earnings  for  these  Bay  Area 
longshoremen  was  $4,084.  Average  earnings  of  U.  S. 
factory  workers  was  $2,566.  Those  for  U.  S.  Civil  Service 
workers  were  $2,856. 

On  the  seafaring  side,  average  monthly  employment 
for  the  American  lines  on  the  coast  stood  at  18,668  for 
the  quarter  ending  December,  1947.  High  for  the  year 
was  20,119  at  the  end  of  March.  Total  seafaring  payrolls 
were  not  available. 

West  Coast  shipping  had  less  interruption  of  service  in 
1947  due  to  labor  disturbances.  The  1946  strike  lasted 
73  days,  whereas  there  was  no  coast-wide  tie-up  of  any 
duration  in  1947.  The  1947  foreman  strike  affected  only 
a  few  lines  in  the  California  ports. 

The  Waterfront  Employers  Association  central  pay 
system,  only  one  of  its  kind  in  the  world,  according  to 
Kenneth  F.  Saysette,  WEA  treasurer,  achieved  coastwide 
application  in  1947.  Seattle  installed  the  system  in  that 
year.  Longshoremen  are  rotated  from  employer  to  em- 
ployer by  the  union  and  have  as  many  as  four  employers 
per  pay  period.  The  pay  system  balks  all  earnings  and 
deductions  into  one  check  for  each  man. 

Page  46 


^ew  Ship  Structure  Materials 

By  DAVID  MaclNTYflE 

Head  Marine  Section,  Development  Division 

Aluminum  Company  of  America 

I  knew — /  knew  what  was  coming. 
When  we  bid  on  the  "Byfleet's 
keel — 
They  piddled  and  piffled  with  iron. 
I'd  given  my  orders  for  steel! 
— Kipling 

The  naval  architect  and  shipbuild- 
er today  must  consider  an  increasing 
array  of  new  materials  and  refine- 
ments of  old,  tried  and  proven  ones 
in  the  pursuit  of  their  craft.  In  some 
form  or  other,  a  multitude  of  com- 
mercial materials  enter  into  the  con- 
struction of  hull,  machinery,  equip- 
ment or  outfit  of  ships  in  great  or 
small  degree.  These  conditions  re- 
quire the  close  attention  of  those 

concerned  with  the  design,  building 
and  operation  of  ships  to  new  or 
improved  materials,  particularly  for 
hull  construction. 

The  ship  has  been  called,  and  in 
some  degree  is,  the  artistic  master- 
piece of  man.  Great  poets  have 
eulogized  the  ship  in  more  than 
materialistic  terms.  Popularly,  as 
well  as  under  ancient  and  Admiral- 
ty law,  the  ship  has  been  invested 
with  a  personality.  In  its  structure, 
as  a  residence,  as  a  carrier  of  goods, 
as  a  machine  in  the  service  of  man, 
it  has  developed  in  complexity  with 
increasing  complexity  in  the  life  of 
progressing  man.  Today,  after  util- 
izing wood,  iron,  steel  and  concrete 

for  hulls;  canvas,  steam  and  oil  for 
propulsion,  designers,  builders  and 
operators  of  ships,  in  a  move  to 
keep  pace  with  progress,  must  con- 
sider particularly  and  fully  the  qual- 
ities of  light  metals  for  structures 
and  equipment,  gas  turbines  and 
the  atom  for  propulsion,  and  similar 
materials  and  technological  ad- 
vances to  invest  their  vessels  with  a 
more  efficient  and  modern  personal- 

Since  time  immemorial,  boats  and 
ships  have  been  built  of  organic 
materials.  About  1840,  for  example, 
practically  all  seagoing  vessels  were 
of  wood  construction.  Thousands  of 
years  of  development  had  brought 

el   is  equipped 
boat    winches, 

oyed  in  the  building  of  Ale 
ninum  alloy  structures  abov. 
bridge  and  promenade  er 
and  scores  of  mis-cellaneous 

ipany'i  new  Ako,.  CAVALIER,  pL.ced  in 
eluding  houses,  bridge  and  smokestack 
iner  bulkheads,  doors,  interior  decorations, 
en  fabricated  from  aluminum. 

irly  in 
.  Life 

MARCH      •      1948 

Page  47 

In    the    alLal 
resistance  to 

nd    fittings    are    fabricated    fron 
esearch.  Ttie   10,000  ton  carrier  i! 

422  ft.   long,  eitre 

ested    for 
•.am  40  ft. 

about  a  high  degree  of  perfection 
in  the  use  of  wood  in  shipbuilding. 
The  pages  of  history  from  the  Phoe- 
nicians to  the  era  of  the  Yankee 
clippers  tell  of  the  voyagings  of 
many  fine  wooden  craft.  Few  such 
ships,  however,  exceeded  200  feet 
in  length,  though  a  few  vessels  at- 
tained a  length  of  about  300  feet. 
To  build  enduring  strength  into 
larger  structures  was  impossible. 
Even  moderate  size  was  in  many 
cases  impracticable  because  of  natu- 
ral limitations  in  timbers  available, 
in  size  of  pieces,  non-uniformity  of 
grade  and  seasoning,  susceptibility 
to  marine  attack  and  inevitable  dis- 
tortion which  resulted  from  strain- 
ing and  slippage  while  at  sea.  Many 
old  wooden  ships  became  hogback- 
ed  and  their  keels  were  frequently 
several  feet  out  of  line.  Often  these 
distortions  occurred  at  launching. 

Iron  began  to  be  utilized  in  ships 
as  a  substitute  for  wood  hulls  about 
1820,  following  its  early  use  in  1787 
by  the  Carron  Iron  Works  in  the 
building  of  canal  barges.  Indeed, 
for  many  years  it  was  employed  in 
the  hulls  of  floating  craft  only  in 
this  tentative,  or  developmental, 
manner.  Many  of  those  versed  in 
wood  construction  scoffed  at  the 
idea  of  iron  seagoing  vessels.  In 
time  they  were  convinced  of  the 
practicality  and  strength  of  iron, 
from  such  accidents  as  stoppages 
during  the  launching  of  iron  barges 
and  by  several  groundings  across 
rocks  of  some  of  the  original  iron- 
built  Newcastle  coal  boats.  Such  ex- 
periences not  only  demonstrated  the 
high  strength  of  the  material,  but 
actually  showed  that  scantlings  then 
used   were  excessive,  leading  to  a 

more  accurate  analysis  of  the  struc- 
tural requirements  for  seagoing  ves- 

The  180  ton  "Sirius,"  built  in 
1837,  was  the  first  iron  seagoing 
vessel  classed  by  Lloyd's.  With  this 
new  material,  and  differences  of 
opinion  as  to  its  use  and  the  variety 
of  early  building  practices,  experi- 
ence had  to  be  accumulated  to  in- 
dicate with  some  precision  the  best 
methods  of  construction,  together 
with  sound  structural  requirements 
for  safe  and  economical  design.  Ex- 
perience was  also  needed  to  gauge 
iron's  ability  to  withstand  corrision 
under  sea  service  conditions.  Com- 
pared with  the  rotting  of  wood  and 
attacks  by  marine  borers,  iron  show- 
ed little  deterioration.  It  thinned 
away  some  from  corrosion,  but  al- 
lowances had  already  been  made  for 
this;  it  could  be  seen  and  corrected, 
and  ways  were  devised  for  prevent- 
ing or  reducing  it. 

These  were  the  natural  results  of 
the  experimental  nature  of  the  mate- 
rial, but  in  due  time  Lloyd's  and 
other  classification  societies  adopted 
standard  rules  for  the  building  and 
classification  of  iron  vessels.  Later, 
as  additional  and  increasing  experi- 
ence was  obtained,  these  societies  re- 
vised them,  as  they  have  continued 
to  do  with  the  advent  of  new  and 
improved  materials. 

For  merchant  ships,  Lloyd's  Reg- 
ister of  Shipping  is  unique  since  it 
accurately  records  periods  of  de- 
velopment of  new  and  modern  ship 
structure  materials,  including  parti- 
culars such  as  age,  scantlings  and  ex- 
cellence of  construction,  for  the  nec- 
essary purposes  of  classification. 
J-loyd's  earliest  publications,  preced- 

ing the  introduction  of  iron,  were 
devoted  exclusively  to  wooden  ves- 
sels. Their  symbols  of  classification 
virtually  developed  with  wooden 
vessels,  and  the  symbol  "A-1  "  be- 
came a  recognized  proverb  of  per- 
fection as  we  know  and  use  it  today. 
Because  of  the  numerous  kinds  of 
timber  of  varying  degrees  of  dura- 
bility employed  in  shipbuilding, 
Lloyd's  found  it  necessary,  given 
good  workmanship,  to  prefix  the 
symbol  of  perfection  with  a  numeral 
to  identify  the  structural  timber 

Deterioration  of  wooden  ships  is 
inevitable  with  age;  timbers  rot,  iron 
bolts  rust,  wood  treenails  loosen  and 
the  structure  ultimately  becomes 
less  seaworthy.  "Vessels  built  of  teak, 
most  durable  of  ship  timbers,  were 
expected  to  remain  sound  for  six- 
teen years  and  received  the  classifi- 
cation 16A1.  Fir  was  presumed  to 
last  for  eight  years  and  vessels  so 
built  were  classed  8AI.  At  the  end 
of  these  periods,  the  high  classifica- 
tion expired,  but  could  be  reinstated 
in  part  with  a  lower  classification 
if  the  structure  was  sound  or  was 
made  so.  In  the  case  of  iron,  and 
later  of  steel  vessels,  the  numerals 
100  were  prefixed  to  the  symbol 
"Al"  to  identify  those  vessels  built 
to  Lloyd's  highest  standards  of 
strength   and   workmanship. 

Was  this  a  prediction  made  by 
early  underwriters  and  shipowners 
that  an  iron  vessel  would  last  100 
years?  If  so,  their  early  thinking  was 
apparently  justified,  for  a  few  still 
survive,  and  records  show  they  are 
still  in  active  service.  Compare  this 
to  the  few  historic  wooden  warships 
in  preservation  at  their  safe  moor- 

Page  48 


Coincident  witli  the  development 
of  the  iron  hull  was  the  develop- 
ment of  the  steam  enijine  for  mari- 
riine  purposes.  Many  paddle  driven 
wooden  vessels  were  equipped  with 
steam  engines,  among  them  the 
historic  and  commercially  successful 
"Clermont."  The  science  of  metal- 
lurgy developed  with  them,  and  was 
.applied  to  the  improvement  of  iuiUs 
as  well  as  machinery.  Iron,  however, 
like  wood,  had  its  limitations.  In 
time,  naval  architects  and  builders, 
dogged  by  fierce  and  sometimes  vi- 
nous competition  for  cargoes  and 
freight  experimented  with  and, 
finally,  adopted  its  alloy — steel. 

By  1855,  when  the  behemoth  iron 
hulled  "Great  Eastern"  was  built, 
the  use  of  iron  for  seagoing  vessels 
had  become  relatively  common.  In 
that  year,  Lloyd's  issued  its  first  rules 
for  the  construction  of  iron  vessels. 
Puddlers  of  those  days  produced 
iron  of  excellent  quality,  but  when 
experience  conclusively  proved  the 
greater  strength  of  iron  vessels  as 
compared  with  wood,  a  tendency 
developed  to  build  cheaply.  The  re- 
sult was  inferior  iron  and  the  qual- 
ity of  many  such  ships  deteriorated 
with  the  material.  Indeed,  this  mal- 
practice became  so  common  that 
iron  plates  of  inferior  quality  came 
to  be  known  as  "boat  plates."  Poli- 
tical agitation,  in  the  wake  of  scien- 
tific and  technological  advances  for- 
tunately checked  the  trend,  and  the 
establishment  of  rigid  test  require- 

Almost  every  bit  of  metal  in  ttie  super- 
structure of  the  President  Cleveland 
(top  picture)  is  aluminum.  Included 
are  the  smoke  stacks,   life  boats,  davits 



Picture  at  right  shows  one  of  the  salons 
aboard  the  Alcoa  "Cavalier."  v»hich 
features  aluminum  picture  frames,  fur- 
nishings, lamps,  and  lamp  shades, 
doors,  lighting  fixtures  and  flashing. 
Greatly  increasing  amounts  of  alumi- 
num have  been  utilijed  by  ship  deco- 
rators since  the  war  for  doors,  prome- 
nade windows,  airports,  and  interior 
decorative    trim. 

ments  and  other  controls  speeded 
improvements  in  manufacture  and 
in  building. 

Ordinary  puddled  steel  was  first 
used  for  ship  hulls  for  high  speed 
paddle  steamers  about  1859.  This 
steel,  while  it  had  a  tensile  strength 
of  approximately  90,000  pounds  per 
square  inch,  was  brittle,  unreliable 
and  expensive,  costing  about  10 
cents  (10c)  a  pound.  Its  use  was 
confined  almost  exclusively  to  high 
speed  steamers,  the  requirements  of 

lighter  hulls  making  strength  in  the 
structural  material  most  important. 
The  American  Bureau  of  Shipping 
was  incorporated  in  New  York  State 
in  1862  for  the  classification  and 
survey  of  ships  and  readily  assumed 
its  place  in  vessel  development.  Bes- 
.semer  steel  was  introduced  about 
1863,  but  because  of  imperfect  pro- 
duction processes,  its  characteristics 
were  not  much  better  than  puddle 
steel.  The  latter  confined  its  use  to 
iPlc-uH   I  III  II  in  page  100) 

MARCH     •      1948 

Page  49 

'Pont  (^ 


INCREASED  aggressiveness  of  competition  for  tonnage  results  in  common  benefits  to  all  classes  of  west  coast 

and  for  modernization  and  expansion  of  facilities  of  shipping. 

Pacific  Coast  ports,  as  exemplified  in  the  records  of  19i7,  This  obst'r\ation  was   made  recently  by   the   Port  of 

Officers  of  the  Port  of  Seattle.   Top:  J.  A. 
Earley,  President,  and  E.  H.  Savage,  Vice- 

Below,  left  to  right:  A.  B.  Terry,  Commis- 
sioner;    Col.    W.     D.     Lamport,     General 
Manager,  and  George  T.  Treadwell,  Chief 

MARCH     •      1948 

Page  51 


Seattle  Commission  at  their  January  reorganization  meet- 
ing incident  to  an  intensified  operational  and  promo- 
tional program  for  1948-49  with  emphasis  on  Alaskan 
and  Oriental  trade  by  sea  and  by  air.  U.  S.  Government 
statistics  were  cited  to  show  that  Seattle's  ratio  of  sub- 
stantial increases  in  import  and  export  tonnage  and 
valuations  in  1947  over  1946  "compared  very  favorably 
with  increases  recorded  for  other  major  Pacific  Coast 

Stressing  the  economic  importance  of  world  trade  to 
the  healthy  growth  of  industry,  payrolls  and  agriculture 
of  the  State  of  Washington,  the  Port  Commission  called 
public  attention  to  "the  hurdles  of  legal  restrictions  and 
Hmitations  under  state  law  which  for  many  years  have 
handicapped  and  impeded  promotion  of  world  trade  not 
only  for  Seattle  but  for  every  other  port  district  in  the 
State  of  Washington." 

Only  since  the  spring  of  1947,  when  the  Washington 
legislature  amended  the  laws  governing  municipal  port 
corporations,  was  the  Port  of  Seattle  permitted  to  budget 
funds  for  national  advertising  either  through  direct  ex- 
penditures or  through  cooperative  promotion  with  other 
groups,  such  as  the  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Now  that  this  archaic  shackle  has  been  legally  removed, 
the  Port  of  Seattle  was  enabled  to  launch  an  effective  but 
relatively  smaU  national  advertising  campaign  in  1947. 
But  Seattle  and  other  ports  of  the  State  of  Washington 
are  still  at  a  great  competitive  disadvantage  in  compari- 
son with  ports  of  such  states  as  California,  Louisiana, 
Texas  and  New  York. 

Ports  of  the  State  of  Washington  receive  no  support  in 
any  form  from  the  State  and  must  rely  entirely  on  their 
own  resources  for  developments  or  promotion  even  when 
such  enterprises  are  obviously  for  the  common  benefit  of 
all  the  taxpayers  and  interests  of  the  State.  Ports  of  other 
states,  the  Commission  pointed  out,  are  supported  at  least 
in  part  by  state  tax  funds,  directly  or  indirectly.  There- 
fore, contend  the  Seattle  shipping  factors,  it  is  "high 
time  to  correct  this  condition  that  places  our  ports  under 
such  an  obvious  competitive  disadvantage,  so  that  the 
costs  of  necessary  promotion  for  the  common  good  may 
be  shared  in  a  more  equitable  and  businesslike  way,  it 
being  already  conceded  and  demonstrated  that  the  ports 

are  logical  spearheads  for  such  promotional  activities  for 
world  trade  and  industrial  expansion." 

John  A.  Earley,  senior  member  of  the  Port  of  Seattle 
Commission  and  representative  from  the  North  district, 
was  elected  president  of  the  board  succeeding  E.  H. 

Savage,  West  Seattle  civic  leader  and  representative  on 
the  Commission  from  the  South  district,  was  elected  vice 
president.  He  has  served  as  president  for  the  past  two 

A.  B.  Terry,  newest  member  on  the  Commission,  who 
last  year  was  elected  to  succeed  Commissioner  Horace  P. 
Chapman  who  resigned  after  14  years  continuous  service 
as  representative  from  the  central  (city)  district,  was 
chosen  secretary. 

Col.  Warren  D.  Lamport  remains  as  general  manager 
and  George  T.  Treadwell  as  chief  engineer  for  the  Port 
of  Seattle. 

The  commission  issued  a  statement  commending 
Savage  for  "outstanding  services  to  the  Port  of  Seattle, 
especially  during  the  past  year  featuring  an  aggressive 
national  and  foreign  trade  promotion  program;  saving 
the  taxpayers  a  huge  sum  of  interest  money  by  retire- 
ment of  $2,500,000  in  bonds  on  the  super-modern  Pier 
42  twin-terminal;  great  progress  in  financing  and  com- 
pletion of  the  super-modern  Seattle-Tacoma  Airport;  and 
great  advances  in  speeding  and  improving  .shipping  serv- 
ices for  the  Alaska  trade." 

Signalizing  a  year  of  "the  most  constructive  and 
aggressive  activity  in  Seattle's  history  in  improving  and 
economizing  services  and  in  promotion  of  Seattle's  world 
port  destiny  against  heavily  increased  competition  and 
still  unsettled  conditions  affecting  Oriental  trade,"  Earley 
said  the  port  "will  speed  use  of  every  practical  means 
leading  to  establishment  of  a  foreign  trade  zone  here  or 
elsewhere  on  Puget  Sound  with  the  help  of  State  funds 
to  expand  industry  and  commerce  for  this  State." 

Earley,  who  has  served  on  the  Port  Commission  for 
the  past  14  years,  said  that  "while  the  Seattle  import  and 
export  trade  record  for  1947,  on  the  basis  of  U.  S.  Gov- 
ernment published  statistics,  proves  that  we  have  more 
than  held  our  own  against  competition  and  the  adverse 
conditions  that  were  the  aftermath  of  war  in  the  Pacific, 
the  1948  phase  of  our  promotion  and  development  pro- 
gram will  doubtless  result  in  an  increasingly  better 
record  this  year." 


SHIPS  AND  SAILING  ALBUMS,  I  to  4,  published 
by  Kalmbach  Publishing  Company.  Price  Si. 50  each; 
21  pages  each;  10"  x  14". 

Titles  of  the  albums  are  as  follows:  Book  1,  /Mississippi 
Stern  Wheelers,  compiled  by  Captain  Frederick  Way,  Jr.; 
Book  2,  Great  Lakes  Saili)?f(  Ships,  compiled  by  Henry  N. 
Barkhausen;  Book  3,  Ottr  Naty's  Fiphlin^  Ships,  com- 
piled by  Lieut.  Comdr.  William  C.  Moore,  USNR,  and 
Lieut.  Comdr.  John  H.  Kemble,  USNR-  and  Book  4, 
New  England  Fishing  Schooners,  compiled  by  Joseph  C. 

This  series  of  ships  and  sailing  albums  is  identical  in 
format  to  the  popular  series  of  railroad  books  produced 
by  Kalmbach  Publishing  Company.  The  text  is  concise 
and  factual  and  top-ranking  photographs  give  an 
astonishing  portrayal  of  the  fascinating  ships  and  scenes. 
Each  album  contains  approximately  50  illustrations. 
With  the  exception  of  one  picture,  the  illustrations  in 
0»r  Navy's  Fighting  Ships  are  Official  U.  S.  Navy  photo- 
graphs. The  books  are  bound  so  as  to  allow  extraction  of 
any  page  if  framing  of  pictures  is  desired. 

The  last  of  this  series  of  albums.  No.  5,  Early  Great 
Lakes  Passenger  Steamships,  will  be  published  shortly. 

Page   52 


Summary  of  Report 
on  Tramp  Shipping 


The  Committee  on  Tramp  Shipping  of  the  Maritime 
(  ommission  recently  notified  the  Shipowners'  Associa- 
tion of  the  Pacific  Coast  that  a  fresh  study  of  tramp  ship- 
ping under  U.  S.  Hag  operation  was  being  undertaken  by 
the  Commission,  and  requested  various  factual  data. 

The  Policy  Committee  of  the  Association  consisting 
of  W.  R.  Chamberlin,  Jr.  (Chairman)  of  W.  R.  Chani- 
berlin  &  Co.,  G.  A.  Dondon  of  Pope  &  Talbot,  David 
Gregory  of  Olympic  Line,  and  R.  S.  Kimberk  of  Coast- 
wise Line,  has  prepared  a  comprehensive  report  for  the 
Commission,  and  it  is  very  well  summarized  in  the  fol- 
lowing closing  pages  by  Ralph  W.  Myers,  President  of 
the  Association. 

The  Shipowners'  Association  of  the  Pacific  Coast  con- 
sists of  the  following: 

Burns  Steamship  Co. 

W.  R.  Chamberlin  &  Co. 

Coastwise  Line 

James  Griffiths  &  Sons 

Olympic  Steamship  Co. 

Pope  &  Talbot,  Inc. 

J.  Ramselius  &  Co. 

Schaefer  Bros.  Steamship  Line. 

In  summary:  Tramp  Shipping  is  the  irregular  and/or 
non-scheduled  movement  of  dry  cargoes  of  low  value 
commodities  between  ports  on  a  voyage  charter  or  a 
time  charter  basis,  principally  in  full  shipload  lots  of  one 
commodity  on  or  under  deck.  It  is  by  nature  a  seasonal 
business.  It  is  worldwide  in  scope,  and  to  be  successful, 
cannot  be  restricted  to  ports  or  areas.  Due  to  the  large 
volume  of  such  cargoes  and  the  seasonal  movement,  there 
always  has  been  and  always  will  be  a  large  world  tramp 
fleet  to  move  these  cargoes,  because  it  is  economically 
unsound  to  maintain  a  sufficient  number  of  vessels  on 
the  regular  berth  services  to  move  these  cargoes. 

There  is  a  definite  need  for  an  economical  medium  of 
transportation,  which  is  afforded  by  tramp  ships  because 
of  ( 1  )  their  low  capital  costs,  (  2  )  their  low  overhead, 
and  (  3  )  their  ability  to  carry  full  cargo  lots  of  one  com- 
modity. The  liner  services  prove  inadequate  for  carry- 
ing tramp  type  cargoes  for  five  important  reasons:  (  1  ) 
They  cannot  supply  adequate  tonnage  space  to  take  care 
of  full  cargo  shipments  of  one  commodity.  Hence,  they 

MARCH      •      1948 

alph    W.    Myers, 
resident  of  Ship- 

would  prove  wholly  inadequate  in  trying  to  handle  the 
tremendous  seasonal  flow  of  traffic  that  ordinarily  goes 
to  tramp  vessels.  ( 2 )  They  are  restricted  by  their  Con- 
ference obligations  from  carrying  commodities  at  an 
economical  rate.  ( .3  )  They  would  be  unable  to  main- 
tain their  schedules  if  they  were  restricted  to  shifting, 
loading  and  discharging  provisions  in  voyage  contracts, 
which  are  ordinarily  customary  to  the  several  trades.  (4) 
They  would  be  restricted  in  maintaining  their  schedules 
because  of  their  inability  to  assemble  all  tramp  type 
cargoes  at  one  point,  as  they  are  able  to  do  with  their 
liner  cargoes.  ( 5 )  In  many  instances,  they  do  not  serve 
ports  regularly  or  seasonally  served  by  tramp  ships,  be- 
cause of  lack  of  port  facilities,  shallow  draft,  and  other 

Major  tramp  routes  are  worldwide  in  scope  and  cargoes 
flowing  over  these  routes  are  dependent  upon  seasonal 
influences  and  market  demands. 

American  tramp  ships  should  be  permitted  to  organ- 
ize themselves  into  or  to  join  tramp  conferences  for  rate 




stabilization  purposes.  In  order  to  accomplish  this,  the 
Shipping  Act  of  1916,  as  amended,  should  be  revised  to 
allow  tramp  ships  the  benefit  of  conference  protection. 

The  largest  tramp  fleet  before  the  War  was  Great 
Britain's,  and  from  performance  figures,  it  was  very 
profitable.  It  provided  Great  Britain  with  a  tremendous 
reserve  of  ships  to  be  called  upon  in  time  of  war,  which 
purpose  can  be  accomplished  by  this  Nation  with  a 
sizeable  tramp  fleet. 

Thirty-two  per  cent  of  all  inbound  and  outbound  com- 
merce of  the  United  States  before  the  War  was  composed 
of  bulk  commodities  that  would  lend  themselves  to 
tramping  service.  Of  this,  American  flag  ships  carried 
less  than  Vz  of  1%. 

United  States  companies  engaged  in  tramp  shipping 
today  which  have  the  largest  tramp  fleets  are  the  berth 
operators.  These  operators  do  own  their  own  liner  vessels, 
which  are  engaged  in  their  essential  trade  routes.  United 
States  flag  companies  engaged  in  tramp  shipping  who  do 
not  have  subsidized  services  or  rights  to  trade  over  essen- 
tial routes,  for  the  most  part,  do  not  own  their  own 
tonnage,  nor  in  many  instances,  can  they  afford  to  buy 
tonnage  for  use  in  tramping  trades  under  the  American 
flag  unless  they  receive  assurances  of  a  future  for  the 
operation  of  their  ships  in  the  form  of  Government  sub- 
sidies. Lacking  Government  subsidies,  the  minority  of 
companies  who  own  tramp  tonnage  are  faced  with  (a) 
transferring  the  registry  of  their  ships  to  a  foreign  flag, 
(b)  selling  their  ships  to  foreign  interests,  or  (c)  de- 
faulting on  their  payments. 

Many  of  the  companies  engaged  in  tramp  trades,  who 
have  previously  chartered  their  vessels  from  the  Mari- 
time Commission,  have  now  turned  these  vessels  back 
to  the  Maritime  Commission  and  are  using  foreign  ton- 
nage on  a  time  charter  basis  to  maintain  themselves  in 
the  world  shipping  picture.  In  our  minds,  this  is  an  in- 
dication of  a  trend  which  will  grow,  and  it  is  a  turning 
back  to  the  way  of  doing  business  by  these  companies  as 
they  did  before  the  War.  This  necessarily  reacts  to  the 
detriment  of  the  Merchant  Marine  of  this  Nation. 

The  type  of  vessel  used  in  worldwide  tramp  trades 
prior  to  the  War,  was  a  double-decked  vessel,  between 
7000  and  9000  tons  deadweight,  approximately  400,000- 
500,000  cu.  ft.  of  bale  space.  It  was  of  shallow  draft  and 
its  speed  was  between  7  and  10  knots. 

The  cost  of  maintaining  and  operating  American  flag 
tramp  vessels  is  obviously  much  higher  than  the  cost  of 
maintaining  and  operating  foreign  flag  vessels. 

United  States  shipping  companies  cannot  be  expected 
to  operate  tramp  vessels  after  the  European  Rehabilita- 
tion Plan  is  accomplished  (1951)  without  Government 
aid.  Given  an  equal  chance  with  their  foreign  counter- 
parts, many  companies  will  operate  vessels  in  tramp 
trades.  Government  assistance  should  be  on  a  vessel  basis 
and  should  include  the  full  difference  in  costs  of  wages, 
overtime,  bonuses,  subsistence,  maintenance  and  repair, 
expendable  and  consumable  stores,  insurance,  construc- 
tion or  purchase  price.  It  is  our  opinion  that  very  few 
changes  will  be  required  in  the  basic  laws  of  the  United 

States  affecting  shipping,  and  for  the  most  part,  it  may 
be  adequately  handled  by  amending  the  Shipping  Act  of 
1916,  as  amended,  and  the  present  Merchant  Marine 
Act  of  1936,  as  amended. 

We  believe  that  considerably  less  than  1%  of  the 
expenditure  of  $10,000,000,000  for  additional  defense 
purposes  would  be  sufficient  to  subsidize  and  to  insure 
an  adequate  American  Merchant  Marine.  Financial  risks 
which  confront  United  States  steamship  companies  in 
tramping  under  U.  S.  flag  are  for  the  most  part  the  same 
risks  which  confront  United  States  steamship  companies 
in  the  liner  services. 

American  labor  will  definitely  participate  in  and  bene- 
fit by  the  operation  of  American  vessels  tramp  shipping, 
because  it  provides  employment  and  training  opportunity 
for  seagoing,  shoreside,  management,  ship-repair  yard 
and  ship-building  yard  personnel. 

The  tramp  of  the  Merchant  Marine  would  be  of  in- 
estimable value  to  the  United  States,  both  commercially 
and  militarily,  for  it  would  make  available  to  shippers 
engaged  in  foreign  trades  more  American  flag  tonnage 
adequate  to  suit  their  needs,  provide  a  transportation 
medium  for  raw  materials  and  bulk  cargoes,  and  under 
abnormal  conditions,  it  would  enable  the  Merchant 
Marine  to  fully  meet  the  requirements  of  United  States 
exporters  and  manufacturers  and  importers  of  raw  ma- 
terials, and  to  fulfill  its  mission  of  becoming  an  adequate 
military  auxiliary. 

We  do  not  believe  that  this  Nation  should  make  the 
mistake  again  of  having  an  inadequate  Merchant  Marine, 
and  that  the  Merchant  Marine  of  the  United  States  should 
be  commensurate  with  the  responsibilities  of  this  Nation 
in  international  politics.  The  size  and  condition  of  a 
Merchant  Marine  lends  prestige  to  the  nation  whose  flag 
that  Merchant  Marine  flies. 

Large  carriers  proved  to  be  essential  in  the  last  war, 
and  they  will  be  essential  in  the  next.  Availability  of 
ships  was  proved  to  be  more  important  than  the  speed 
or  the  type  of  the  ship.  We  believe  that  we  should  have 
a  Merchant  Marine  adequate  so  that  we  can  establish  a 
bridge  of  ships  to  whichever  area  needs  supplies  in  time 
of  national  emergency. 

Therefore,  we  recommend  that  this  Government  do 
everything  possible  to  foster  the  development  of  a  tramp 
fleet,  so  as  to  more  fully  protect  this  Nation  in  time  of 
war  or  national  emergency,  to  insure  adequate  shipping 
facilities  in  normal  and  abnormal  times.  It  should  adopt 
a  policy  of  leniency  and  encouragement  to  tramp  ship- 
ping companies. 

At  this  writing,  the  Maritime  Commission  and  the 
Shipping  Industry  are  well  aware  of  the  fact  that  Foreign 
Operators,  who  have  purchased  Liberty  vessels,  are  offer- 
ing to  charter  these  vessels  for  from  one  to  three  years 
to  Americans  at  time  form  charter  rates  which  are  less 
than  the  cost  of  operating  a  Liberty  vessel  under  the 
American  flag,  and  the  Foreign  Operators  are  also  at 
times  offering  to  carry  cargoes  at  rates  and  on  charter 
conditions  that  are  less  than  the  rates  needed  fey  the 
American  Operators  for  profitable  operation. 

Finally,  we  recommend  that  subsidies  be  granted  all 
vessels  engaged  in  foreign-trade. 

Page  54 



a^lcf  S^M.  ^^OKCc^^x^  S^tx^li^^U^ 

By  A.  J.  ni<:kie 

IN  THIS  BEGINNING  of  a  three-year  celebration  of 
the  centennial  of  the  State  of  California,  it  seems 
fitting  that  the  oldest  shipping  magazine  on  the  Pacific 
Coast  should  revive  interest  in  the  shipping  and  ship- 
building history  of  the  port  inside  the  Golden  Gate. 
The  beginnings  of  both  these  industries  run  back  into 
Spanish  and  Mexican  California,  and  in  the  case  of  ship- 
building particularly,  into  the  days  of  Russian  occupa- 
tiun  as  far  south  as  Fort  Ross.  Much  research  has  been 
iii.ide  into  the  activities  of  these  periods  and  there  is  no 
claim  to  originality  in  this  series  of  articles.  Like  the 
great  French  essayist  Montaigne  we  "have  gathered  a 
few  flowers  from  other  men's  gardens;  only  the  string  that 
ties  them  together  is  our  own." 

Prior  to  the  year  1846  San  Francisco  was  a  very  quiet 
little  Pueblo,  an  adjunct  to  the  mission  "De  Los  Dolores 
de  Nuestro  Padre  San  Francisco  de  Asis,"  commonly 
known  as  Mission  Dolores.  The  town  itself  was  known  as 
the  Presidio  of  San  Francisco  and  was  in  fact  merely  the 
tort  and  the  residence  of  the  garrison  established  for 
the  protection  of  the  Mission  which  had  been  founded  in 

In  183-1  the  Pueblo  (  Mission  and  Presidio  ),  which  had 
a  population  of  500  Indians  and  perhaps  150  Mexican 
priests  and  soldiers,  owned  5,000  horned  cattle,  1600 
ill  irses  and  mules,  4,000  sheep,  goats  and  hogs,  and 
1M)()  bushels  of  grain.  The  Mission  pasture  lands  evi- 
dently extended  down  the  peninsula.  The  Mission 
Dolores,  in  partnership  with  the  Mission  at  Santa  Clara,  some  time  previous  to  this  date  bought  two  schooners 
from  the  Russians  at  Fort  Ross  and  had  used  these  craft 
for  inter-bay  transportation  of  supplies  and  of  hides  and 
j  tallow.  After  two  or  three  years  use  these  vessels  got  to 

Another  drawing  showing  San  Francisco  Harbor  and  tal<en  about 
six  months  after  the  one  in  the  adjoining  column.  The  island  in  the 
distance  is  the  Verba  Buena  Island  of  today  and  the  lagoon  in  the 
foreground  is  the  site  of  the  city's  financial  and  shipping  district  of 
today.  The  lower  left  corner  of  the  lagoon  is  approximately  the 
location  of  the  office  of  the  Pacific  Marine  Review. 

be  rather  a  burden  on  the  minds  and  muscles  of  the 
padres  and  their  Indian  help  so  they  abandoned  them 
and  went  back  to  primitive  oxcart  transportation. 

William  Richardson,  an  English  sailor,  mate  of  the 
British  whaler  Orion,  had  left  that  vessel  and  settled  at 
Sausalito  some  years  earlier  and  he  now  moved  to  San 
Francisco  and  made  a  proposition  to  the  Missions  that 
he  would  put  these  schooners  in  ship  shape  and  operate 
them  on  the  bay  carrying  the  Mission  cargoes  and  any 
other  business  he  could  pick  up.  The  padres  accepted 
this  offer  and,  as  their  share  in  the  deal,  turned  over  the 
ownership  of  the  schooners  to  Richardson.  He  thus  be- 
came the  first  shipping  man  to  live  in  San  Francisco  and 
the  owner  of  San  Francisco's  first  shipping  business. 

He  had  no  competition,  no  regulation,  and  made  his 
own  rates.  Deep  sea  vessels  came  into  the  harbor  in 
those  days  to  pick  up  cargoes  of  hides  and  tallow  or  to 
stock  up  on  fresh  water.  For  cargo  they  anchored  approxi- 
mately at  the  location  that  is  now  the  foot  of  Jackson 
Street  in  the  lee  of  a  rocky  point  that  stretched  bayward 
from  Telegraph  Hill.  This  point  had  a  sandy  beach 
along  its  southerly  side  from  which  landing  and  loading 
was  comparatively  easy  except  when  southeasters  were 
blowing.  For  water,  the  ships  anchored  off  Sausalito 
where  there  was  abundant  fresh  water  from  large  springs. 

Richardson  fixed  his  rates  at  YIVt.  cents  per  hide  and 
S 1 .00  per  bag  of  tallow  from  any  point  on  the  bay  or  the 
lower  rivers  to  San  Francisco  or  to  ships  anchored  off 
San  Francisco.  In  the  season  1835-1836  exports  amounted 
to  20,000  hides  and  1,000  tons  of  tallow.  As  this  was 
probably  all  handled  by  Richardson's  schooners,  his  gross 

Page   55 

[m  m  FRAiisco 

income  from  freights  would  be  approximately  523,000 
thar  season. 

Shipping  and  the  Pueblo  of  San  Francisco  continued 
in  this  sleepy  existence  until  1846  when  on  July  9  it 
was  suddenly  roused  out  of  its  lethargy  by  the  United 
States  frigate  Portiniouth  under  command  of  Captain 
Montgomery  who  came  ashore  with  a  corps  of  Marines 
and  raised  the  Stars  and  Stripes  over  the  sleepy  plaza 
( now  Portsmouth  Square )  declaring  San  Francisco  an 
American  city — a  city  of  perhaps  thirty  nondescript 
buildings  scattered  along  four  streets,  which  were  named 
by  the  Americans,  Montgomery  (along  the  waterfront), 
Kearny,  ( parallel  to  Montgomery  one  block  west ) ,  and 
the  two  intersecting  streets  Clay  and  Washington. 

Nineteen  days  after  this  flag  raising  the  good  ship 
Brooklyn  sailed  through  the  Gate  with  2.38  passengers, 
mostly  Mormons,  under  the  leadership  of  San  Brannan. 
This  ship  had  put  out  from  New  York  bound  for  Port- 
land, Oregon,  and  for  some  reason  stopped  in  at  San 
Francisco,  and  San  Brannan  and  his  passengers  elected 
to  remain,  becoming  the  first  group  of  American  civilians 
to  settle  at  this  port.  By  January  1847  the  American 
population  was  about  300  and  by  March  1848  it  had 
grown  to  800.  At  this  period  San  Francisco  was  by  no 
means  the  best  known  or  the  largest  port  on  what  is 
now  the  Pacific  Coast  of  the  United  States.  On  every 
count  it  was  bettered  by  such  now  comparatively  less 
important  ports  as  San  Diego,  San  Pedro,  and  Monterey, 
in  California,  Astoria  and  Portland  in  Oregon,  and  Sitka, 
Alaska  (then  Russian).  The  California  trade  of  hides 
and  taUow  was  very  poor  pickings  for  the  shrewd  trader- 
ship  masters  of  those  days  when  compared  with  the  fur 
trade  of  Oregon  or  Alaska.  Astoria  and  Portland  had 
become  the  centers  of  the  fur  trade,  dating  back  into  the 
days  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  regime  in  that  section. 
This  comparative  unimportance  of  the  Golden  Gate  with 
its  great  harbor  is  well  illustrated  by  the  action  of  Con- 
gress bn  March  3,  1847.  For  some  time  the  legislators 
had  been  considering  the  establishment  of  a  mail  route 
by  steamer  from  the  Atlantic  Coast  to  the  Pacific  Coast. 
On  the  date  alluded  to  above  an  act  was  passed  for  this 

purpose.  The  route  chosen  was  via  the  Isthmus  of 
Panama  and  a  fairly  liberal  subsidy  was  offered.  This  act 
resulted  in  the  founding  of  the  famous  Pacific  Mail 
Steamship  Company.  However,  the  significant  feature 
of  the  act  as  first  passed  was  the  omission  of  San  Fran- 
cisco; the  city  was  not  even  mentioned.  In  the  middle  of 
the  following  year  San  Francisco  was  added  to  the  act 
as  a  port  of  call  on  the  way  to  Portland.  However,  none 
of  the  steamers  built  under  this  act  ever  got  to  Portland 
because  when  the  first  vessel  was  ready  to  steam  around 
to  the  Pacific  the  gold  rush  had  already  started  and  she 
and  her  following  sisters  were  so  profitably  engaged  in 
carrying  goods  and  passengers  from  Panama  to  San 
Francisco  that  Portland  was  forgotten. 

In  March  1847  the  entire  floating  equipment  on  San 
Francisco  Bay  comprised:  three  transports  (just  arrived 
with  Colonel  Stevenson's  regiment ) ;  the  ship  Vandalia; 
a  coastal  schooner;  a  small  steam  launch;  the  ship  Brook- 
lyn; and  two  rowing  boats.  By  June  1848  the  rumors  of 
rich  gold  deposits  up  state  had  been  confirmed  and 
suddenly  almost  overnight  the  city  was  depopulated. 
However,  as  the  unsuccessful  miners  drifted  back  and 
the  v/ould-be  miners  from  outside  began  pouring  in, 
there  were  2,000  persons  in  the  city  by  January  1,  1849. 

Official  returns  for  the  year  ending  March  31,  1848 
shows  arrivals  of  85  vessels,  including:  58  small  coast- 
wise ships;  sixteen  whalers;  seven  small  craft  from 
Sandwich  Islands;  and  four  U.  S.  Naval  ships. 

By  January  1,  1850  the  population  was  over  20,000 
and  697  vessels  had  arrived  in  seven  and  a  half  months. 
On  practically  all  of  these  vessels  the  crews  and  some- 
times the  officers  ran  off  to  the  mines.  Many  of  the  ships 
were  so-called  "company  ships,"  that  is,  ships  owned 
and  operated  by  companies  formed  and  financed  for  the 
purpose  of  mining.  Some  of  the  deserted  ships  were 
bought  at  very  low  prices,  hauled  up  on  the  mud  flats 
and  used  as  buildings.  These  ships  came  from  every 
quarter  of  the  globe,  and  San  Francisco  suddenly  was  a 
world  port  with  a  cosmopolitan  complexion  that  she  has 
retained  ever  since.  San  Francisco  ( still  a  Pueblo  gov- 
erned by  an  Alcalde )  had  become  a  commercial  port 
with  practically  the  same  commercial  standing  as  Phila- 
delphia. She  was  a  world  port  before  she  became  a 
chartered  city  and  before  California  became  a  State. 

Page  56 

World   at  Cunningham's   Dock,    San   Francisco,    1850 


U.  S.  m\[  SCHOOL 


I  Plans  for  the  School 

The  Naval  School,  General  Line,  at  Monterey  (Del 
VIonte)  was  authorized  in  September,  1947  by  the  Sec- 
xrjiv  of  the  Navy  to  implement  the  famed  Holloway 
'I. Ill  for  the  post-graduate  education  of  Naval  officers. 
There  was  an  immediate  need  for  a  school  to  give  tem- 

Del    Monte    Hotel    in    center.     Na^ 

porary  and  reserve  officers  who  have  transferred  to  the 
Regular  Navy  a  broad  general  education  on  Naval  sub- 
jects in  order  that  they  might  have  the  broad  service 
background  of  the  Naval  Academy  graduate.  The  Naval 
School,  General  Line,  at  Newport,  Rhode  Island,  con- 
vened in  July,  1946  for  this  purpose.  As  its  facilities  were 

fARCH     •      1948 

Page   57 

anding  Officei 
rank  T.  Watkil 

education  in  certain  civilian  universities  and  institutions 
of  higher  learning,  while  the  remainder  will  be  assigned 
shore  billets  in  the  Naval  Shore  Establishment  until  again 
eligible  for  sea  duty. 

The  property  now  under  contract  by  the  Navy  com- 
prises a  total  of  241  acres,  the  largest  section  comprising 
the  grounds  of  the  famous  Del  Monte  Hotel  of  past  years. 
The  main  hotel  building  is  being  employed  for  admin- 
istrative ofJSces,  bachelor  officers'  quarters  and  interim 
housing  for  Naval  officers  with  their  families.  The  main 
building  also  provides  mess  halls,  and  recreational  areas. 
There  are  nineteen  other  buildings  including  a  laundry, 
garages,  a  power  house,  swimming  pool,  and  classrooms. 
Upon  purchase  of  the  property  the  land  to  be  acquired 
by  the  Navy  will  total  606  acres,  of  which  309.8  acres 
will  be  available  for  Naval  housing  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Del  Monte  Golf  Course. 

The  designed  capacity  for  the  Naval  School,  General 
Line,  at  present  is  500  officers.  After  purchase  of  the 
property  and  resulting  development,  a  student  body  num- 
bering 2,600  student  officers  will  gradually  be  built  up  as 
post-graduate  school  facilities  and  laboratories  become 

limited  in  respect  of  the  number  of  former  reserve  and 
temporary  officers  requiring  this  course,  the  war-time 
Naval  Training  School  at  Del  Monte,  California,  near 
Monterey  was  selected  as  a  site  for  a  second  General  Line 

At  present,  the  property  occupied  by  the  Naval  School, 
General  Line,  Monterey,  California  is  under  contract  from 
Del  Monte  Properties  Co.  However,  the  Government 
has  an  option  to  buy  this  property  and  certain  additional 
adjacent  properties.  The  purchase  of  same  is  awaiting 
congressional  appropriation.  The  option  expires  on  July 
1.  1948. 

Until  purchase  of  the  property  is  made,  only  the  sub- 
jects required  for  General  Line  post-graduate  training 
will  be  presented.  Subject  to  purchase  of  the  property 
by  the  Government,  and  in  accordance  with  the  Hollo- 
way  Plan,  the  Naval  School,  General  Line,  Monterey  will 
eventually  become  in  effect  a  Naval  Post-Graduate  Uni- 
versity where  all  Naval  post-graduate  work  will  be  ac- 
complished. This  means  that  the  post-graduate  school  at 
Annapolis,  Maryland,  the  School  of  Naval  Intelligence 
and  the  Naval  School  of  Foreign  Languages  at  Anacostia, 
Virginia  will  be  discontinued  and  all  their  post-graduate 
functions  will  be  transferred  to  Monterey.  The  Naval 
School,  General  Line,  Newport,  Rhode  Island  will  con- 
tinue to  operate  until  all  reserve  and  temporary  officers 
who  transferred  to  the  regular  line  of  the  Navy  have 
completed  their  course.  By  that  time,  all  Naval  officers, 
upon  completion  of  their  first  tour  of  sea  duty  after 
becoming  a  commissioned  officer,  would  be  required  to 
take  the  General  Line  course  requiring  one  year.  Certain 
numbers  of  the  graduates  of  this  course  will  be  permitted 
to  take  further  post-graduate  work  at  the  post-graduate 
school  in  various  technical  subjects  such  as  Marine  Engi- 
neering, Aeronautical  Engineering,  Ordnance  Engineer- 
ing and  other  allied  Naval  specialties.  Other  graduates  of 
the  General  Line  School  may  complete  their  technical 


The  General  Line  School  will  be  provided  with  ample 
laboratories  and  classrooms  to  teach  the  following  sub- 

,  Strategy  and  Tactics 

Combat  Information  Center 


Anti-Submarine  Warfare 


The  Foundation  of  National  Power 

Naval  History 

Naval  Intelligence 

Administration  and  Leadership 



Ordnance  and  Gunnery 

Seamanship  and  Navigation 


Steam  and  Marine  Engineering 

Damage  Control  for  Ships 

Radiological  Safety 

Electrical  Engineering 


The  above  subjects  will  require  four  terms  of  eleven 
weeks  each,  including  a  total  of  1,135  hours.  The  students 
will  be  divided  into  sections  of  25  officers  each.  Duration 
of  the  average  recitation  period  will  be  50  minutes  and 
the  laboratory  periods  will  occupy  two  hours. 

The  Naval  School,  General  Line  will  have  the  benefit 
of  the  latest  in  training  equipment.  To  assist  the  instruc- 
tors there  will  be  such  training  aids  as  sound  moving 
pictures  and  lantern  slides,  numerous  synthetic  training 
devices  which  were  one  of  the  training  wonders  of  the 
last  World  War,  scale  models  of  ships,  machinery  lay- 
outs, ordnance  equipment,  and  aircraft.  Assigned  to  the 
School  for  drills  and  instruction  under  actual  operating 

Page  58 


conditions  will  be  a  destroyer,  a  destroyer  escort,  a  sub- 
marine, and  various  types  of  aircraft.  The  Naval  Auxiliary 
Air  Station  at  Monterey  was  commissioned  to  maintain 
the  flight  proficiency  of  student  and  staff  aviators. 

Heads  of  Departments 

Heads  of  Departments  were  selected  on  the  basis  of 
their  previous  experience.    Departmental  instructors  are 
all  well  qualified  to  teach  their  assigned  subjects  by  reason 
of  duties  previously  assigned  in  the  Fleet.  The  subjects  of 
Electrical  Engineering,  Physics,  and  Mathematics  will  be 
taught  by  able  civilian  instructors  who  have  had  experi- 
ence in  teaching  at  engineering  schools  at  various  promi- 
nent civilian  universities.   Department  Heads  are  as  fol- 
lows: ^ 
Commanding  Officer,  Captain  Frank  T.  Watkins,  USN 
Executive  Ofiicer,  Captain  C.  McClusky,  USN 
Operational    Command    Department,    Captain    R.    J. 

Archer,  USN 
Administrative  Command  Department.  Captain  A.  C. 

Perkins,  USN 
Ordnance  and  Gunnery  Department,  Commander  W. 

L.  Harmon,  USN 
Seamanship  and  Navigation  Department,  Captain  A. 

R.  St.  Angelo,  USN 
Engineering  and  Damage  Control  Department,  Cap- 
tain F.  P.  Luongo,  Jr.,  USN. 

Top   to    bottom:    Former   registration    desk   of    Hotel    Del    Monte 
being  used  as  Officer  of  the  Deck's  Office. 

Lobby  of  Del  Monte  Hotel. 

Roman   Plunge  at   Del   Monte. 

MARCH     •      I  948 

Hollander  Invents 
Kew  Type  Diesel  Engine 

A  new  type  ship's  diesel  engine,  half  the  size  and  less 
than  half  the  weight  of  the  type  now  in  general  use,  has 
been  completed  early  this  month  by  Werkspoor,  one  of 
Holland's  largest  makers  of  ship's  engines  and  railway 
equipment.  The  new  engine  is  also  more  easily  accessible 
and  more  economical  than  the  prevailing  type,  and  can 
moreover  utilize  the  heaviest  type  of  fuel  oil. 

The  diesel  engine  is  the  invention  of  G.  J.  Lugt,  a 
marine  engineer  with  forty  years  of  practice,  who  started 
to  work  on  his  plans  in  1943,  in  the  midst  of  the  German 
occupation  of  'The  Netherlands.  Left  undisturbed  in  his 
drafting  room  by  the  Nazis,  who  little  suspected  on  what 
sort  of  work  he  was  engaged,  he  completed  his  plans — on 
paper — toward  the  end  of  the  war.  Immediately  upon 
Holland's  liberation,  "W'erkspoor  initiated  large-scale 
research  work  on  Lugt's  invention,  and  the  first  experi- 
mental engine  is  now  ready. 

The  engine  is  a  1,200  H.P.  two-cylinder  affair  equip- 
ped with  the  most  modern  technical  improvements.  It 
can  also  be  made  with  three,  four  or  more  cylinders,  as 
each  cylinder  is  an  independent  unit. 

A  six-cylinder  diesel  engine  of  this  type  has  a  capacity 
of  3,600  H.P.  the  same  as  an  eight-cylinder  four-stroke 
engine  now  being  made  by  "Werkspoor.  It  is  far  less 
noisy  and  weighs  only  MO  tons,  against  315  tons  for  the 
older  type. 

Page  59 

Uodern  Oil  Tanker  Design 

Sun  Shipbuilding  and  Dry  Dock  Co.,  Chester.  Pa. 

Introduction — 

The  unprecedented  demand  for  petroleum  products 
during  World  War  II  created  a  problem  in  logistics  that 
was  solved  by  the  mass  production  of  modern  tankers  for 
the  transportation  of  these  products.  In  the  last  days  of 
the  war  the  American  oil  industry  was  producing  at  an 
average  rate  of  4,600,000  barrels  per  day,  and  of  all  the 
supplies  that  were  required  by  our  Armed  Forces  in- 
cluding food,  clothing,  arms,  armament,  ammunition, 
shelter,  medical  supplies,  etc.,  petroleum  products  repre- 
sented more  than  sixty  per  cent  by  weight.  Practically 
all  of  these  oils  were  transported  by  tankers  which  con- 
stituted floating  pipe  lines  to  every  fighting  front.  In 
wars  of  the  past,  one  of  the  big  problems  was  to  supply 
food  to  the  armed  forces.  During  this  war,  the  volume 
of  petroleum  products  moved  to  the  front  was  almost 
sixteen  times  that  of  the  food. 

In  1945  the  American  oil  industry  produced  at  the 
rate  of  1,828,500,000  barrels  annually;  the  world  produc- 
tion for  the  same  period  was  2,737,000,000  barrels.  The 
postwar  era  has  produced  an  even  greater  demand  for 
petroleum,  and  it  is  estimated  that  by  1951  the  annual 
production  of  the  American  oil  industry  will  have  been 
increased  to  2,026,000,000  barrels;  and  the  world  pro- 
duction will  be  about  3,583,000,000  barrels.  On  the  na- 
tional basis  this  represents  an  eleven  per  cent  increase 
over  the  production  of  1945.  The  bull:  of  this  oil  will 
have  to  be  moved  by  tanker,  so  that  the  need  is  apparent 
for  the  maintenance  and  building  of  a  large  and  modern 
tanker  fleet  as  a  peacetime  necessity,  and  as  an  important 
branch  of  our  national  defense  set-up. 

The  recent  national  emergency  found  us  lacking  in 
many  of  the  components  required  in  tanker  construction 
and  substitutes  had  to  be  found,  more  often  than  not  at 
greatly  increased  cost.  By  instituting  a  planned  replace- 
ment program  for  our  present  fleet,  enlarging  it  as  we 
go,  the  costly  lessons  of  the  past  will  not  have  to  be  re- 
peated. In  1939  the  deadweight  tonnage  of  the  U.  S. 
tanker  fleet  was  4,559,000  tons  representing  23.9  per 
cent  of  the  world  fleet.  By  1945,  and  principally  as  a  re- 
sult of  the  U.  S.  Maritime  Commission  program,  this  had 
increased  to  59.8  per  cent.  From  1945  to  1947,  U.  S. 
deadweight  tonnage  has  decreased  to  59.2  per  cent.  The 
necessary  construction  in  bulk  quantity,  as  it  were,  of 
the  T-2  class  tanker  has  given  the  U.  S.  tanker  fleet  a  pre- 
ponderence  of  one  class  of  vessel  resulting  in  an  un- 

(This  outstanding  paper  was  presented  by  Mr. 
meeting  of  the  Society  of  Naval  .\rchitect5  and  Ma 



balanced  distribution  as  regards  size,  type  and  speed. 
Only  22  per  cent  of  the  U.  S.  tanker  fleet  is  under  16,000 
tons  deadweight,  whereas  88.3  per  cent  of  the  world 
tanker  fleet  is  below  that  figure.  More  modern  tankers  in 
other  categories  are  required  particularly  those  for  shal- 
lower drafts.  At  present  the  U.  S.  A.  has  the  largest  tank- 
er tonnage  in  the  world,  but  this  will  be  shortly  chal- 
lenged by  the  construction  proceeding  abroad  where 
shipyards  are  contracted  to  capacity  through  1950  for  the 
construction  of  all  types  of  merchant  vessels.  The  follow- 
ing figures  may  be  of  interest  to  illustrate  this:  69  vessels 
totaling  950,215  deadweight  tons  are  building  in  the 
United  Kingdom  while  Sweden  has  29  ships  on  order 
totaling  409,995  deadweight  tons. 

The  trade  requirements  of  a  tanker  must  be  carefully 
analyzed  before  proceeding  with  a  design;  a  stereotyped 
arrangement  will  not  meet  specific  conditions  in  the 
highly  competitive  field  of  tanker  operations.  Often  the 
principal  dimensions  themselves  are  limited  by  terminal 
facilities,  etc.  A  vessel  that  is  to  transport  cargoes  of  a 
single  grade  requires  a  simpler  tank  and  piping  arrange- 
ment that  a  vessel  carrying  mixed  cargoes.  The  cubic  of 
vessels  built  to  carry  gasoline  and  other  light  gravity  oils 
must  be  adequate  for  the  available  deadweight.  The  fol- 
lowing material  will  be  limited  to  the  ocean  tanker  in 
merchant  service. 

Deadweight   and  Speed 

Prime  factors  in  the  design  of  a  tanker  from  the  Own- 
er's point  of  view  are  the  deadweight  and  the  speed  of 
the  vessel.  The  total  deadweight  is  the  difference  between 
the  displacement  and  the  weight  of  the  ship  alone.  In- 
cluded in  the  total  deadweight  are  cargo,  fuel,  feed  water, 
potable  water,  stores,  crew  and  effects.  The  cargo  dead- 
weight is  the  revenue  producing  factor  which  carries  the 
whole  business  enterprise,  so  that  weight  saving  in  all 
other  elements  is  a  requisite  from  the  standpoint  of  finan- 
cial success.  Cargo  deadweight  should  be  used  as  the 
basis  for  making  comparisons  between  tankers  with  dif- 
ferent types  of  hull  construction  and/or  propulsion  ma- 

Within  this  decade,  technological  developments  cou- 
pled with  improved  materials  and  methods  of  construc- 
tion have  resulted  in  substantial  reductions  in  ship 
weights  which,  for  a  given  displacement,  have  resulted  in 
increased  deadweight.  Examples  of  this  are  the  employ- 
ment of  welded  construction  in  hull  and  machinery,  and 
the  trend  to  high  pressure  and  temperatures  in  steam 
propulsion  machinery  installations. 


In  the  United  States  emphasis  appears  to  have  been 
placed  on  deadweight;  for  a  given  speed  the  models  are 
relatively  fuller,  and  the  average  deadweight  of  American 
tankers  is  higher  than  that  of  tankers  built  elsewhere. 
The  ratio  of  deadweight  to  displacement  for  present  tank- 
er practice  is  listed  in  Table  1. 

Table  I 


Deadweight   Displ.  Ratio 





1 5,000 






The  above  is  predicated  upon  the  use  of  welded  con- 
struction for  the  hull.  Where  Owners  require  a  greater 
elaboration  in  any  or  all  of  the  ship  weight  elements,  a 
corresponding  reduction  in  deadweight  will  result.  Some 
owners  have  discovered  that  the  addition  of  extra  material 
in  certain  spots  reduces  maintenance  bills,  and  are  will- 
ing to  sacrifice  some  deadweight  to  effect  this  end. 

The  trend  of  tanker  speeds  has  been  upward  and  is 
evidenced  by  the  figures  for  the  world  tank  ship  fleet 
presented  in  Table  II 

Table  II 
Year  Speed 

1900  9.0.^  Knots 

1910  9.38       " 

1920  10.01       " 

19.30  10.29       " 

1940  11.18       " 

1945  12.85 

1947  October  1st)  13.10        • 

An  analysis  of  speeds  show  that  in  the  U.  S.  tanker 
fleet  only  22  per  cent  of  the  vessels  are  slower  than  14 
knots  while  for  the  balance  of  the  world  fleet  84  per 
cent  are  slower  than  14  knots.  Again  the  large  number  of 
T-2  tankers  disproportionately  affects  the  average  in  this 
respect.  Generally  speaking,  the  trend  in  Great  Britain 
has  been  to  build  three  classes  of  tankers,  viz:  those  of 
8,000  tons  deadweight  and  1 1  knots  speed,  9,000  tons 
deadweight  and  12  knots  speed,  and  12,000  tons  dead- 
weight and  12y2  knots  speed. 

Principal  Characteristics 

For  economical  propulsion  there  is  a  close  relationship 

between  the  length  of  a  vessel  and  the  fullness  of  form. 

For  the  vessels  imder  discussion,  at  a  speed-length  ratio 

of  0.65,  this  relationship  may  be  expressed  by  a  variation 

of  the  Alexander  formula  where  Block  Coef.=1.075 — 

V/2\/L,  V  being  the  service  speed.  The  amidship  section 

is  generally   quite    full,    with   coefficients   varying    from 

0.980  to  0.995,   and   the  percentage  of   p.irallel   middle 

:    body  ranging  from  24  to  28  per  cent.  Some  owners  pre- 

!'    fer  to  have  their  vessels  designed  with  the  bottom  hav- 

I    ing  a  small  rise  of  floor,  claiming  that  it  assists  drainage. 

!    On  the  other  hand,  the  lines  of  the  vessel  with  the  flat 

bottom  can  be  made  finer  at  the  ends,  thereby  tending  to 

decrease  resistance  to  propulsion. 

The  location  of  the  center  of  buoyancy  is  the  result  of 
a  compromise  between  the  requirements  for  minimum 
resistance  and  suitable  trim,  and  the  latter  factor  most 
seriously  influences  the  final  decision.  At  speeds  corres- 

MARCH      •      1948 

ponding  to  V\/L==0.65,  the  center  is  usually  located 
from  one  to  two  per  cent  forward  of  the  amidship  half 
length  of  the  vessel,  and  small  variations  either  way  have 
little  efTcct  upon  resistance. 

The  ratio  of  the  length  of  entrance  to  run  varies  be- 
tween limits  of  0.75  to  0.90  with  the  latter  value  in  more 
common  use. 

In  general,  tankers  built  in  rhc  U.  S.  A.  have  propor- 
tionately a  greater  beam  and  de]ith  than  those  built  else- 
where. The  beam  may  be  expressed  as  a  function  of  the 
length,  varying  approximately  between  limits  of 
(.IL  '  18)  and  (.IL  ^  20).  The  depth  may  be  ex- 
pressed in  a  similar  manner,  varying  between  (.07L+3) 
for  vessels  with  normal  sheer  and  (.()7L  t  4)  for  vessels 
with  no  sheer. 

1  able  III  gives  the  principal  characteristics  of  some 
recent  tankers  on  a  peacetime  basis. 

Table  III 

(1)  (2)  I ^)                (4)  (5) 

Brit.    Type 

Length  BP 521  50i  -tSO                ?09  160 

Breadth    70  68'  V               65  48'  2"  59 

Depth    40  ^9' V              ^7  21' 9"  34 

Draft   30'   4i/>"  30' 2"              29'  19' 4"  21' .\W 

Block   Coef 0.777"  0.740  0.732  0.735  0.757 

Displacement...      24670  21880  17790             6200  16793 

Deadweight    ....      19200  16600  13110            4240  12355 

Dwt/Displ 0.78  0.76  0,74  0.685  0.736 

Capacity.  Bbls..     154760  141160  111160  31300  — 

Service    Speed..            13  15!/'.  I4l,              1 1 1/>  12 

S.    H.    P 5000  7500  5000               1400  3600 

Machinerv                 Turbo-  Turbo.  Turbo-  Geared  Direct 

Elect.  Elect  Elect  Diesel  Diesel 

In  vessels  (1)  through  (4)  welded  construction  was 

In  the  design  of  any  vessel  it  is  essential  to  prepare  a 
reasonably  correct  estimate  of  weights  and  centers  of 
gravity  for  the  determination  of  deadweight  and  trim. 
This  is  particularly  true  for  the  tanker  where  the  weights 
of  propelling  machinery  and  expendable  items  such  as 
fuel,  water,  etc.  are  quite  removed  from  the  general  cen- 
ter of  gravity  of  the  vessel  and  the  long  levers  produce 
considerable  trimming  effects. 

Tankers  transiting  the  Panama  Canal  should  have  their 
loaded  trim  conditions  for  arrival  at  the  Canal  investi- 
gated, so  that  without  undue  ballasting  or  shifting  of  fuel 
the  vessel  may  comply  with  regulations.  For  this  condi- 
tion the  vessel  will  be  required  to  have  a  trim  of  not  less 
than  6  inches  nor  more  than  36  inches  by  the  stern,  and 
be  on  an  even  keel  as  regards  list. 

Design  procedures  in  difi^erent  shipyards  vary  some- 
what so  that  the  following  is  suggested  as  one  of  many 
ways  of  arriving  at  the  required  answer. 

1.  An  estimate  should  be  made  of  weights  and  centers 
from  accumulated  data  for  similar  vessels. 

2.  Revise  the  above  estimate  when  basic  design  plans 
■ire  completed  and  the  various  weight  groups  such  as 
hull  steel,  propelling  machinery,  outfit,  etc.  can  be  ana- 
lyzed on  the  basis  of  accumulated  data  and  approximate 

3.  Make  detailed  calculations  from  working  plans  as 
the  work  proceeds  in  the  drawing  room. 

It  can  be  accepted  as  almost  axiomatic,  that  as  con- 
struction proceeds,  the  weights  have  a  tendency  to  in- 

Apart  from  the  design  stage,  is  the  final  determination 
of  the  light  weight  and  longitudinal  center  of  gravity. 

Page   61 

etc.  as  the  vessel  is  being  completed  in  the  wet  basin. 
Conditions  are  seldom  ideal  for  reading  drafts  and  taking 
all  other  data  necessary  to  arrive  at  accurate  results.  May 
we  strongly  urge  that  enough  time  be  taken  to  obtain 
reliable  data,  that  the  vessel  be  as  nearly  complete  as 
possible  and  that  a  minimum  of  fuel,  water,  etc.  be  placed 
aboard.  An  inclining  experiment  should  be  performed 
on  at  least  one  vessel  of  each  class  in  order  to  determine 
the  vertical  center  of  gravity  for  purposes  of  stability. 
The  data  thus  obtained  is  invaluable  to  the  Owner  for 
determining  operating  conditions,  and  as  a  basis  for 
computations  if  any  alterations  are  made,  and  to  the 
Builder  for  reference  data. 

The  metacentric  height  for  tankers  of  normal  propor- 
tions is  more  than  adequate  under  all  normal  conditions 
of  operation  and  the  following  values  are  given  to  in- 
dicate their  possible  range: 

Light  Ship 12'  to  20' 

Loaded  Ship 5'  to     8' 

Although  most  tankers  have  excellent  subdivision  and 
can  generally  comply  with  the  requirements  of  the  two 
compartment  standard,  a  routine  flooding  calculation 
should  be  made,  particularly  in  way  of  the  ends  of  the 
vessel.  This  will  show  whether  the  vessel  can  survive  a 
collision  damage,  for  example,  in  way  of  rhe  machinery 

The  determination  of  maximum  permissible  drafts 
under  the  Load  Line  Act  calls  for  little  comment."  It  has 
been  resolved  into  a  simple  straight-forward  calculation 
by  the  regulating  of  the  International  Load  Line  Con- 
vention, London,  1930  and  much  credit  is  due  that  body 
for  formulating  such  a  comprehensive,  yet  readily  appli- 
cable set  of  rules. 

In  many  tankers  the  freeboard  deck  is  designed  with 
no  sheer  in  order  to  simplify  construction.  The  heights 
of  the  poop  and  forecastle  are  usually  increased  toward 
the  perpendiculars  to  improve  seaworthiness  and  ap- 
pearance. Where  these  heights  exceed  the  standard 
height  for  erections  as  required  by  the  Load  Line  Rules, 
and  the  erections  are  fitted  with  proper  closing  appli- 
ances, credit  may  be  claimed  in  the  load  line  determina- 
tion for  a  theoretical  sheer  line  as  indicated  in  Fig.  1. 

In  a  vessel  with  no  sheer  it  is  necessary  to  increase  the 
moulded  depth  in  order  to  obtain  the  same  drafts  as 
would  be  assigned  to  a  vessel  with  normal  sheer,  the  in- 
crease amounting  to  approximately  18"  in  a  500  foot 
ship.  Of  the  three  dimensions,  length,  beam  and  depth, 
the  latter  is  the  cheapest  to  increase;  and  the  depth  in- 
crease is  not  entirely  a  penalty  as  a  maximum  of  cargo 

cubic  is  gained  thereby  and  the  steel  is  utilized  to  a  bet- 
ter advantage  in  the  hull  girder  in  the  region  of  maxi- 
mum bending  moments. 

The  camber  employed  is  usually  a  broken  pitch  equiva- 
lent to  a  parabolic  camber  to  rule  requirement,  and  is 
used  to  simplify  structural  fabrication  and  assembly. 

The  marine  fraternity  has  long  felt  the  need  for  a 
revision  of  the  tonnage  admeasurement  rules  in  some 
such  fashion  as  has  been  applied  to  the  load  line  regula- 
tions. The  tonnage  rules  are  archaic,  and  in  verbiage  and 
illustration  hark  back  to  the  days  of  the  wooden  vessels. 
In  the  light  of  present  shipbuilding  practice,  they  are 
ambiguous,  misleading  and  subject  to  individual  inter- 
pretation in  many  respects. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  it  still  behooves  the  designer  to  be 
thoroughly  conversant  with  the  present  U.  S.  and  Panama 
Tonnage  rules,  including  exemptions  and  deductions,  so 
that  minimum  gross  and  net  tonnages  will  be  assigned  to 
a  vessel. 

The  U.  S.  gross  tonnage  is  used  for  assessing  dry  dock- 
ing fees,  port  charges,  insurance  premiums,  etc.  The  V. 
S.  net  tonnage  is  used  for  tax  determinations  in  foreign 
trade.  The  Panama  Canal  net  tonnage  is  used  for  assess- 
ing the  tolls  when  a  tanker  is  making  the  transit  of  the 

The  net  tonnage  is  determined  by  subtracting  the  fol- 
lowing tonnage  items  from  the  gross:  machinery  space, 
steering  gear,  anchor  gear,  crews  quarters,  chart  and 
radio  rooms,  bosun's  stores,  etc.  Under  the  U.  S.  Rules, 
if  the  tonnage  of  the  machinery  space  is  in  excess  of  13 
per  cent  of  the  gross,  the  official  deduction  is  32  per  cent; 
otherwise  only  one  and  three  quarter  times  the  actual 
tonnage  of  the  space  is  allowed.  (Danube  Rule).  The 
Panama  Rules  are  basically  similar  to  the  U.  S.  Rules  but 
vary  in  that  they  only  permit  use  of  the  Danube  Rule  for 
machinery  space  deduction,  and  are  more  stringent  in 
respect  to  other  exemptions  and  deductions.  Therefore, 
the  Panama  tonnages  are  always  considerably  higher  than 
the  U.  S.  tonnages. 

In  regard  to  the  determination  of  cargo  capacities, 
there  has  been  little  improvement  in  the  time  tried 
method  of  gauging  tanks  with  steel  tape  and  sounding 
weight  and  referring  the  ullages  so  obtained  to  a  set  of 
calibration  tables.  It  is  not  always  practicable  to  locate 
ullage  covers  over  the  center  of  area  of  a  tank  so  that 
effects  of  list  and  trim  may  be  minimized.  There  is  al- 
ways the  fire  hazard  associated  with  opening  ullage 
covers  and  permitting  explosive  vapors  to  emanate  there- 
from. Owners  require  that  capacities  be  correct  to  within 
0.5  per  cent,  and  with  variable  hydrostatic  heads,  it  is 
difficult  to  find  direct  reading  pressure  gauge  devices. 
Manometers,  etc.  that  can  consistently  meet  this  condi- 
tion. There  are  .satisfactory  commercial  gauging  devices 
that  eliminate  the  fire  hazard.  They  employ  a  float  at- 
tached to  a  steel  tape  that  reels  in  an  enclosed  housing 
located  on  deck,  and  ullages  may  be  read  through  a  win- 
dow in  the  housing;  the  ullages  so  obtained  are  referred 
to  the  calibration  tables.  It  requires  no  great  stretch  of 
imagination  to  conceive  of  an  electronic  ullage  recorder; 
possibly  a  tape  could  be  developed  where  the  cost  would 
not  prohibit  its  commercial  application. 

The  calibration  tables  are  computed  using  final  mold 
(Please  tuhn  to  page  83) 

Page  62 





Reg.  U.  >.  Kil,  oir. 

Observations  on  Shanghai,  Hongkong  and  Manila 


VicE-PrHKiriRiit.  Tlin  Hh 


111;  i)f  California,  N.  A. 


A  WEEK  IN  SHANGHAI  convinces  mc-  that  the  old 
order  of  affairs  is  definitely  out.  In  place  of  the  former 
well  regulated  International  Settlements,  there  is  control 
exercised  by  an  extremely  nationalistic  Chinese  Govern- 
ment that  is  jealous  of  its  new  position.  Actually  Shang- 
hai is  no  more  representative  of  China  than  New  York 
is  of  the  U.S.A.,  but  as  the  largest  city  of  the  country  with 
a  population  undoubtedly  over  five  miOion,  and  the 
country's  great  export  and  import  point,  it  is  the  city 
which  most  concerns  us. 

Today  Shanghai  is  full  of  refugees  from  all  of  North 
China,  farmers  and  villagers  driven  in  by  the  civil  war. 
It  was  frequently  suggested  that  I  fly  to  Pekin  to  take 
a  look  at  "Old  China "  but  this  would  have  to  be  over 
Communist  lines.  The  war  today  is  probably  draining 
75%  of  the  Government's  income  and  a  very  poorly 
paid  army  and  civil  service  is  turning  to  "squeeze "  to 
get  by.  In  the  old  days  it  was  "honest  squeeze"  corres- 
ponding to  our  system  of  brokerages,  tips,  etc.,  but  now 
it  is  "dishonest  squeeze"  in  a  big  way.  This  you  hear  on 
all  sides.  When  you  attempt  to  evaluate  the  situation  you 
should  bear  in  mind  that  the  country  has  been  fighting 
continuously  since  19-i2. 

China  of  course  has  lost  Manchuria  as  an  economic 
unit  and  this  has  been  a  severe  blow;  otherwise  the  war 
for  the  last  two  years  has  been  deadlocked.  Transporta- 
tion has  broken  down  and  it  is  difficult  to  move  goods 
from  the  interior  to  seaports.  To  get  by,  the  government 
has  turned  to  the  printing  press  and  bills  in  larger  and 
larger  denominations  are  in  circulation.  I  couldn't  help 
but  think  that  China  is  using  plenty  of  foreign  exchange 
just  to  pay  these  printing  bills,  because  Shanghai  is 
full  of  nice  new  currency.  It  was  startling  at  first  to  be 
sold  a  four  page  newspaper  "for  only  S5,000,"  but  you 
soon  get  used  to  it.  One  of  the  bright  eyed  little  news- 
boys picked  me  for  a  stranger  and  told  me  they  sold  for 
$10,000.  My  room  rent  at  the  Cathay  Hotel  was  $640,000 
a  day,  and  a  few  days  after  arrival  I  received  a  notice 
saying  that  the  management  was  very  sorry  but  because 
of  circumstances  beyond  their  control  the  daily  rental 

MARCH     •      1948 

Elliott  McAllister 

was  to  be  increased  to  $800,000. 

The  official  rate  of  exchange  is  fixed  each  day  by  a 
committee.  This  rate  is  applicable  to  all  licensed  export 
and  import  transactions,  but  otherwise  is  disregarded. 
The  authorities  are  trying  to  hold  the  rate  down  in  order 
to  hold  down  living  costs,  but  the  spread  between  the 
official  and  black  market  rates  makes  this  difficult.  The 
many  "brokers "  seem  to  set  this  rate  more  or  less  firm 
for  a  given  day  and  word  gets  around  very  quickly  as  to 
what  it  is.  A  visitor  can  cash  travelers  checks  at  black 
market  rates  without  difficulty  almost  anywhere  except 
at  a  bank,  and  as  a  result  the  banks  never  see  them. 
Where  the  system  is  bad  is  that  the  foreign  exchange 
spent  by  a  visitor  never  helps  the  Chinese  economy — 
his  money  never  gets  into  banking  channels. 

China's  shortage  of  U.  S.  dollars  is  acute.  All  banks 
must  report  to  the  (Central  Bank  of  China  at  noon  each 
day  all  purchases  and  sales  and  these  must  balance  within 
$2,000;  otherwise  the  bank  has  to  cover  by  purchasing 

Page  63 

or  selling.  These  reports  are  cumbersome  and  must  be 
filled  in  in  great  detail.  The  foreign  banks,  some  of 
which  have  been  in  Shanghai  for  almost  a  hundred  years, 
now  find  themselves  at  a  great  disadvantage  and  are 
pretty  much  discouraged  as  to  prospects.  Those  banks 
do  not  have  the  fixed  C.N.C.  deposits  enjoyed  by  the 
Chinese  banks  and  their  own  current  deposits  move 
fast; — one  leading  bank  told  me  they  frequently  lost 
30%-40'^f  of  their  C.N.C.  deposits  one  day  and  re- 
gained them  the  next.  The  result  is  that  these  banks  are 
not  in  a  position  to  extend  many  large  loan  lines  and 
this  business  is  going  to  the  Chinese  banks — who  then 
get  the  benefit  of  negotiating  the  export  Letters  of 

Interest  rates  run  from  9'  <  a  month  to  25' i  a  month, 
and  dollars  can  be  sold  a  month  forward  to  the  Central 
Bank,  and  when  this  is  done  the  Central  Bank  advances 
C.N.C.  at  an  interest  rate  of  6' ,  per  annum.  However, 
most  exporters  (  whatever  there  are  of  them  )  prefer  to 
forego  the  saving  in  interest  and  think  they  can  do  better 
by  holding  the  dollars  until  the  last  minute.  And  with 
the  continuous  depreciation  of  the  C.N.C,  they  have 
been  right. 

Along  this  line,  several  foreign  banks  told  me  of  the 
troubles  and  risks  incurred  when  they  found  themselves 
unable  to  deliver  dollar  bills  sold  forward  to  the  Central 
Bank.  These  instances  have  come  about  through  the  in- 
ability of  the  exporter  to  make  the  shipment,  but  the 
Central  Bank  will  take  months  to  settle.  Last  summer 
Nanking  fired  a  lot  of  top  people  and  their  successors 
are  unwilling  to  assume  a  responsibility  which  might 
possibly  get  them  in  trouble.  Applications  for  a  can- 
cellation of  a  contract  must  be  supported  by  detailed 
reports  explaining  why  the  shipment  cannot  be  made, 
and  with  the  exchange  rate  going  steadily  higher,  a 
number  of  substantial  losses  have  been  incurred. 

To  give  an  idea  of  the  general  chaotic  condition  now 
prevailing  in  Shanghai,  the  Economic  News  Bureau  re- 
ports that  the  face  value  of  dishonored  checks  returned 

by  the  Bankers  Clearing  House  during  the  five  days, 
October  27-31,  totalled  over  $174,000,000,000  (174 
billion  C.N.C).  I  was  told  that  many  of  the  smaller 
Chinese  banks  unable  to  meet  checks  themselves  would 
refuse  payment  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  drawer  had 
sufficient  funds  on  deposit.  The  next  day  they  were 
"so  sorry."  The  great  bulk  of  dishonored  checks,  however, 
were  drawings  against  uncollected  funds. 

The  Chinese  banking  system  is  headed  by  the  Central 
Bank  of  China,  the  agent  of  the  National  Treasury  in 
I  Please  turn  to  page  1 1 1)  I 


THE  BRITISH  ARE  IN  HONGKONG  to  stay  and 
1  believe  that  many  prominent  and  well-to-do  Chinese 
are  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  arrangements.  Hongkong, 
with  a  population  of  over  a  million,  today  impresses  vou 
as  a  busy,  and  well  run  city,  although  many  scars  left 
by  the  war  still  remain.  In  particular,  the  heights  in 
back  of  the  city  are  dotted  with  large  homes,  not  yet 
repaired,  which  were  looted  by  the  Chinese  during  and 
after  the  Japanese  occupation.  And  when  1  say  looted,  I 
mean  that  not  only  were  the  furnishings  taken,  but  glass, 
plumbing  and  fixtures  are  gone,  including  floors,  window 
sills  and  roofs,  Only  the  shells  still  stand. 

A  very  considerable  business  now  goes  through  Hong- 
kong,— goods  smuggled  in  and  out  of  China  proper. 
While  the  British  know  that  this  smuggling  is  going  on, 
they  wink  at  the  business  and  feel  that  their  first  con- 
sideration is  to  keep  Hongkong  on  the  map  as  a  large 
shipping  center.  Without  this  shipping,  Hongkong  would 
be  dead. 

Hongkong  is  of  course  a  member  of  the  Sterling  block 
and  it  is  difficult  to  get  a  permit  for  U.  S.  dollars  unless 
you  are  importing  a  product  considered  important  for 
the  Colony's  welfare.  When  such  a  permit  is  granted,  an 
importer  obtains  U.  S.  dollars  at  the  official  rate  of 
approximately  4  Hongkong  to  1   U.  S.  dollar.  The  au- 


Page  64 


thorities,  however,  have  hit  upon  an  ingenious  scheme  to 
turn  black  market  exchange  into  useful  channels.  Instead 
of  wasting  their  time  and  energies  trying  to  suppress 
that  market,  they  tell  approved  importers  to  go  right 
ahead  and  purchase  U.  S.  dollars  whenever  they  can 
find  them  as  long  as  they  will  use  those  dollars  to  buy 
merchandise  to  be  imported  into  the  Colony.  They  use 
the  phrase  "unotlicial  exchange"  or  "free  exchange"  and 
while  the  large  banks  do  not  deal  in  such  exchange,  the 
many  small  Chinese  banks  do.  Right  across  from  the 
Hongkong  Hotel  are  two  shops  with  big  signs  "Exchange 
Brokers,"  and  these  rates  are  also  published  in  the  news- 
papers. The  rate  has  been  running  around  5.25  to  SI. 00 
U.  S.,  which  means  that  goods  so  imported  will  cost  a 
little  more  than  20'  r  higher  than  goods  imported  offi- 
cially. The  result,  however,  is  that  shops  are  full  of 
nerchandise  and  you  can  buy  anything.  California  oranges 
and  other  products  are  plentiful,  although  merchandise 
from  Australia  and  Canada  has  been  underselling  ours 
and  is  much  in  evidence. 

I  Goods  in  Hongkong  are  subject  to  price  controls  and 
price  tags  must  be  prominently  displayed  on  everything. 
Australian  butter  retails  for  the  equivalent  of  55c  a  lb. 
U.  S.,  and  eggs  are  about  50c  U.  S.  a  dozen.  I  was  told 
that  warehouses  are  full  of  merchandise  of  all  sorts. 

To  get  back  to  the  unofficial  exchange  again,  I  asked 
one  of  the  importers  to  show  me  some  of  the  U.  S.  dol- 
lars just  purchased  by  his  firm.  I  was  shown  a  stack  of 
checks,  drafts,  travelers  checks  and  money  orders,  much 
of  which  had  changed  hands  many  times,  mostly  small 
personal  remittances  up  to  a  few  hundred  dollars  U.  S. 
There  was  a  check  drawn  by  the  Havana  Branch  of  the 
Bank  of  China  on  their  New  York  correspondent,  finally 
cashed  in  Hongkong.  The  Chinese  bank,  in  selling  the 
batch,  guarantees  all  prior  endorsement;  the  checks  are 
deposited  in  the  importers  regular  bank  which  T.  T's. 
the  funds  to  be  paid  out  in  the  U.  S.  Sometimes  the  im- 

porter here  merely  mails  the  checks  to  his  own  con- 
nection in  the  States. 

On  the  export  side,  a  fairly  recent  ruling  permits  an 
exporter  of  tung  oil  to  retain  75' <  of  the  U.  S.  dollars 
resulting  from  such  exports.  1  he  remaining  25'(  must 
be  turned  over  to  the  dollar  pool.  This  will  of  course 
greatly  encourage  the  flow  of  tung  oil  through  Hongkong. 
This  rule  applies  to  tung  oil  only. 

In  contrast  to  the  austerity  program,  the 
Hongkong  authorities  believe  in  a  return  to  normal 
prewar  conditions  and  as  an  example,  horse  racing  has 
been  re-established.  A  group  of  leading  business  men 
has  imported  250  Australian  ponies  which  were  allo- 
cated by  lot  and  they  are  having  a  very  successful  meet. 
All  the  leading  clubs  and  firms  have  boxes,  with  elaborate 
lunch  parties  during  the  racing. 

There  is  a  fair  amount  of  new  building  going  on  and 
it  seems  to  me  that  in  another  five  years  Hongkong  will 
really  be  a  beautiful  city  again.  The  setting  is  there  and 
they  have  management  and  direction.  The  Chinese  have 
again  announced  plans  to  build  Whampoa  into  a  large 
deep  water  port  as  a  rival  to  Hongkong,  but  the  British 
say  they  have  heard  that  sort  of  talk  for  thirty  years. 
Even  if  that  should  come  about,  Hongkong  still  has  the 
banks,  shipping  and  insurance  firms.  It's  a  nice  place  to 
visit  if  the  weather  is  good. 


MANILA  was  one  of  the  most  heavily  damaged 
cities  of  the  war  and  it  will  take  many  years  to  rebuild 
it.  On  all  sides  stand  the  skeletons  of  apartment  houses, 
government  buildings  and  offices  and  you  realize  that 
it  is  a  job  in  itself  to  clear  away  the  debris.  You  then 
talk  to  someone  who  has  just  returned  to  Manila  after 
a  year's  absence  and  you  learn  of  the  improvements  that 



MARCH      •      194 

have  been  made  and  you  realize  that  Manila  is  very  slowly 
but  surely  rebuilding. 

I  stayed  at  the  Army  and  Navy  Club  across  from  the 
Manila  Hotel.  It  is  still  pretty  rough  there,  no  hot  water, 
practically  no  furniture  in  the  rooms  and  only  one  tele- 
phone downstairs  for  the  use  of  the  members.  A  friend 
very  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal  a  car  and  chauffeur 
and  I  soon  found  out  that  this  arrangement  is  indispens- 
able. Whether  you  stay  at  the  Manila  Hotel  or  at  the 
Army  and  Navy  Club  you  have  to  drive  about  a  mile  to 
get  to  the  financial  district  and  this  means  getting 
across  the  river.  The  bridge  is  single  lane  each  way  and 
long  lines  of  cars,  six  abreast,  wait  more  or  less  patiently 
for  their  turn  to  get  across.  There  are  just  a  few  modern 
office  buildings  in  downtown  Manila,  but  most  firms  and 
banks  are  housed  in  old  structures.  Generally,  if  the 
single  elevator  is  running,  you  have  to  get  in  line  and 
wait  your  turn  to  get  up.  And  it  is  always  much  quicker 
to  walk  down. 

And  yet  these  downtown  buildings  one  after  the 
other  are  being  repaired  and  a  lot  of  business  is  done 
in  small  out-of-the-way  offices.  In  particular  the  Port 
Area  on  the  Manila  Hotel  side  of  the  river  is  growing 
with  modern  buildings  under  construction.  Those  streets 
and  sidewalks  are  twice  as  wide  as  in  downtown  Manila 

Manila  itself,  as  in  the  case  of  most  large  cities  of  the 
world,  is  overflowing  with  people.  In  spite  of  the  fact  that 
there  is  far  less  housing  available,  it  is  estimated  that 
there  must  be  between  1,500,000  and  2,000,000  people 
in  Manila  today  against  a  prewar  population  of  600,000 
to  700,000  people.  As  you  drive  through  the  outskirts 
of  the  city,  you  see  a  great  many  families  living  under  the 
most  wretched  conditions  without  sanitary  facilities  of 
any  kind  whatsoever.  There  is  always  the  danger  that 
an  epidemic  could  break  out. 

There  are  armed  guards  everywhere.  A  half  dozen  are 
stationed  at  the  Army-Navy  Club  and  the  homes  I 
visited  all  had  walls  or  fences  around  them  with  a 
watchman  on  duty  24  hours  a  day.  The  general  spirit  of 
lawlessness  born  during  the  war  has  not  died.  You  don't 
travel  far  from  Manila  by  car  as  the  Huks  have  posses- 
sion of  large  sections  of  Luzon  Island.  These  Huks  can 
be  defined  as  groups  of  guerillas,  poor  farmers  and 
malcontents  in  general  and  there  are  constant  skirmishes 
between  the  National  Guard  and  these  people  with  con- 

siderable bloodshed.  It  is  much  safer  to  Hy  between 
important  towns. 

President  Roxas  is  well  regarded  and  is  considered  a 
staunch  friend  of  the  United  States.  However,  he  ap- 
parently has  been  either  unwilling  or  unable  to  surround 
himself  with  competent  assistants  and  advisers  and  his 
government,  while  doing  well  enough,  lacks  force  and 
direction.  I  heard  a  number  of  men  say  that  they  felt 
the  next  few  years  would  be  good  enough,  but  they 
weren't  too  confident  of  the  long  pull.  In  any  young 
government  a  group  with  strong  nationalistic  tendencies 
could  come  to  the  top  and  they  could  easily  jeopardize 
the  position  of  foreigners.  As  an  example,  during  my 
stay,  the  Supreme  Court  handed  down  a  decision  bar- 
ring aliens  from  acquiring  residential  lands.  This  opinion 
was  based  on  a  provision  in  the  Philippine  Constitution 
which  limits  the  utilization  of  agricultural  lands  to  Fili- 
pinos, but  the  court  construed  the  provision  as  including 
residential  lands.  Americans,  who  enjoy  temporary  equal 
rights  with  Filipinos  under  special  treaty,  are  not  now 
affected,  but  as  things  stand,  no  Britisher,  Hollander  or 
other  foreigner  can  purchase  his  own  home.  It  is  just  a 
straw  in  a  wind  that  could  blow  harder. 

The  Philippines  need  money.  This  means  not  only 
the  government  but  the  banks  also  need  deposits.  Bank 
deposits  are  rising,  but  the  demand  for  loans  is  even 
greater  and  many  worthwhile  requests  for  credit  lines 
must  be  refused  for  this  reason.  There  is  little  long  term 
money  to  be  had  and  it  is  therefore  difficult  to  finance 
the  construction  of  a  new  building  or  the  purchase  of 
a  home. 

As  of  September  30,  1947,  bank  deposits  were  reported 
to  me  to  be  as  follows: 

Philippine  National  Bank         Pesos     146,000,000  Filipino 
National  City  Bank  of  N.  Y.  1 40,000,000  U.S.A. 

China  Banking  Corporation  38,000,000  Chinese 

Bank  of  Philippine  Islands  28,000,000    (Spanish 

Hongkong  &  Shanghai  Bank.  Corp.        26,000,000  British 
Philippine  Bank  of  Communication        22,000,000  Chinese 
Philippine  Trust  Co.  22,000,000  U.S.A. 

Chartered  Bank  of  I.  A.  &  C.  20,000,000  British 

Peoples  Bank  &  Trust  Co.  1 0.000,000  U.S.A. 

Bank  of  America  N.  T.  &  S.  A.  1 0,000,000  U.S.A. 

Philippine  Bank  of  Commerce  9.000,000  Filipino 

Nederlandish  Indische  Handelsbank         8,000,000  Dutch 
Turning  to  government  finances,  I  was  told  that  the 
(Please  turn  to  page  110) 

Page  66 


Netherlands  Indies  Import  Trade 

The  Netherlands  Indies  Government  Import  and  Hx- 
port  Organization  (NIGIEO)  was  reportedly  dissolved 
on  October  1,  19-47.  Two  agencies  charged  with  control 
of  import  trade  have  replaced  NIGIEO.  The  first,  the  Im- 
port Allocation  and  Planning  Organization,  which  acts 
as  a  purely  advisory  body,  submits  to  the  Department  of 
Economic  Affairs  estimates  of  the  amount  of  a  certain 
item  to  be  imported  and  the  allocation  of  this  amount 
among  importers.  Upon  approval  of  these  estimates  by 
the  Department  of  Economic  Affairs,  the  necessary  ex- 
change will  be  made  available  by  the  Foreign  Exchange 
Bureau.  The  second,  the  General  Import  Organization 
(AIO),  finances  the  purchase  of  such  important  items 
as  textiles,  foodstuffs,  bulk  goods,  sundries  (as  haber- 
dashery), fertilizers,  and  chemicals.  In  practice  this  means 
that  the  prorated  allocations  for  these  categories  of  goods 
are  purchased  by  the  particular  import  houses  and 
charged  to  the  account  of  AIO.  Once  the  goods  are  in 
the  Indies,  they  are  transferred  to  the  importers  for  dis- 
position through  normal  retail  channels.  This  assures  im- 
portation of  essential  goods  in  sufficient  quantities,  a  re- 
sponsibility which  Netherlands  Indies  firms,  weakened 
by  losses  occasioned  by  war  and  the  political  situation, 
cannot  afford  to  undertake  without  assistance  from  the 
Government.  An  American  manufacturer  desiring  to  sell 
his  product  in  the  Indies  should  contact  established  firms 
in  that  country,  or  their  branch  offices  which  most  large 
prewar  houses  maintain  in  New  York.  He  will  then  be 
informed  whether  any  allocation  for  the  purchase  of  his 
product  is  available  and  in  what  amounts. 

HOT  nmm 

Seven  thousand  tons  of  potatoes  destined  for  Italy  in  the  Army'! 
Civilian  Relief  Program  are  Drotected  from  freezing  vrhile  beinq 
loaded  by  continuous  hot  air  being  pumped  into  the  holds  b) 
Thag — a  machine  developed  by  Todd  Shipyards  Corporation.  Th< 
spuds  arrived  at  the  pier  in  pre-heated  trains  and  trucks  and  wcr< 
in  danger  of  freezing  while  being  put  aboard  the  ELKO  VICTORY 
a  States  Marine  Corporation  freighter.  A  steady  temperature 
averaging  37°  was  maintained  in  all  five  holds  of  the  ship  while 
the  outside  temperature  ranged  from  0°  to  18°.  Potatoes 
28.9°,  and  rot  very  quickly  after  thawing. 




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MARCH     •      1948 

Documents  on  Private  Trade 
Shipments  to  Japan 

All  freight  and  air  express  shipments  to  Japan  require, 
in  addition  to  customary  prewar  documentation,  evi- 
dence of  SCAP  authorization.  The  evidence  for  usual 
commercial  shipments  made  to  Boeki  Cho  must  be  in  the 
form  of  a  contract  validated  by  SCAP.  On  other  ship- 
ments, such  as  imports  by  licensees,  private  individuals, 
and  occupation  personnel,  evidence  of  clearence  by  SCAP 
is  necessary.  Four  complete  sets  of  all  shipping  docu- 
ments are  currently  required.  It  is  not  necessary  that 
goods  be  marked  with  country  of  origin.  No  documen- 
tation is  required  by  SCAP  on  mail  to  Japan.  At  present 
mail  shipments  to  Japan  are  limited  to  18  ounce  pack- 
ages of  samples  and  gift  packages  (relief  parcels)  not 
exceeding  22  pounds. 

World  Trade  Exposition 

In  previous  years,  San  Francisco  s  participation  in  Na- 
tional World  Trade  Week  has  been  largely  a  financial 
district  affair.  This  year,  however,  the  World  Trade  As- 
sociation has  plans  to  make  this -event  a  city-wide  cele- 
bration. A  World  Trade  Exposition,  in  which  foreign 
governments  can  display  their  wares  and  tell  visitors 
about  their  tourist  attractions,  will  be  held  in  the  Grand 
Nave  on  the  second  floor  of  San  Francisco's  famed  Ferry 
Building.  Added  interest  is  given  to  this  location  for  the 

Page  67 

THE  HOWLAiS  (and  Frank) 

With  the  U.  S.  Commercial  Com- 
pany winding  up  its  affairs,  Frank 
Howland,  Chief  of  their  San  Fran- 
cisco office,  has  accepted  the  posi- 
tion of  manager  of  the  International 
Forwarding  Department  of  the 
Oceanic  Trading  Company. 

Sam  and  John  Gazzano  have 
made  the  Oceanic  Trading  Company 
an  unusual  unit  in  the  world  trade 
picture  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  The 
scope  of  their  lines  and  the  activities 
in  which  they  engage  give  them  spe- 
cial opportunities  for  diversification 
of  effort.  Among  these  activities  is 
the  forwarding  of  relief  packages  to 
former  war  areas. 

Born  in  San  Francisco  in  1904, 
Frank  comes  from  a  long  line  of 
seamen,  beginning  with  John  How- 
land  who  arrived  in  Plymouth  in 
1620  on  the  Mayflower,  followed  by 
his  brothers  on  the  Fortune  ( 1621 ) 
and  the  Arrn  ( 162.^  ) .  Most  of  their 
sons  followed  the  sea  until  the  Civil 
War,  many  of  them  becoming  mas- 
ters on  whaling  and  clipper  ships, 

travelling  around  the  Horn  to  San 
Francisco  and  thence  to  the  Pacific 
Islands  and  the  Orient,  returning  to 
New  Bedford  with  rich  cargos  for 
their  trading  companies. 

In  1770  Isaac  Howland  founded  a 
trading  firm  in  New  Bedford,  Mas- 
sachusetts, and  his  son,  Isaac,  Jr., 
built  the  firm  into  one  of  the  largest 
and  most  prosperous  firms  ever  to 
engage  in  the  whaling  industry. 

Frank's  grandfather,  Benjamin 
Franklin  Howland,  first  went  to  sea 
on  a  clipper  ship  of  which  his  father 
was  master,  and  later  rose  to  be  mas- 
ter of  a  clipper  ship  of  his  own.  He 
retired  from  the  sea  at  the  age  of  23 
and  settled  in  California,  later  be- 
coming partner  in  a  large  hydraulic 
mine  in  Central  California. 

Frank's     father,     Henry     Frank 

left  to  right:   John  Sanano,    Frank 
Howland,  and  Sam  Gazzano. 

Howland,  who  was  also  born  in  San 
Francisco,  served  for  fifty  years  in 
the  shipping  business.  He  was  pur- 
ser on  the  old  S/S  China  and  the  SjS 
Hongkong  Maru  of  the  old  China 
Mail  and  Toyo  Kisen  Kaisha  Lines, 
freight  clerk  with  the  old  Pacific 
Mail  Steamship  Company,  and  office 
manager  of  Williams,  Dimond  & 
Company.  Finally  he  became  asso- 
ciated with  the  American  Hawaiian 
Steamship  Cc.npany  where  he 
served  for  thirty  years  and  became 
secretary  to  American  Hawaiian 
President  Roger  Lapham. 

In  his  new  position  Frank  is 
maintaining  the  strong  seagoing 
tradition  in  his  family.  His  back- 
ground includes  21  years  with  Mat- 
toon  &  Company,  custom  house 
brokers  and  forwarding  •  agents, 
three  years  as  transportation  and 
warehouse  officer  for  the  Pacific 
Coast  for  the  Lend  Lease  Adminis- 
tration, and  two  years  with  the 
United  States  Commercial  Com- 

Page  70 


Uarine  Insurance 

The  London  Letter 

By  Dur  United  Kingdom  Cnrrespondent 

siiriince  industry  that  must  rely,  to  a  very  great  extent, 
upon  its  own  resources,  and  cannot,  therefore,  do  busi- 
ness except  at  rates  which  virtually  guarantee  a  profit. 

Premium  Rates  Reduced  too  Soon 

IN  CONSIDERING  the  prospects  of  hull  business  in 
rhe  year  1948,  it  should  be  mentioned  that  it  has  now 
|->cLome  apparent  that  the  concessions  of  the  immediate 
pc  )stwar  period  were  made  prematurely.  They  were  made 
m  the  belief  that,  with  a  return  to  normal  navigational 
conditions  and  the  resumption  of  private  enterprise  in 
shipowning,  there  would  be  a  decline  in  settlements. 
Tins  has  not  proved  to  have  been  the  case.  The  antici- 
p.ited  falling-ofi  in  the  number  of  casualties  has  failed 
t(i  materialize;  instead,  casualties  have  increased  very 
materially  in  number,  as  the  monthly  returns  of  the 
Liverpool  Underwriters'  Association  have  proved  beyond 

Another  important  factor  in  this  connection  is  that, 
\i.  hcreas  underwriters  quite  justifiably  anticipated  that 
the  cost  of  repairs  would  decline  from  the  wartime  peak, 
there  has  been,  if  anything,  an  increase  in  rhe  cost  of  re- 
[i.iirs.  Great  credit  is  due  to  underwriters  for  making 
reductions  in  premiums  immediately  after  hostilities 
tc.ised.  Now,  however,  it  is  becoming  clear  that,  in  im- 
plementing their  pledge  to  make  those  reductions,  they 
erred  on  the  side  of  generosity. 

The  tundun  Meeting 

International  Competition 
In  Insurance  is  Desirable 

Demands  by  some  nations  to  seek  to  favour  their  na- 
tional insurance  industry  by  freezing  out  foreign  com- 
petition goes  on.  This  is  in  spite  of  warnings  from  many 
quarters  that  only  ill  can  result  from  this  narrowing  ten- 
dency. By  closing  their  marine  insurance  frontiers,  these 
nations  prejudice  their  own  overseas  trade  and  invite 
possible  catastrophe  in  their  own  insurance  industries. 
The  theory  behind  the  actions  of  these  nationalistic 
legislators  is  that  in  recent  years  marine  underwriters 
have  made  large  profits.  They  believe  that,  if  they  can 
prevent  premiums  from  being  exported  to  other  coun- 
tries, their  own  insurance  industry  must  benefit.  They  do 
not  perceive  that,  if  they  create  a  national  monopoly  of 
marine  insurance,  their  own  merchants  and  shippers  will 
be  at  the  mercy  of  their  own  underwriters,  and  that, 
while  they  keep  their  national  premiums  in  the  country, 
the  money  paid  in  premiums  circulates  in  a  very  narraw 
circle.  They  cannot  see  that,  without  competition  from 
abroad,  their  export  trade  can  be  victimised  by  an  in- 

In  the  64th  annual  meeting  of  the  Institute  of  London 
Underwriters,  Mr.  Harold  H.  Mummery  said  that  a  mat- 
ter which  was  giving  a  great  deal  of  concern  at  the  pres- 
ent time  was  the  vast  sums  which  underwriters  in  this 
country  were  being  called  upon  to  pay  for  claims  due 
to  theft  and  pilferage,  and  claims  which  could  be  con- 
tributed to  indifferent  and  even  bad  packing.  He  sug- 
gested that  the  marine  insurance  market  should  reintro- 
duce the  Institution's  "Shipping  'Value  Theft,  Pilferage 
and  Non-Delivery"  clause.  By  so  doing,  rightly  or  wrong- 
ly, he  was  left  with  the  impression  that  "we  should  place 
upon  the  consignee  a  greater  sense  of  responsibility  to  see 
that  his  goods  are  conveyed  to  their  final  destination  with 
reasonable  despatch,  as  provided  for  in  the  Institute 
Cargo  Wartime  Extension'  clause. " 

Mr.  Mummery  reported  with  special  pleasure  that 
the  American  Institute  of  Marine  LInderwriters  had  de- 
cided to  become  a  member  of  the  International  Union 
of  Marine  Insurance. 

The  Liverpool  Meeting— Radar 
For  Port  Control 

The  Committee  of  the  Liverpool  Underwriters'  Asso- 
ciation in  their  report  for  the  year  1947,  just  issued  (this 
is  the  Association's  I46th  annual  report),  have  compiled 
a  document  of  several  thousand  words,  reviewing  the 
principal  events  of  the  past  year.  The  Committee  note 
with  interest  that  the  Mersey  Docks  and  Harbour  Board 
expect  in  1948  to  be  the  first  Port  Authority  in  the 
world  to  utilise  Radar  on  a  full  scale  basis  for  port  con- 
trol, "as  a  result  of  which  a  considerable  acceleration  in 
the  turn  round  of  ships  will  no  doubt  be  achieved,  quite 
apart  from  additional  safety  of  navigation  in  the  Mersey 
Channel  during  bad  visibility." 

Ship  Losses  Since  the  War 

According  to  the  Association's  records,  45  steam  or 
motor  vessels,  of  500  gross  tons  and  upwards,  totalling 
17.1,484  gross  tons,  became  casualties  as  a  result  of  con- 
( Please  turn  to  page  1 06) 

MARCH     •      1941 

Page  71 



Included  in  this  picture  are  those  who,  on  February  12,  were  given  the 
oath  of  office  as  regular  commissioned  officers  of  the  U.  S.  Coast  Guard  by 
Rear  Admiral  W.  K.  Scammel  in  the  Appraisers'  Building,  San  Francisco. 

Some  of  the  group  were  Reserve  Officers  and  former  members  of  the 
Department  of  Commerce  before  the  Coast  Guard  assiuned  charge  of  the 
Inspection  Bureau.  Others  were  regular  Coast  Guard  officers  with  tempo- 
rary appointments,  who  received  permanent  commissions. 

The  Bureau  of  Inspection  is  headed  up  by  Capt.  J.  P.  Tibbetts  and  H.  V. 
Barbieri,  who  work  directly  under  Chief  of  Staff  Capt.  Charles  W.  Dean, 
who  in  the  absence  of  Admiral  Scammel  is  Commander  of  the  Coast  Guard 

And  for  a  top  notch  information  officer  you  contact  Chief  Yeoman 
R.  G.  Degnan. 

Those  pictured  are  the  following; 

Comdr.  Frederick  A.  MacGurn,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Carl  H.  Carlsen,  USCG 
Lt.  Comdr.  Charles  V.  Carson,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Felix  S.  DeSoboU,  USCG;  Lt, 
Comdr.  Jesse  E.  Eastman,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  George  C.  Ferenz,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr 
Barney  Frankel,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  David  S.  Garvis,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Otto  V 
Knierim,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Samuel  J.  Miller,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  George  J.  Monte 
verdi,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Peter  Olson,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Charles  C.  Plummet 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Cortlandt  W.  Quinby,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Frederick  A.  Reicker 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Frank  N.  Sampson,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  George  W.  Stedman,  Jr. 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Herbert  J.  Stevens,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Jesse  O.  Thompson 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Andrew  M.  Thomsen,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Bertram  J.  Tuckey 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Arthur  M.  Vrooman,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Lucius  E.  Wadman 
USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Leonard  C.  Walen.  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Stuart  H.  Waring,  USCG 
Lt.  Comdr.  William  A.  Williamson,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Arthur  S.  Whitehead 
USCG;  Lt.  Norman  A.  Dreher,  USCG;  Lt.  (jg)  William  M.  Benkert,  USCG;  Lt 
Bainbridge  B.  Leland,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Samuel  G.  Guill,  USCG;  Lt.  Comdr.  Lance 
J.  Kirstine,  USCG;  Lr  Charles  E.  Norton,  USCG;  Lt.  ( jg)   Ricardo  A.  Ratti,  USCG. 

Page   72 


Admiralty  Decisions 

By   HARDLU   S.   DDBBS    «/  ^^"  Franasco  Bar 


I  [very  once  in  a  while  I  come  across  an  intcr- 
J  c-sring  case  of  collision  at  sea  that  I  feel  would  be  of 
particular  interest  to  my  readers,  although  under  ordinary 
circumstances  I  rarely  devote  very  much  copy  to  the 
subject  of  collision. 

A  most  interesting  case  that  was  decided  a  number  of 
\cars  ago  was  that  of  Northern  Navigation  Company  vs. 
Wii/nesota-Atlantic  Transit  Company.  The  case  was  heard 
on  appeal  by  each  circuit  of  the  United  States  Circuit 
(  ourt  of  Appeals.  The  case  is  particularly  important  from 
the  standpoint  of  the  rules  with  respect  to  overtaking  a 
vessel  at  sea. 

On  a  bright  summer  afternoon  in  August  the  Steamer  King, 
.1  s.ih  water  type,  blunt  bowed  freighter,  251  ft.  long,  43.3  ft. 
Iie.ini,  and  with  a  draft  of  16.5  ft.  forward  and  17.5  ft.  aft, 
lucked  out  of  Slip  3  on  the  north  shore  of  the  harbor  at 
Duluth  ship  canal  about  3,000  ft.  to  the  east.  At  about  the 
s.ime  time  the  steamer  Noronic,  a  fine  lined  passenger  boat.  385 
ft.  long,  with  a  draft  of  9  ft.  forward  and  18  ft.  aft,  backed  out 
of  Slip  No.  1,  about  600  feet  east  of  Slip  No.  3.  and  started 
for  the  same  ship  canal.  This  ship  canal  was  300  feet  wide, 
22.9  feet  deep  and  about  1400  feet  long  connecting  the  Duluth 
Harbor  with  Lake  Superior.  There  were  cement  retaining 
walls  on  each  side  of  the  canal.  At  the  west  end  of  the  canal 
the  cement  retaining  walls  continued  as  piers  but  curved  to 
the  north  and  south  to  form  an  approach  to  the  canal,  and  the 
wiilth  of  the  entrance  at  the  extreme  west  end  of  the  piers  was 
some  500  feet.  On  the  west  end  of  the  cement  retaining  walls 
and  just  before  the  walls  continued  as  piers,  or  curved  for  the 
entrance,  is  an  aerial  bridge.  At  the  time  the  boats  arrived  at  this 
aerial  bridge  the  stem  of  the  Noronic  was  ahead  of  the  stem  of 
the  King,  the  latter  lapping  the  porr  quarter  of  the  Noronic  some 
"5  to  100  feet.  After  the  two  boats  had  just  passed  the  aerial 
bridge  their  sterns  were  abreast  and  the  suction  from  the  Noronic 
pulled  the  stern  of  the  King  toward  the  stern  of  the  Noronic 
and  caused  the  King  to  veer  into  the  cement  wall  on  its  left 
or  port  side  inflicting  considerable  damage.  The  foregoing 
facts  are  the  only  facts  in  the  record  upon  which  there  is  no 
dispute.  As  to  which  steamer  was  in  the  lead  after  they  had 
straightened  out  for  the  canal  and  as  to  the  relative  positions 
ot  the  two  vessels  between  that  time  and  their  arrival  at  the 
icrial  bridge  in  the  canal  there  is  an  irreconcilable  conflict  in 
hi   evidence,  or  an  entire  lack  of  evidence. 

Both  vessels  backed  out  of  their  respective  slips  and  in 
in.ineuvering  backed  to  port  and  each  laid  their  respective 
lourses  for  the  ship  canal.  From  the  evidence  they  were  in 
Licneral  traveling  at  about  the  same  speed.  The  story  as  told 
by  the  witnesses  for  the  Noronic  is  substantially  as  follows: 
that  as  the  Noronic  was  backing  out  of  its  slip  the  King  was 
c)b!,erved  backing  out  of  its  slip  some  600  feet  further  west;  that 
.IS  the  Noronic  straightened  out  and  laid  its  course  for  the  canal 
entrance  the  King  was  finishing  a  like  maneuver  and  was 
.istern  and  to  the  starboard  of  the  Noronic.  later  crossing  the 
stern  to  port  and  at  all  times  until  enteting  the  canal  proper 
was  astern  of  the  Noronic:  that  at  about  the  time  they  entered 
the  pierheads  of  the  canal  the  King  endeavored  to  pass  the 
Noronic  resulting  in  the  positions  of  the  two  vessels  as  above 
recited  and  the  subsequent  damage  to  the  King. 

The  story  on  behalf  of  the  King  in  substance  is  that  the  King 
had  backed  out  of  its  slip  and  was  proceeding  towards  the  canal 

going  forward  when  the  Noronic  gave  notice  by  a  whistle  that 
it  was  about  to  back  out  of  its  slip;  the  King  then  gave  one 
short  whistle  indicating  that  it  would  pass  to  starboard  of  the 
Noronic  and  for  the  Noronic  to  remain  in  its  berth;  this  signal 
was  not  answered  by  the  Noronic  which  at  once  proceeded  to 
back  out  into  the  harbor  whereupon  the  King  was  required  to 
stop  its  engines  and  wait  while  the  Noronic  backed  across  its 
bow  and  that  as  soon  as  the  stem  of  the  Noronic  cleared,  the 
King  proceeded,  passing  the  Noronic  on  the  later's  port  side 
while  it  was  maneuvering  to  straighten  out  for  the  canal,  and  the 
King  was  in  front  of  the  Noronic  at  all  times  thereafter  until 
just  as  it  was  reaching  the  pierheads  of  the  canal  the  Noronic, 
coming  up  fast  from  behind,  endeavored  to  pass  it,  resulting 
in  the  position  of  the  vessels  and  the  subsequent  damage  to  the 
King  as  above  narrated. 

The  Minnesota  Atlantic  Transit  Coinpany  was  the  charterer 
of  the  King  and  as  libellant  brought  this  action  against  the 
Noronic  owned  by  the  Northern  Navigation  Company.  The 
trial  court  found  that  the  ilamagc  caused  to  the  libellant's 
steamer  King  was  occasioned  solely  by  the  negligence  of  the 
respondent's  steamer  Noronic  and  without  any  fault  on  the 
part  of  the  said  King  and  rendered  judgment  in  favor  of  the 
libellant  for  the  entire  damage  sustained  by  the  King. 

As  both  vessels  were  outward  bound  and  each  started  on  its 
course  at  about  the  same  time  the  stage  was  all  set  fot  a  con- 
troversy to  arise  as  to  which  one  was  entitled  to  go  through  the 
canal  first.  Evidence  on  behalf  of  the  King  was  directed  prin- 
cipally to  the  question  of  which  one  had  the  lead  after  the  two 
vessels  straightened  out  and  fixed  their  courses  for  the  canal, 
while  the  evidence  for  the  Noronic  was  principally  directed  to 
the  question  of  which  vessel  arrived  first  at  the  canal  piers. 

The  trial  court  on  this  important  question  determined  that 
after  the  two  ships  had  rounded  to  and  were  on  defined  courses, 
the  King  was  the  overtaken  and  the  Noronic  the  overtaking 
vessel.  There  is  no  claim  that  the  Noronic  gave  any  signal  to  the 
King  that  it  intended  to  pass  the  King  and  under  this  situation 
It  is  clear  that  the  Noronic  at  no  time  had  the  right  to  pass  the 
King  without  its  permission,  which,  it  is  conceded,  was  never 
asked  for  or  given. 

The  following  rules  govern  the  navigation  of  vessels  in  har- 
bors and  inland  waters  generally: 

"When  steam  vessels  are  running  in  the  same  direction,  and 
the  vessel  which  is  astern  shall  desire  to  pass  on  the  right  or 
starboard  hand  of  the  vessel  ahead,  she  shall  give  one  short  blast 
of  the  steam  whistle,*  •  •"  Rule  Vlll,  33  Mason's  U.  S.  C,  203. 
"Notwithstanding  anything  contained  in  these  rules  every 
vessel,  overtaking  any  other,  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the 
overtaken  vessel. 

"Every  vessel  coming  up  with  another  vessel  from  any  direc- 
tion more  than  two  points  abaft  her  beam,  *  *  *  shall  be  deemed 
to  be  an  overtaking  vessel;  and  no  sub.sequent  alteration  of  the 
bearing  between  the  two  vessels  shall  make  the  overtaking 
vessel  a  crossing  vessel  within  the  meaning  of  these  rules,  or 
relieve  her  of  the  duty  of  keeping  clear  of  the  overtaken  vessel 
until  she  is  finally  past  and  clear.  •  •  »"  33  Mason's  U.S.C,  209. 
"Where,  by  any  of  these  rules,  one  of  the  two  vessels  is  to 
keep  out  of  the  way,  the  other  shall  keep  her  course  and  speed." 
33  Mason's  U.S.C,  206. 

"Every  steam  vessel  which  is  directed  by  these  rules  to  keep 
out  of  the  way  of  another  vessel  shall,  on  approaching  her,  if 
necessary,  slacken  her  speed  or  stop  or  reverse.  "  33  Mason's 
U.S.C,  208. 

"In  all  channels  less  than  five  hundred  feet  in  width,  no  steam 

vessel   shall   pass  another  coming  in   the  same  direction   unless 

the  steam  vessel  ahead  be  disabled  or  signify  her  willingness  that 

the  steam  vessel  astern  shall  pass,  when,  the  steam  vessel  astern 

(Please  Itiru  to  page  I  Oft  i 

MARCH      •      1948 



Vincent  E.   Foell 

Port  Engineer  of  the  Month 

--With  The 

On  pages  76  and  77  of  this  issue  appears  a  roster 
of  members  and  officers  of  the  Society  of  Port  Engi- 
neers, San  Francisco,  for  which  many  requests  have 
been  received. 

The  Society  is  considering  certain  revisions  in  its 
constitution,  and  upon  approval,  they  will  be  pub- 
lished in  this  section  of  the  Pacific  Marine  Review. 

Change  of  Presidents 
M  Los  Angeles  Society 


Vincent  E.  Fnell 

Df  United   States   Lines 

Now  Port  Engineer  for  United  States  Lines,  Vincent 
Foell  has  had  an  extensive  career  in  marine  engineering 
and  marine  transportation.  Born  in  Syracuse,  N.  Y.  in 
1919,  Vincent  graduated  from  the  Engineering  Depart- 
ment of  the  New  York  State  Merchant  Marine  Academy. 
He  held  various  engineering  positions  on  United  States 
Lines  Company  steam  and  diesel  vessels,  and  was  Assist- 
ant Port  Engineer  for  United  States  Lines  and  the  Pacific 
Far  East  Line  prior  to  his  present  position  with  United 
States  Lines. 

In  World  War  II  he  was  awarded  the  Merchant  Ma- 
rine Citation  for  action  against  the  enemy  and  the 
Merchant  Marine  Bar  for  service  in  the  Pacific  area. 
Vincent  is  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Governors  of  the 
San  Francisco  Society  of  Port  Engineers  and  a  member 
of  the  United  States  Naval  Reserve. 

Left,    Joe    Wo 

Matson    Navigation    Company,    newly    cle 

president    of    the    Los    Angeles    Society    of    Port    Engineers,    shaking 

hands    with     Len     Landers,     American     President     Lines,     outgoing 


Page  74 


Port  Engineers  - 

A  roster  of  members  of  the  Los  Angeles  Society 
of  Port  Engineers  is  at  hand  and  will  be  published 
in  the  April  issue  of  Pacific  Marine  Revietv. 

k{  Annual  Meeting 
of  Los  Angeles  Society 

At  the  speaker's  table  (top  picture),  left  to  right:  M.  D.  Jayred, 
Republic  Supply  Company  of  Calif.;  Edwin  H.  Price  (Speaker), 
Manning,  Maxwell  «  Moore.  Inc.;  Len  Landers,  American  President 
Lines;  Burt  Hale  (Secretary).  Marine  Solvents  Corp.;  Dick  Park, 
Republic  Supply  Company  of  Calif. 

Below,    left  to  right:   Burt   Hale,   Dick   Park,   Dan   Dobler   (Chairman 

of    Board)   Texas   Company;   Joe    Hare,    U.S.M.C;    Harry    Summers. 

American   Bureau  of  Shipping. 

I     MARCH      •      1948 

Port  Engineer  of  The  Month 


William  Billings 

of  Pope  S-  Talbot  Lines 

Like  the  proverbial  mail-carrier  who  takes  a  walk  on 
his  days  off,  William  H.  Billings,  smiling,  carefree 
Assistant  Port  Engineer  of  Pope  &  Talbot  IJnes,  likes 
to  spend  his  spare  time  around  the  water.  "Bill"  Billings, 
who  is  ever  alert  in  supervising  engine  repairs  on  the 
company's  ships  at  San  Francisco,  is  always  good  for  a 
"bass  story"  to  ease  the  tension  when  things  are  in  a 

With  a  long  record  of  achievement  behind  him,  Bill 
is  happy  that  he  can  be  with  his  family  in  his  home  at 
Oakland.  His  two  fine,  growing  sons  often  accompany 
him  on  his  trips  to  the  fishing  grounds. 

Billings  came  up  the  hard  way.  After  serving  a  stern 
apprenticeship  with  General  Electric  Company  he  took 
off  to  sea  to  all  the  corners  of  the  globe.  In  19.i6  he  was 
with  Matson  Navigation  Company  and  after  seven  years 
he  left  them  to  be  with  Polarius  Steamship  Clompany  in 
New  York  City  where  he  was  Superintending  Engineer 
for  about  18  months.  He  then  joined  Pope  &  Talbot 
Lines  in  1945  as  "chief"  on  the  Sea  Blenny  and  the  same 
year  was  made  Assistant  Port  Engineer  for  the  same 
company  in  San  Francisco. 

And  among  the  Governors  of  the  Society  of  Port  En- 
gineers at  San  Francisco  we  find  William  H.  Billings. 

Page   75 




James  R.  Anderson  (A) U.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Joseph  J.  Anderson  (A) Luckenback  Steamship  Co 100  Bush  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Henry   Andrews Westinghouse  Electric  Corp 1  Montgomery  St..  San  Francisco,  4 

Charles  R.  Angell,  Jr 1332  El  Camino  Real,  Burlingame 

Milo  M.  Atkinson  110  Market  St.,  San  Francisco 

Ray  E.  Baker  (A),  Port  Engineer Richmond-San  Rafael  Ferry  Co P.  O.  Box  1126,  Richmond,  Calif. 

W.  H.  Billings  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer Pope  &  Talbot,  Inc 320  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

George  Barr General  Electric  Co 235  Montgomery  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

W.  C.  Blake.  Vice  President Triple  A.  Machine  Shop Pier  62,  San  Francisco 

Colin  Branford  (A),  Port  Engineer Shepard  Steamship  Corp New  Orleans 

R.  E.  Burness Standard  Oil  of  Calif 7th  &  Irwin  Sts.,  San  Francisco 

E.   P.   Butler Gamlen  Marine  Service 150  Vermont  St.,  San  Francisco 

Ira  B.  Chapman  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer American  President  Lines,  Ltd Pier  42,  San  Francisco.  7 

John  Clerico  (A),  Supt.  Engineer Pope  &  Talbot.  Inc 320  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

John  R.  Cook Brown-Bevis  Equipment  Co 4900  Santa  Fe  Ave.,  Los  Angeles,  11 

Fred  D.  Deckard  (A),  Port  Engineer Sabme  Oil  Co 

Louis  A.  Deppman  (A),  Port  Engineer Sudden  &  Christenson,  Inc 310  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Donald  W.  Deeds,  Engineer U.  S.  A.  T.  S.  .  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Wm.  De  Wijn,  Port  Engineer...    Java-China-Japan  Line 149  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Douglas  E.  Dickie,  Serv.  Engineer Foster-Wheeler  Corp 206  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Andrew  C.  Disher  (A),  Ch.  Tech.  Insp U.  S.  A.  T.  S Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Franklin  H.  Drew Westinghouse  Electric  Corp ...1  Montgomery  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

George  W.  Duncan U.  S.  A.  T.  S Dock  No.  1,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

A.  J.  Ederer  (A),  Port  Engineer Pacific  Transport  Lines 240  California  St.,  San  Francisco.  11 

J.  E.  Edwards U.  S.  A.  T Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Rodney  M.  Elder  (  A  ),  Asst.  Port  Engineer.  Pacific  Tankers,  Inc 233  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

B.  R.  Emery  (A)        W.  R.  Chamberlin 465  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

John  Faville       ...Pier  1.  Marine  Repair  Shop Foot  of  Laguna  St.,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Tom  Finn United  Amer.  Metal  Corp 785  Bryant  St..  San  Francisco,  7 

Vincent  E.  Foell  (A),  Port  Engineer United  States  Lines 222  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Frank  Fox,  V.  P.  and  Ch.  Engineer General  Engineering  &  DD  Co 1100  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

James  H.  Frickie,  Marine  Surv. Hart-Wood  Lumber  Co 1  Drumm  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

Marshall  T.  J.  Garlinger  ( A ),  Asst.  to  Supt...U.  S.  A.  T ...Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Joseph    F.    Gisler 444  Board  of  Trade  Building... San  Francisco.  11 

William  Gough  (A) ...Parry  Navigation  Co.,  Inc 100  Pine  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

E.  J.  Graff  (A),  Port  Engineer Grace  Line 2  Pine  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

George  H.  Harlan  (A).  Asst.  to  Supt.  Engr...U.  S.  A.  T Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

John  A.  Harris U.  S.  A.  T Dock  No.  1,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Sam  Hawkins  ..' The  Log  40  First  St.,  San  Francisco 

Q.  D.  Higgins  (  A> 2690  -  38th  Ave.  San  Francisco,  16 

H.  T.  Hill 735  -  46th  St.,  Oakland  9,  Calif. 

W.  B.  Hill C.  C.  Moore  &  Co 450  Mission  St.,  San  Francisco,  5 

William  C  Hodges  (A) lU.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

George  Hoxie,  Asst.  Port  Engineer American  President  Lines 311  California  St.,  San  Francisco 

W.  J.  Jenders,  Chief  Engineer U.  S.  A.  T.  "Admiral  Sims" ...Building  201.  Rm.  1 10,  Fort  Mason 

M.  A.  Johnson  ( A  ),  Port  Engineer Olympic  Steamship  Co Pier  57,  Seattle,  Wash. 

Lynton  Jordan  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer Pacific  Tankers,  Inc 233  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

J.  G.  Kelly  (A),  Port  Engineer W.  R.  Chamberlin  Co 465  California  St..  San  Francisco,  4 


I.ce  Kincaid  U.  S.  A.  T.  Service 330  Baltimore  St.,  Larkspur,  Calif. 

Thomas  Klitgaard,  Marine  Inspector U.  S.  A.  T.  Water  Division Building  201,  Rm.  220,  Fort  Mason 

Alex  W.  Kyle  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer American  President  Lines,  Ltd Pier  42,  San  Francisco,  7 

John  W.  Laine  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer American  Hawaiian  S.  S.  Co Pier  28,  San  Francisco 

H.  C.  Lauer,  Inspector U.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Joseph  J.  Lewis E.  F.  Drew  &  Co.,  Inc 440  Golden  Gate  Ave.,  San  Francisco,  2 

George  H.  Lienhard,  Serv.  &  Sales  Engr Nordberg  Manufacturing  Co 674  Harrison  St.,  San  Francisco 

T.  Douglas  MacMullen,  Editor Pacific  Marine  Review... 500  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  1 1 

H.  Martin  (A),  Port  Engineer Moore-McCormack  Lines  140  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

(  hcster  E.  McKay  (  A  ),  Supt.  Engineer Overseas  Tankship  Corp 551  Fifth  Ave.,  New  York  City 

Gccirge  Miller  Pacific  Tankers,  Inc 233  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Leigh  Miller  U.  S.  A.  T Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Harry   1.  Morrison U.  S.  A.  T Building  310,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Jesse  F.  Neel General  Petroleum  Corp 417  Montgomery  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Winslow  Nott  Thomas  A.  Short  Co 245  Fremont  St.,  San  Francisco,  5 

James  Persons  Paine  (A) American  President  Lines Pier  44,  San  Francisco 

R.  N.  Parkin,  Supt.  Engineer .Westinghouuse  Electric  Corp. 410  Bush  St.,  San  Francisco,  8 

[ohn  A.  Philip U.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Alfred  Pittman  Hagan  Corporation 149  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

Ralph  S.  Randall  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer.. ..Sudden  &  Christenson,  Inc 310  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Larry  Rapp  C.  C.  Moore  &  Co 450  Mission  St.,  San  Francisco,  5 

W'libert  H.  Reich   (A) Grace  Lines   Pier  37,  San  Francisco 

l.imcs  A.  Riemers  (A) 112  Market  St.,  San  Francisco 

W.  A.  Riley,  Sales  Engineer Republic  Electric  Co 33  Drumm  St.,  San  Francisco,  1 1 

Perry  D.  Roach  (  A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer 1940  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  9 

Arthur  R.  Robertson Westinghouse  Electric  Co 410  Bush  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

Alfred  T.  Rogers 112  Market  St.,  Rm.  308,  San  Francisco 

W.  L.  Russon      U.  S.  A.  T...  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Ray  H.  Sample  (  A  )       Matson  Navigation  Co.,  Pier  32 Embarcadero,  San  Francisco,  5 

Sylvester  W.  Simon  (A) Pacific  Far  East  Line 141  Battery  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

W.  E.  Sizemore  (A) U.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

Frank  W.  Smith  (A),  Port  Engineer American  Mail  Line 369  Pine  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

William  Starck  (A),  Asst.  to  Supt.  Engr U.  S.  A.  T Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

1-  A.  Stasek  (A) Pacific  Far  East  Line,  Inc Pier  45-A,  Embarcadero,  San  Francisco 

H.  A.  Steiner  (A),  Port  Engineer Pacific  Far  East  Line,  Inc 141  Battery  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

Bob  Streitf  (A),  Asst.  Port  Engineer. Pacific  Tankers,  Inc. 233  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

I   P.  H.  Thearle  (A),  Supt.  Marine  Engr Army  Transportation  Corps S.  F.  P.  E.,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

I   Harry  Thompson  ( A  ),  Port  Engineer Shepard  Steamship  Corp. 369  Pine  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

i   B.  R.  White Bird  Archer  Co.  of  Calif 19  Fremont  St.,  San  Francisco,  5 

I  George  Voyer  (A;  Asst.  Port  Engineer Coastwise  Lines 222  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

I   Bill  Williams  U.  S.  A.  T Fort  Mason,  Calif. 

IE.  H.  Williams  (A),  Port  Engineer United  Fruit  Company 1001  Fourth  St.,  San  Francisco,  7 

;    A.  E.  Wion Grace  Line  2  Pine  St.,  San  Francisco,  11 

';M.  C.  Wright  (A) Deconhill  Shipping  311  California  St.,  San  Francisco,  4 

I   Harold   J.  Wrigley International  Paint  Co.,  Inc 901  Minnesota  St.,  San  Francisco,  7 

:   J.  Zuboff   (  A  ) U.  S.  A.  T Building  201,  Fort  Mason,  Calif. 


President — P.  H.  Thearle  \'ice-President — M.  CI  Wright  Secretary-Treasurer — J.  A.  Riemers 


J.  F.  Gisler,  Chairman  Bob  Streiff  Harry  Thompson  V.  E.  Foell 

H.  J.  Wrigley  R.  H.  Sample  F.  W.  Smith  I.  B.  Chapman 

Marshall  T.  J.  Garlinger  E.  J.  Graff  W.  H.  Billings  C.  E.  McKay 
J.  W.  Laine" 

MARCH      •      1948  Page  77 

y<ru/L  (hmdimA  dnmn/iuL 

by  "The  Chief" 

"The  Chief's"  department  welcomes  questions — Just  write   "The   Chief,"   Pacific   Marine   Review. 


-  ener-fi -hvrisnr. 

Enerjy  per  unit  of  tin>e  =■ 

rate,  of  f^i«r)5*r  o^^cnerjf      OL 

\Cijrvc  for  I  HP 

01     10      100    /boo 

.  ^"x'Rp^r 

'"^'  35000 

=  HP  of  one  end  of-  one. 
Pi  motn  if^tve  f'^nan. 

ifOi^   indicator  diagram 

L-fed  Unefhr)  of  styol< 
A-aircA  of  p<  if  on.  □" 
-diamdtr  ihchti  »jMrtf 

N  =  mmbQr  o\-  potunr 

-In-  ^''"^^""^ 

^„      J  o-f  I  V'?t 

( ;,..,.(  tiT4)(r(;» 

•  I  So  *  "■imuir-i 

Blackboard  figures   I   to  4  mentioned  in  the  text. 

Ratings  and  Limitations  of  ReciprDcating  Engines 

In  the  February  issue  we  discussed  the  horsepower  and 
its  mathematical  derivation  and  furthermore  introduced 
the  conception  of  torque  or  twisting  effort.  It  was  brought 
out  that  energy  or  work  done  is  measured  in  foot- 
pounds and  that  torque  is  measured  in  pound-feet.  These 
two  units  are  not  tlie  same,  as  is  developed  in  Fig.  1. 
The  corresponding  horsepower  conversion  factors  are 
different.  The  foot  in  one  case  is  the  distance  through 
which  a  force  is  moved  and  in  the  other  case  the  foot  is 
a  radius  and  does  not  become  a  distance  through  which 

a  force   is  moved   until  multiplied  by  revolutions  per 
minute  or  second. 

Note  that  the  horsepower  capacity  of  an  engine,  or 
any  machine  for  that  matter,  is  the  product  of  the  torque 
and  the  speed,  and  a  multiplying  constant  number  to 
adjust  the  units  used.  See  Fig.  2.  Here  the  curve  repre- 
sents one  horsepower.  All  the  figures  could  be  multi- 
plied by  100  for  a  100  hp  curve  or  by  10,000  for  a 
10,000  hp  curve.  For  a  given  size  of  engine  in  hp  the 
higher  the  speed  the  lower  the  forces  such  as  torque, 

Page   78 


piston  load  and  so  on.  But  centrifugal  force  increases 
and  acts  as  a  limit  to  speed.  With  reciprocating  engines 
it  is  the  piston  speed  and  the  forces  of  reversing  the 
piston  that  limit  the  speed  long  before  the  centrifugal 
force  limits  it.  If  we  can  control  centrifugal  force  by 
special  designs,  close  safety  factors,  high  test  alloy  steels 
arid  all,  we  can  speed  up  the  turbine  and  obtain  tremen- 
dous ratings  out  of  a  light  weight.  The  gas  turbine  driv- 
ing the  super  charger  of  the  modern  airplane  may  be 
rated  500  hp  yet  be  no  larger  than  a  straw  hat  but  it 
may  run  up  to  perhaps  17,000  revolutions  per  minute, 
ivhich,  using  these  figures,  gives  us  only  15  pound  feet 
nil  que,  a  value  which  you  could  easily  set  up  with  a 
10  uxh  Crescent  wrench.  The  gas  turbine  in  the  axial 
.flow  turbo-jet  aircraft  engine  may  deliver  as  much  as 
'l  5,000  to  30,000  hp  to  the  direct  connected  air  com- 
pressor and  yet  be  only  single  stage,  3  to  4  feet  in 
diameter,  and  perhaps  11,000  rpm.  At  the  other  end  of 
the  scale  at  slow  speeds  we  may  have  very  high  torques 
which  mc-ans  large  shafts  and  great  weights.  Thus  as  we 
increase  speed  we  reduce  the  weight  per  hp  or  increase 
the  hp  per  pound  weight.  A  good  figure  to  remember  is 
the  one  pound  of  weight  per  hp  which  can  just  about 
be  achieved  in  the  aircraft  reciprocating  engine.  Con- 
trast this  to  the  hundreds  of  pounds  per  hp  of  the  slow 
speed  reciprocating  marine  steam  engine.  But  then  again 
we  may  largely  lose  the  light  weight  features  of  high 
speed  engines  if  the  load  cannot  take  the  power  at  a 
high  speed,  as  reduction  ge-ars  must  be  used.  Develop- 
ment of  precision-cut  gears  in  the  last  30  years  has  per- 
mitted us  to  use  the  turbine  at  a  fairly  high  speed 
aboard  ship  but  we  still  would  like  to  run  the  turbines 
at  a  speed  which  is  more  than  a  reasonable  gear  reduc- 
tion and  propeller  speed  will  permit.  Turbine  designers 
would  like  to  reduce  weights  and  increase  speeds  much 
above  those  values  in  common  use  today  but  the  gears 
and  gear  ratios  force  them  to  a  compromise  with  the 
best  they  could  do  with  the  turbine  only. 

Fig.  3  shows  that  the  piston  speed  of  the  reciprocating 
engine  may  be  taken  as  the  product  of  the  length  of  the 
stroke  in  feet  and  the  number  of  strokes  per  minute.  A 
favorite  problem  in  the  Coast  Guard  examination  for 
the  higher  rates  is  to  calculate  the  piston  speed  of  an 
engine  when  the  indicated  hp  is  given  and  the  piston 
diameter  in  inches  is  given.  This  puzzles  most  engineers 
because  no  mention  of  speed  and  rpm  is  made  nor  is  the 
'length  of  the  stroke  indicated.  But  as  shown,  knowing 
only  the  hp  of  the  cylinder  as  indicated,  and  the  piston 
diameter,  the  average  piston  speed  can  be  calculated. 
Note  carefully  that  this  is  an  average  speed  of  the  piston 
and  that  with  the  crank  at  the  horizontal  point  the  speed 
is  much  higher.  Sometime  in  the  future  we  will  discuss 

the  mathematics  of  the  calculation  of  the  maximum 

We  have  promised  to  work  a  problem  in  the  calcula- 
tion of  the  hp  of  an  engine.  Ordinarily  we  do  not  give 
examples  of  the  arithmatic  of  the  problems  in  mathe- 
matics we  cover,  as  we  would  like  to  accustom  the  en- 
gineers to  thinking  of  these  things  in  the  symbolic  terms 
of  algebra.  Unless  the  engineer  is  puzzled  a  little  by  the 
written  text  and  has  the  courage  to  dig  it  out  to  an  un- 
derstanding there  is  little  profit  in  reading  except  as  an 

Fig.  4  is  the  solution  to  the  problem  in  the  Coast 
Guard  blue  book  of  specimen  examinations  (page  37) 
for  3rd  assistant  engineers.  The  problem  is:  A  steam 
cylinder  is  32  inches  diameter,  the  stroke  of  the  piston 
is  4  feet  6  inches,  the  mean  effective  pressure  is  70 
pounds  per  square  inch,  revolutions  per  minute  72.  Find 
the  horse  power. 

Several  comments  are  necessary.  If  this  were  for  higher 
ratings  quite  likely  the  diameter  of  the  piston  rod  would 
be  given,  as  the  area  of  the  rod  must  be  subtracted  from 
that  of  the  piston  in  calculating  the  hp  of  the  crank  end 
of  the  engine.  The  mean  effective  pressure  of  the  two 
ends  would  usually  be  slightly  different  as  the  valves 
would  be  a  little  off  an  exactly  symmetrical  position  so 
that  the  weight  of  the  piston  is  carried  by  the  steam  load. 
Thus  for  two  reasons  the  hp  of  the  two  ends  of  the 
piston  are  different,  different  effective  areas  and  dif- 
ferent pressures.  If  not  so  stated  it  is  customary  and 
nearly  correct  to  assume  the  same  hp  at  each  end.  Thus 
in  Fig.  4  we  multiply  the  rpm  by  2. 

The  first  thing  to  do  is  calculate  the  area.  Using  the 
constant  .7854,  which  we  developed  in  this  column  some 
time  ago,  we  square  the  diameter  and  multiply.  In  actual 
practice  we  would  take  the  area  as  804.15  but  the  ex- 
aminers want  to  see  how  we  handle  our  arithmatic  and 
ask  to  see  the  problems  carried  out  to  at  least  four  places 
beyond  the  decimal  point.  See  Fig.  4.  Then  comes  the 
PLAN  formula  and  more  multiplications.  Multiplica- 
tions may  be  carried  out  in  any  order  we  choose,  and  we 
usually  multiply  all  the  simple  numbers  together  first. 
The  72,  the  2,  the  70,  and  the  4.5  give  us  45360.0.  We 
divide  this  by  the  33000  as  it  seems  easiest,  and  then  are 
ready  for  the  long  multiplication.  Thus  we  end  up  with 
the  answer  shown,  which  in  actual  practice  we  would 
call  1105  hp. 

Our  next  article  will  discuss  the  imporance  of  the  gear 
ratio  in  applying  engines  to  ships,  automobiles  and  loco- 
motives, as  this  is  a  logical  question  after  explaining  that 
we  need  only  to  increase  the  speed  to  increase  the  hp  of 
any  engine. 

Crew  Crush  Crowds  Customers 

I  American  ocean  liners  would 

be  forced  to  have  20%  more 
crew  members  than  passengers 
if  maritime  unions  obtain  a  40- 

l  hour  week  at  sea.  Under  a  four- 
watch    system,    necessary    for    a 

MARCH     •      1948 

40-hour  week,  the  America's 
crew  would  expand  from  687  to 
997,  and  in  order  to  secure  quar- 
ters for  these  extra  men,  the 
passenger  capacity  would  be  re- 
duced from  1050  to  792.  Under 
such  circumstances,  the  Amer- 
ica would  have  to  compete  with 

Britain's  Queen  Elizabeth,  the 
latter  having  a  crew  of  Only 
1,280  for  2,314  passengers.  In 
other  words,  the  Queen,  with 
only  283  more  men  in  her  crew, 
would  be  able  to  attend  to  the 
wants  of  1,522  more  passengers 
than  the  America. 

Page   79 



A  3befU4^iiineHtp)^  ^eok  O^Ux/iA. 

b^  "The  Skipper" 

Questions  Welcomed.    Just  Address  "The  Skipper,"  Pacific 
Marine  Review,  SOO  Sansome  St.,  San  Francisco,  California 



Practical  Compensation 

IN  THE  THREE  preceding  issues  this  column  has 
been  working  toward  this  final  discussion  on  Practical 
Compass  Compensation.  We  have  discussed — First,  The 
Parts  of  the  Compass  and  Binnacle;  Second,  The  Effect 
of  the  Earth's  Magnetism  on  the  Vessel's  Hard  Iron  or 
Semicircular  Deviation  due  to  Sub  Permanent  Magnet- 
ism of  the  'Vessel;  and  Third,  The  Eflfect  of  the  Earth's 
Magnetism  on  the  Soft  Iron  of  the  'Vessel  or  Semicircu- 
lar Deviation  due  to  Transient  Magnetism  in  "Vertical 
Soft  Iron,  Quadrantal  Deviation  due  to  Transient  Magnet- 
ism in  Horizontal  Soft  Iron  and  Heeling  Error. 

Now,  we  are  ready  to  put  into  practice  the  knowledge 
gained  in  the  previous  articles.  It  is  well  to  break  down 
the  Practical  Compensation  into  three  catagories — 1. 
Preparatory  Steps,  2.  Preliminary  Steps,  and  3.  Compen- 
sating Steps.  After  listing  each  of  the  steps  of  the  three 
categories,  we  will  take  each  step  separately  and  ex- 
plain it. 

1.  Preparatory  Steps 

(a)  See  that  vessel  is  on  an  even  keel. 

(b)  See  that  all  movable  masses  (booms,  etc.)  are  secured  in 
the  position  they  will  normally  occupy  at  sea,  and  that  no  un- 
usual magnetic  masses  are  left  lying  about  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  compass. 

( c )  See  that  there  are  no  bubbles  in  the  compass. 

(d)  Test  compass  for  sensibility  and  moment  of  the  compass 

(e)  See  that  binnacle  is  centered  on,  and  aligned  with,  the 
midship  line  of  the  vessel  and  solidly  secured. 

(f;  See  that  the  compass  is  centered  and  secured  in  the  bin- 
nacle and  that  there  is  no  slack  in  the  gimbal  arrangement. 

(g)  See  that  the  lubbers  lines  are  in  the  fore  and  aft  plane 
of  the  vessel. 

(h)    Test  for  residual  magnetism  in  the  Quadrantal  spheres. 

(i)    Test  for  residual  magnetism  in  the  flinders  bars. 

2.  Preliminary  Steps 

(a)  Place  Quadrantal  spheres  by  estimate. 

(b)  Place  heeling  magnet,  Red  end  up  in  North  magnetic 
latimdes  and  drop  to  bottom  of  tube. 

(c)  Remove  all  but  apptoximately  ten  degtees  of  deviation 
while  on  an  East  Magnetic  heading  by  means  of  the  Flinders 

Bar.  If  less  than  ten  degrees  deviation  exists  when  on  an  Easj 
etly  heading  do  not  place  the  Flinders  Bar  at  this  time. 
i.  Compensating  Steps  * 

(a)  Head  East  and  remove  all  deviation. 

(b)  Head  North  and  remove  all  deviation. 

(c)  Head  Nottheast  and  remove  all  deviation. 

(d)  Head  West  and  remove  half  the  remaining  deviation. 

(e)  Head  South  and  remove  half  the  remaining  deviation. 

(f )  Head  Southeast  and  remove  half  the  remaining  deviation 

(g)  Head  North,  List  Ship,  and  lemove  all  deviation. 
(  h  )    Secure  deviation. 
(i)    Swing  ship  for  residuals. 
( i )    Construct  deviation  table. 
It  will  be  noted  that  perhaps  in  this  breakdown  of  the  steps] 

more  steps  are  listed  than  will  be  found  in  the  treatment  oq 
this  subiect  by  most  authotities.  The  reason  for  this  is  simplicity 
and  clarity.  Authorities  often  group  together  steps  which  ar«| 
listed  here  sepatately. 


Now  let  us  go  ovei  the  above  listed  steps  individually  for 
more  complete  explanation  of  each. 

1.  Preparatory  Steps 

(a)  Even  Keel.  In  order  for  the  difl^erent  components  of  tha 
Earth's  total  foice  to  have  their  normal  effects  on  their  respective 
components  of  the  vessel's  magnetic  materials,  the  vessel  must  be 
on  an  even  keel  while  compensating.  Otherwise  when  on  an  even 
keel  the  compass  would  be  overcompensated  in  some  phased 
and  under  compensated  in  others;  so  shift  oil,  water  or  cargof 
until  the  Inclinometers  or  draft  markings  show  that  she  is  on  ad 
even  keel. 

(b)  Movable  Masses  Secured  in  Normal  Position.  The  mov^ 
able  masses  of  magnetic  material  must  be  in  the  position  the 
will  normally  occupy  under  normal  operating  conditions  at  seafl 
that  is,  the  booms  cradled,  topped  or  suared  as  is  customary! 
for  that  particular  vessel  on  its  own  particular  run  when  at  seaj 
pontoon  hatch  covers  in  place  and  no  magnetic  masses  near  thd 
compass  which  are  not  notmally  required  to  be  there. 

(c)  Check  lor  Air  Bubbles  in  Compass  Bowl.  If  bubbles  are 
present  and  ate  small,  distilled  water  may  be  used  to  refill  bowl.j 
If  bubbles  are  large  a  solution  of  45"f  grain  alcohol  and  55' 
distilled  water  should  be  used  and  compass  should  be  checkej 
very  thoroughly  for  leaks. 

Procedure  lor  filling:  Place  compass  on  its  side  with  filled 
plug  on  top,  unscrew  filler  plug  and  fill  using  a  small  funnel] 
which  will  allow  air  to  pass  out  the  filler  plug  hole  beside  thej 
funnel.  When  only  a  small  bubble  remains,  use  a  medicine 
dropper  and  have  the  end  of  the  dropper  in  the  liquid  inside' 
the  compass  bo%vl  before  squeezing  the  bulb.  When  all  of  the 

Page  80 


bubble  is  out  of  the  bowl,  till  the  filler  plug  hole  level  full, 
then  dip  the  filler  plug  screw  in  the  solution  and  remove  so  that 
a  drop  of  the  solution  will  cling  by  capillary  attraction  to  the 
end  of  the  filler  plug  screw.  Then  carefully  and  slowly  place 
the  filler  plug  screw  in  the  filler  hole  so  that  the  solution  on 
the  end  of  the  plug  marries  %vith  the  solution  in  the  bowl.  Then 
screw  the  plug  in  and  set  it  up  tight.  The  care  indicated  in  this 
last  step  is  necessary  in  order  to  insure  against  having  a  small 
bubble  remain  in  the  bowl  after  filling. 

id)  The  Test  for  Setuihility  and  Moment  oj  the  Compass 
Card  must  be  done  at  a  place  where  there  is  no  mliuence  from 
magnetic  masses,  on  the  beach  somewhere.  To  lest  for  influence 
of  magnetic  masses,  set  up  the  compass  and  about  50  yards 
from  it,  set  up  a  staff.  Take  bearing  of  the  staff.  If  this  bearing 
is  the  exact  reciprocal  of  the  first  bearing,  there  is  no  magnetic 
influence;  if  the  bearing  is  not  reciprocal,  then  choose  another 
location  and  repeat  the  above  process. 

Test  for  Sensibility  by  placing  the  lubbers  line  on  the  0° 
mark  of  the  compass  card.  Then  gently  draw  the  card  2°  to  the 
right  with  a  magnet  and  allow  to  return  and  carefully  note  the 
exact  reading  (use  a  magnifying  glass)  at  the  lubbers  line.  Re- 
peat the  procedure  to  the  left.  If  the  card  does  not  return  to  the 
0°  mark,  there  is  something  wrong  with  the  compass. 

Test  for  Moment  by  drawing  the  card  15'  to  the  ri,t;ht  then 
removing  magnet  and  starting  a  stop  watch  the  instant  the  0° 
mark  of  the  card  swings  past  the  lubbers  line  and  stopping  the 
stop  watch  the  instant  the  0°  mark  swings  past  in  the  opposite 
direction.  Repeat  this  procedure,  drawing  the  card  15°  to  the 
left.  Compare  the  times.  They  should  be  the  same.  The  time 
required  for  a  7^2  inch  compass  to  swing  past  and  return,  at 
the  temperatures  listed  below,  should  be  the  number  of  seconds 
listed  below  the  temperatures. 

Fahrenheit  Temperature:   100°  90°  80°  ^0°  60°  50°  40°  .M)° 

Seconds:  13s  14s  15s  16s  l"s   I8s  20s  22s 

In  cases  where  the  0°  on  the  card  fails  to  pass  the  lubbers  line 
the  second  time,  there  is  an  indication  of  week  magnets,  a  crack- 
ed jewel  in  the  cap  or  a  worn  or  blunt  pivot  point. 

Both  the  liquid  in  the  bowl  and  the  compass  card  must  be 
at  complete  rest  before  the  beginning  of  each  observation  of 
these  tests. 

( e  &  f )  Binnacle  Centered  on  Midship  Line  of  Vessel  and 
Compass  Centered  in  Binnacle.  It  is  well  to  consider  steps  e  and 
f  together  to  simplify  the  operation. 

Check  the  heeling  magnet  tube  for  being  centered  in  the 
binnacle  by  measuring. 

Place  compass  in  binnacle  and  check  for  center  by  raising 
and  lowering  the  heeling  magnet  with  the  vessel  on  a  north  or 
south  heading.  If  compass  card  moves,  adjust  the  compass- in 
the  binnacle  until  no  movement  is  noticed  by  means  of  the 
adjusting  screws  in  the  gimbal  arrangement.  Then  lock  the 
compass  in  position  by  setting  up  on  the  lock  nuts  of  the  ad- 
justing screws.  Now  check  to  see  that  binnacle  is  on  center  line 
of  vessel.  This  may  be  done  by  sighting  { with  sight  vanes 
mounted  on  compass)  on  a  predetermined  centerline  point  at 
some  distance  forward  and  aft  of  the  binnacle.  The  determining 
of  these  points  may  be  done  by  using  a  tape  measure  to  find 
the  center  line  on  deck  and  then  if  necessary,  a  plumb-bob  to 
transfer  the  center  point  to  the  mast. 

Check  to  see  that  there  is  no  slack  in  the  gimbal  arrangement: 
that  is,  no  fore  and  aft  or  athwartship  movement  of  the  com- 

(g)  The  Lubbers  Line  may  be  checked  to  see  that  it  is  in  the 
fore  and  aft  plane  of  the  vessel,  while  checking  to  see  that  the 
binnacle  is  centered  by  comparing  the  alignment  of  your  sight 
vanes  with  the  lubbed  line. 

(  h  )  Test  Quadrantal  .Spheres 

Mount  the  spheres  and  move  them  as  near  in  to  the  compass 
card  as  possible  with  the  ship  steady  on  the  same  heading, 
alongside  the  deck  if  possible. 

One  at  a  time,  turn  the  spheres  slowly  and  note  the  compass 
reading  after  the  sphere  has  been  turned  90°  until  each  sphere 
makes  a  complete  rotation. 

If  the  reading  of  the  compass  changes  over  45  the  sphere 
should  be  reannealed. 

(i)   Test  Flinders  Bar  for  residual  magnetism. 

Have  ship's  head  steady  on  any  heading  but  North  or  South, 
preferably  East  or  West  alongside  dock.  Note  heading.  Remove 
Flinders  from  holder  and  reinsert  it  with  the  opposite  end  up. 

If  compass  heading  changes  the  Bar  has  residual  magnetism. 

To  remove  residual  magnetism,  hold  the  bar  at  right  angles  to 
the  magnetic  lines  of  force  and  strike  sharply  with  a  piece  of 
hardwood,  or  the  Bar  may  have  to  be  reannealed. 


In  order  to  correct  for  the  most  important  factor  contributing 
to  error  in  the  compass  (that  of  semi-circular  deviation)  it  is 
necessary  that  other  factors  which  would  aflect  the  deviation  be 
considered.  Since  there  will  be  a  certain  amount  of  magnetism 
induced  into  the  soft  iron  correctors  by  the  permanent  magnets 
used  in  compensation,  and  this  induced  magnetism  will  have  a 
definite  effect  on  the  deviation,  it  is  necessary  that  these  correc- 
tors be  in  their  approximate  position  before  starting  the  actual 

(a>  Place  Quadrantal  Spheres 

On  any  intercardinal  heading  if  the  deviation  is  greater  than 
12°,  in  all  probability',  9  inch  spheres  will  have  to  be  used. 

The  table  given   below  will  help  in  estimating  the  distance 
from  the  compass  the  quadrantal  spheres  should  be  placed. 
Deviation  on  any  Distance  of  Spheres  from  Compass 

Intercardinal  Hdg. 

9  inch  spheres 

1 1    inches 

13   inches 

14%   inches 

inch  spheres 

1 1  inches 

12  inches 
3°                                                                 15   inches 

Interpolation  for  deviations  not  listed  in  the  table  may  be 
made  for  preliminary  placing  of  Quadrantal  Spheres. 

(  b )    Place  Heeling  Magnet 

The  heeling  magnet  may  now  be  placed  red  end  up  in  North 
Magnetic  Latitude  unless  knowledge  of  some  factor  which  re- 
quires blue  end  up  is  available.  Lower  heeling  magnet  to  the 
bottom  of  the  rube  unless  it  is  known  that  it  will  be  required 
in  some  other  position. 

( c )  Place  Flinders  Bar  if  Necessary 

Head  East  magnetic  and  check  deviation.  If  no  more  than 
10°  deviation  exists  it  will  not  be  necessary  to  place  Flinders 
Bar  at  this  time. 

If  more  than  10°  deviation  exists,  remove  all  but  10°  by 
means  of  the  Flinders  Bar  by  placing  a  sufficient  length  of  bar 
in  the  holder,  the  remainder  of  the  holder  being  filled  with  the 
wood  filler  blocks  which  must  be  on  the  bottom. 

The  inner  case  of  the  Flinders  Bar  holder  is  removable  so  as 
to  facilitate  the  removal  and  replacement  of  Flinders  Bar  or 
filler  blocks. 

The  Flinders  Bar  is  the  means  by  which  part  of  the  semi-cir- 
cular deviation  of  Coefficient  "B"  is  compensated,  this  part  of 
the  force  being  the  induction  of  magnetism  in  the  vertical  soft 
iron  of  the  ship,  coefficient  "B"  being  the  combined  fore  and 
aft  forces  of  induced  magnetism  in  vertical  soft  iron  and  the 
fore  and  aft  component  of  the  vessel's  sub-permanent  magnetism 
when  on  East  or  'West  headings. 

Semi-circular  deviation,  which  is  caused  by  magnetism, 
which  is  induced  in  vertical  soft  iron  and  compensated  for  by 
means  of  Flinders  Bar  changes  with  a  change  of  magnetic 
latitude  so  that  compensation  for  this  force  in  one  latitude  is 
not  satisfactory.  Observation  of  deviation  in  at  least  two  mag- 
netic latitudes  on  the  same  heading  are  necessary  in  order  to 
compute  for, the  proper  length  of  Flinders  Bar  to  use. 


(a)  Head  East  Magnetic  and  compensate  for  semi-circular 
deviation,  which  is  due  to  the  fore  and  aft  force  of  the  sub- 
permanent  magnetism  of  the  vessel,  or  in  other  words,  com- 
pensate for  the  remaining  component  of  coefficient   "B". 

Remote  all  deviation  by  means  of  permanent  compensating 
magnets  placed  in  the  fore  and  aft  trays. 

If  compass  shows  Easterly  deviation  on  Easterly  heading, 
place  the  red  end  of  the  compensating  magnets  forward  or  vice 

MEMORY  AID:  East  on  East  Red  4 

Easterly  Deviation  on  East  heading  Red  end  forward.  It  is 
better  (  in  order  to  avoid  sluggishness  of  the  compass)  to  place 
the  magnets  as  far  away  from  the  compass  as  practicable.  Use 
more  magnets  and  keep  them  low  in  the  magnet  chamber. 

( b  i  Head  North  Magnetic  and  compensate  for  Coefficient 
"C"  or  for  semi-circular  deviation,  which  is  due  to  the  athwart- 
ship forces  of  the  sub-permanent  magnetism  of  the  vessel,  by 
removing  all  deviation  by  the  means  of  permanent  compensat- 
( Please  turn  to  page  lOS) 

MARCH      •      1941 

Page  81 


Length,  Overall  Ill '-3" 

Molded  Beam  25'-0" 

Molded  Depth  12'-9" 

Molded  Height  to  Raised  Deck 19'-5" 

Total  Fish  Capacity  195  tons 

Brine  Well  Under  Deck 168  tons 

Brine  Well  on  Deck  ...   27  tons 

Fuel  Oil  Capacity,  Total 34,108  gallons 

Cruising  Range  12,000  miles 

Fresh   Water   Capacity 3,860  gallons 

Lubricating  Oil  Capacity       1,390  gallons 

Page  82 

Specifications  for  Tuna  Boat 

"tycY  mw 

Crews'  Quarters: 

1 — 8-man  crew  room. 

1 — 2-man  crew  room. 

1 — Radio  room  with  accommodations  for  1  man. 

1 — Captain's  room. 

1 — Engineer's  room  with  accommodations  for  2  men. 
Refrigeration  Compressors: 

1 — 5V2"  X  iVz",  four-cylinder,  20  H.  P.  Machine, 

2 — 5 ¥2"  X  Vz",  two-cylinder,  20  H.  P.  Machines. 

1 — 2%"  X  2V4",  two-cylinder,  3  H.  P.  Machine  for 
galley  service. 

The   entire   refrigeration    system    was   designed    and 
furnished  by  the  Baker  Ice  Machine  Company,  Inc.,  of 
Los  Angeles. 
Main  Engine: 

Atlas  6-cylinder  Imperial  Diesel,  single  acting,  direct 
reversible,  4-stroke  cycle,  13"  x  16",  315  RPM,  super- 
charged to  provide  550  BHP.  The  engine  is  equipped 
with  a  Kingsbury  thrust  bearing  and  is  fresh-water  cool- 
ed by  means  of  heat  exchangers. 
Auxiliary  Generating  Engines: 

Atlas  6-cylinder  Imperial  Diesels,  94  K'VA,  220  volt, 
3-phase,  AC  Electric  Machinery  Company  Generators, 
direct-conected,  4-stroke  cycle,  600  RPM,  non-reversible, 
112  BHP. 

2 — 10"  Campbell  vertical  bait  pumps. 

11 — 2V2"  Campbell  brine  circulating  pumps  with  2 
H.  P.  Westinghouse  Motors. 
1 — 2"  Fairbanks-Morse  fire  pump  5  H.  P.  Fairbanks- 
Morse  Motor. 

1 — 3"  Carver  brine  transfer  pump,  with  5  H.  P.  Mas- 
ter Electric  Company  Motor. 

1 — 3"  Campbell  bilge  pump  with  3  H.  P.  Westing- 
house  Motor. 
Electric  Service: 

220-voIt,  3-phase,  60-cycle,  AC  electric  power  wher- 
ever required  with  110-volt  single  phase,  60-cycIe,  AC 
lighting  current  throughout  the  ship. 


Modern  Oil  Tanker  Design 

{Continued  from  page  62) 

loft  offsets,  the  net  barrels  per  inch  curve  obtained  there- 
from having  all  deductions  made  for  steel  structure,  pip- 
irii;,  ladders,  etc.  These  deductions  amount  to  slightly 
less  than  one  per  cent  of  the  gross  volume.  The  prepara- 
tion of  the  tables  is  a  laborious  and  exacting  task;  the 
calibrations  are  usually  given  in  42  gal.  barrels  for  in- 
crements of  one  inch  for  the  total  depth  of  the  tank. 
Some  owners  require  calibrations  ar  one  quarter  inch 
iiurcments,  little  realizing  that  the  effects  of  list  and  trim 
L^l^Lount  such  accuracy,  and  thereby  make  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  tables  even  nn)re  of  a  mathematical  exercise. 

Hull   Construction 

In  general  the  tanker  is  characterized  by  the  "three 
island"  type  of  construction  ( Poop,  Bridge  and  Fore- 
castle) and  machinery  located  aft.  The  forecastle  and 
the  poop  enclosure  of  machinery  casings  are  compulsory 
requirements  for  tankers  by  the  Load  Line  Act.  The 
relative  compactness  of  modern  machinery  admits  of  a 
shorter  machinery  space,  and  the  cubic  thus  gained  can 
be  utilized  for  cargo  tanks.  The  effect  on  the  center  of 
gravity  of  the  cargo  is  to  move  it  further  aft,  and  as  a  re- 
sult the  displacement  may  be  distributed  to  a  better  ad- 
vantage. It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  it  is  es- 
sential to  obtain  the  32  per  cent  reduction  in  tonnage 
admeasurement  for  the  machinery  space;  therefore  its 
volume  must  not  be  reduced  below  rule  requirements 
in  order  to  effect  this  end. 

The  merchant  type  of  cruiser  stern,  fitted  with  some 
form  of  stream-lined  rudder  is  accepted  practice.  The 
design  of  the  bow  is  open  to  two  schools  of  thought:  one 
favoring  the  normal  form  and  the  other  the  bulbous 
bow.  Although  the  majority  of  tankers  operate  at  speed- 
length  ratios  for  which  Taylor  claims  little  or  no  benefit 
for  the  bulb,  model  tests  show  some  decrease  in  horse- 
power as  compared  with  normal  forms  for  both  the  load 
and  ballast  cases. 

The  bulbous  bow  permits  a  fining  of  the  entrance  at 
the  water  line  and  an  easing  of  the  forward  shoulder; 
the  displacement  there  removed  being  placed  in  the  bulb 
where  it  creates  less  resistance.  It  is  not  difficult  to  so 
shape  the  bulb  as  to  obviate  pounding.  The  structural 
members  of  the  bow  are  more  accessible  for  repair  in 
the  event  of  a  grounding  damage.  The  hull  in  way  of  the 
anchor  handling  should  be  canted  forward  as  in  naval 
practice  or  breasted  out  to  provide  proper  clearance  for 
the  anchors  as  they  pass  the  bulb.  Tankship  owners  hav- 
ing experience  with  both  types  of  bows  have  reported 
that  the  bulbous  bow  ship  is  more  sea-kindly,  is  retarded 
less  in  heavy  weather  and  manifests  less  of  a  tendency 
to  pitch  and  take  head  or  quartering  seas  over  the  bow. 

In  the  construction  of  ships  in  the  U.  S.  A.  the  trend 
has  been  to  employ  electric  welding  to  the  greatest  ex- 
tent possible  because  of  the  factors  of  weight  saving,  less 
time  required  for  construction,  and  reduced  cost.  Abroad 
the  tendency  has  been  to  adhere  to  riveted  construction 
to  a  much  greater  degree. 

In  the  U.  S.  A.,  the  welded  ship  was  born  in  the  late 
thirties;  thus  it  is  still  somewhat  of  an  infant  as  regards 
development  time  in  the  history  of  shipbuilding,  and  it 
.still  Jias  some  growing  pains.  We  have  gained  experience 

during  the  years  with  riveted  construction  by  experiment 
and  by  observation  of  ships  in  service  and  it  is  only 
logical  to  expect  that  we  will  learn  in  a  similar  manner 
about  welded  vessels. 

The  timetable  for  producing  ships  during  the  war  was 
made  possible  by  welding.  The  volume  of  ship  construc- 
tion during  this  period  was  unprecedented,  and  involved 
the  employment  of  a  preponderence  of  inexperienced 
labor,  yet  the  percentage  of  marine  casualties  directly  at- 
tributable to  welded  construction  is  small  compared 
with  the  number  of  ships  built.  Many  welded  vessels  with- 
stood the  ordeal  of  enemy  action  during  World  War  II, 
making  port  with  gaping  holes  and  vital  portions  of 
their  structure  torn  away.  The  damages  were  localized  to 
the  area  of  the  explosion  and  were  expeditiously  repaired 
by  welding,  to  return  the  ship  to  active  duty.  Those  ves- 
sels are  conclusive  evidence  of  the  worth  of  welded  con- 
struction. Under  similar  conditions,  riveted  ships  would 
have  opened  seams  for  quite  a  distance  from  the  damage, 
resulting  in  the  probable  loss  of  the  ship.  In  cases  of 
grounding  or  collision,  the  damages  sustained  by  welded 
ships  are  likewise  confined  to  the  local  area  of  the  acci- 
dent. The  author  believes  in  the  future  of  the  all-welded 
ship.  Important  factors  that  must  be  considered  in  any 
successful  welded  vessel  are:  (a)  The  elimination  of 
hard  spots  and  stress  raisers"  from  the  design;  (b)  The 
maintenance  of  a  proper  welding  sequence  during  con- 
struction; (c)  The  thorough  inspection  of  all  important 
welds  by  experienced  and  conscientious  inspectors. 
Structural  discontinuities  in  longitudinal  members  should 
be  faired  in  to  provide  a  smooth  flow  of  stress.  The  con- 
nections of  brackets  to  more  flexible  members  should  be 
carefully  designed  to  prevent  local  working  at  the  toe. 
On  the  construction  side,  groove  preparation,  correction 
of  excessive  root  opening,  back  chipping  and  methods  of 
starting  and  finishing  welds  should  be  closely  checked. 
Weld  quality  should  be  checked  by  taking  trepanning 
plugs  as  required,  or  by  gamma  ray  inspection. 

The  present  tendency  to  introduce  several  riveted 
longitudinal  joints  into  the  welded  structure  at  shell  and 
deck,  stems  from  the  idea  that  a  riveted  joint  has  enough 
slip  to  take  sudden  load  concentrations  created  by  heavy 
rolling  and  pitching  of  the  vessel;  also  that  in  the  event 
of  the  development  of  an  incipient  crack  in  the  mono- 
lithic structure  its  continuance  is  stopped  at  the  riveted 
joint.  The  straps  may  prove  effective,  and  apparently  it 
is  on  the  safe  side  to  employ  them.  Experimental  research 
and  experience  must  point  the  way  for  future  design  de- 
velopment, particularly  as  regards  the  evaluation  of  the 
effects  of  multi-axial  stress  and  constraint,  plastic  flow, 
notch  sensitive  steels,  low  temperatures  etc. 

The  sagging  condition  for  the  loaded  tanker  is  produc- 
tive of  the  highest  bending  moment  and  mav  be  approxi- 
mately evaluated  by  the  formuhv 

Bending  Moment  (  Ft.  Tons)=Displacement  x  Length 
B.  P./K,  where  K  varies  between  the  limits  of  36  to  40. 

The  deck  structure  is  subjected  to  severe  compressive 
stre.sses  in  this  condition  and  the  strakes  of  plating  at  the 
centerline.  over  the  longitudinal  bulkheads,  and  the 
stringers  should  be  made  continuous  and  somewhat 
heavier  in  order  to  safely  carry  the  loads  imposed. 

To  determine  stress  distributions  and  efficiency  of  the 
(Please  turn  to  page  108) 

MARCH     •      194 

Page  83 

New  ConstruLtion  —  ReLundiliuning  —  Repairs 

Bethlehem  Converts  LSD 
For  East  African  Coastal  Trade 

The  214-foot,  twin-screw  motorship  Angoche,  the 
first  LSM  converted  to  a  cargo  carrier  in  accordance  with 
Lloyd's  specifications,  sailed  February  28  across  the  At- 
lantic for  service  under  the  Portuguese  flag  in  the  East 
African  Coastal  trade.  She  was  converted  by  Bethlehem 
Steel  Company's  Staten  Island  Yard,  and  will  be  delivered 
to  Companhia  Nacional  De  Navegacao,  of  Lisbon,  Portu- 
gal. The  craft  was  converted  according  to  design  plans  of 
Angelo  Conti,  Inc.,  naval  architects. 

The  stern  of  the  former  LSF  61  retains  the  rectangular 
characteristic  of  landing  ships  but  there  is  little  else  to 
tie  her  in  with  her  original  classification. 

Her  squared-off  nose  and  landing  ramp  have  been 
replaced  by  a  "ship-shape"  bow  of  conventional  design. 
A  creamy  white  superstructure,  with  comfortable  quar- 
ters for  eight  pasengers,  looms  midships  frorri  her  boom- 
studded  continuous  deck.  Crowning  her  "new  look,"  is 
a  single  streamlined  black  stack.  To  the  landlubber,  she 
looks  more  like  a  yacht  than  a  freighter. 

Listed  at  1,300-deadweight  tons,  the  Angoche  is  the 
first  LSM  to  be  converted  to  specifications  making  pos- 
sible her  classification  under  Lloyd's  Register  of  Shipping. 
She  passed  her  classification  tests  in  a  six  hour  run  off  Am- 

brose, during  which  she  hit  a  speed  in  excess  of  12  knots. 
She  has  a  molded  beam  of  34  ft.,  depth  of  18  ft.  5  in., 
draft  of  12  ft.  4  in.,  and  is  twin-screw  propelled.  Her 
two  diesel  engines  develop  2400  S.H.P.  at  720  RPM. 

The  new  bow  was  prefabricated  within  the  yard  and 
then  fitted  onto  the  old  hull  while  the  Angoche  was  in 
drydock.  This  section  weighed  30  tons  and  was  35  feet  in 
length.  A  new  deck,  running  the  entire  length  of  the 
craft,  was  built,  and  three  cargo  holds  were  provided, 
with  new  double  tanks  installed  in  the  No.  1  hold. 

A  spacious  midship  three-high  deck  structure  was 
built  with  pilot  house,  staterooms  for  8  passengers  and 
eleven  officers,  dining  room,  lounge,  galley,  and  refrigera- 
tion storage  for  passengers  and  crew.  The  vessel  also 
was  ventilated  for  tropical  service.  Six  booms  stepped  on 
two  masts  were  installed  for  handling  cargo  loading  and 
discharging.  Her  navigation  equipment  includes  a  gyro- 
compass, liquid  compass,  radio,  and  ship-to-shore  tele- 

On  delivery  to  her  owners  she  is  expected  to  join  a 
fleet  of  five  "feeder  ships"  serving  coastal  ports  of  the 
Portuguese  colony  of  Mozambique. 

Below  is  a   picture  of  the  completed   Angoche  after  the  new  for- 
ward   section    shown    at    the    left    had    been    added.     The    latter 
picture  is  fronn  the   February   Pacific   Marine  Review.    The  Angoche 
is  powered  with  a  Fairbanks  Morse  Diesel  engine. 

Page  84 



Top:    The   U.   S.   Co 

ist   Guard   Cutte 

a    Mine    Layer 

ameda    Repair  Y 

The  U.  S.  Coast  Guard  Cutter 
Magnolia,  which  was  recently  con- 
verted from  a  Navy  Mine  Layer 
(ACM)  to  a  Buoy  Tender  at  Beth- 
lehem Steel  Company's  Alameda 
Repair  Yard,  is  typical  of  the  work 
this  yard  has  done  for  the  U.  S. 
Coast  Guard  in  this  area. 

The  Magnolia  was  originally 
built  for  the  U.  S.  Army  as  the 
Colonel  John  Storey.  In  1944  she 
was  renamed  the  Barricade  when  she 

here  in  the  first  stages  of 
efhiehem  Steel  Company's 

was  taken  over  by  the  Navy  for 
duty  in  China  seas.  When  she 
was  recently  turned  over  ro  the 
Coast  Guard,  considerable  work  had 
to  be  done  on  her  in  converting  her 
from  a  mine  layer  to  a  buoy  tender. 
All  work  in  connection  with  this 
conversion  job  was  done  at  Beth- 
lehem's Alameda  Repair  Yard. 

The  Magnolia  has  an  overall 
length  of  190',  a  beam  of  37',  and 
weighs  900  gross  tons.  She  is  equip- 


ped  with  two  600  hp  engines. 

The  Magnolia  was  drydocked  at 
Bethlehem's  Alameda  Yard  and  her 
hull  and  weather  decks  completely 
sandblasted  and  painted.  All  ma- 
chinery in  her  engine  room,  such 
as  main  engines,  condensors,  gen- 
erators, pumps,  air  compressors,  etc., 
were  completely  disassembled, 
cleaned,  inspected  and  reassembled 
with  new  parts  added  where  neces- 

All  berths,  lockers,  inclined  lad- 
ders on  the  first  platform  between 
frames  59  and  78  were  removed 
and  this  space  converted  into  a 
cargo  hold.  The  space  forward  of 
bulkliead  78  to  the  bulkhead  at 
frame  87  was  converte-1  into  a  fresh 
water  tank  and  new  piping  was  in- 
stalled and  connected  to  the  fresh 
water  manifold  in  the  engine  room. 

The  Magnolias  foremast  was 
modified  by  installing  a  new  19'  ex- 
tension. A  new  20  ton  boom,  47'-6" 
long  was  fabricated  and  installed, 
and  rigged  with  new  16"  triple 
blocks  and  %"  Bethlehem  improved 
plow  steel  wire  rope  on  the  hoisting 
engine  drums. 

The  present  radio  generator  room 
on  the  boat  deck  was  removed  and 
incorporated  in  the  auxiliary  gen- 
erator room,  also  on  the  boat  deck. 
The  space  originally  occupied  by 
the  radio  generator  room  was  con- 
verted into  a  wardroom  pantry. 

Extensive  alterations  to  power, 
lighting  and  ventilation  were  made 
to  suit  the  changes  made. 

The  SL  radar  was  replaced  with 
radar  of  the  SU-1  type  and  exten- 
sive changes  were  made  in  the  radio 
room,  incorporating  all  of  the  latest 
radio  equipment  supplied  by  the  U. 
S.  Coast  Guard. 

The  Magnolia,  now  stationed  in 
the  Bay  area,  tends  buoys  on  the 
San  Francisco  bar  and  for  a  short 
distance  up  the  Sacramento  River. 

MARCH      •      1941 






A  typical  tanker  scene  at  any  one  of  Todd's  shipyards.    This  is  the 

Hobolcen    Division,    which    is    readying    II    out    of   a    total    of    52 

tankers  at  all  Todd  yards,  to  help  combat  the  oil  shortage. 

Todd  shipyards  on  both  coasts  and  in  Gulf  ports  are 
humming  with  activity  in  the  reconversion  and  recon- 
ditioning of  52  much-needed  oil  tankers,  mostly  T2's, 
as  a  result  of  the  current  government-sponsored  drive  to 
relieve  the  national  fuel  shortage.  The  Todd  yards  began 
getting  an  unusual  volume  of  tanker  work  as  far  back 
as  October,  and  they  have  already  readied  many  such 

vessels  now  in  service.  The  number  presently  being  re- 
converted have  reached  an  unprecedented  peak  for  this 
type  of  ship,  and  all  were  expected  to  be  ready  for  service 
by  the  end  of  February,  in  plenty  of  time  to  step  up  the 
delivery  of  oil  for  winter  use. 

The  two  Port  of  New  York  yards  alone  were  handling 
20  tankers — 1 1  at  Hoboken  and  9  at  Brooklyn.  The 
tanker  assignments  at  the  other  Todd  yards  are:  Seattle 
8,  Los  Angeles  7,  Galveston  10,  New  Orleans  4,  and 
Charleston  3.  The  group  now  being  rushed  to  completion 
represent  over  a  half  a  million  tons  with  an  oil-carrying 
capacity  of  over  7  million  barrels. 

The  tankers  are  nearly  all  being  reconverted  from  war- 
time status,  having  been  released  from  various  reserve 
ship  anchorages.  Most  of  them  are  being  "strapped" 
with  18-inch  crack  arresters  in  accordance  with  owners' 
requirements  and  the  recommendations  of  the  American 
Bureau  of  Shipping.  Four  of  them  are  also  being  stress- 
relieved  as  an  added  precaution  against  developing 

When  completed,  the  vessels  will  be  turned  over  to 
a  wide  variety  of  owners  and  operators,  foreign  as  well 
as  American.  Six  of  them  are  the  Navy  "Mission"  type, 
similar  to  the  "Mission  San  Luis  Obispo,"  which  last 
month  delivered  a  huge  oil  loan  to  New  York.  These 
ships  will  be  operated  by  private  companies  under  char- 
ter. A  number  of  others  are  being  chartered  from  the 
U.  S.  Maritime  Commission.  Four  of  the  tankers  are  for 
the  French  Mission,  which  recently  purchased  eleven,  and 
there  is  one  each  for  four  other  foreign-flag  operators. 

on   NEW   TANKER   EQOAl   TO   FOOR 

It  would  take  at  least  four  prewar  type  tankers  to 
match  the  performance  of  one  new  American  oil  car- 

Increased  speed,  greater  efficiency  and  larger  size 
make  the  21  oil  tankers  now  on  order  or  under  con- 
struction, equal  to  84  prewar  tankers,  according  to  the 
American  Merchant  Marine  Institute. 

One  out  of  every  six  large  ships  building  in  the 
world  today  is  an  oil  tanker.  In  the  United  States,  how- 
ever, virtually  all  new  construction  is  made  up  of 
ships  for  the  oil  transportation  industry,  the  AMMI 
pointed  out. 

Of  the  21  new  tankers  presently  on  order,  16  are 
27,500  ton  vessels  which  will  boast  speeds  of  I6V2 
knots,  four  are  18,000  ton  ships  with  speeds  of  14  y2 
knots,  and  the  18th  is  a  30,000  ton  giant,  with  a  161/2 

knot  speed.  The  prewar  American  tanker  averaged 
11,600  tons  as  compared  to  the  average  of  25,500  for 
these  21  new  vessels.  Average  speed  of  the  1939  oil 
tanker  was  10  knots.  The  ships  building  today  average 
16  knots  in  speed. 

The  American  tanker  fleet  is  the  world's  largest, 
being  twice  the  size  of  its  nearest  rival,  the  British. 
Ranking  behind  the  United  States  in  size  are  the  fleets 
of  Breat  Britain,  Norway,  Panama,  Holland,  Sweden, 
France,  Italy,  Argentina  and  Russia,  to  name  the  top 

Broken  down  by  per  cent,  the  American  tonnage 
represents  45.62*^-0  of  the  world's  fleet.  Britain's  tank- 
er tonnage  includes  21.59%  of  world  tankers,  while 
Norway,  with  10.1 1'"<,  is  the  only  other  nation  above 
10  per  cent. 

Page  86 


"^cuutma  ^coAt^ 




Vice  President 


(See  page  88) 

I    MARCH     •      1948 

Page  87 

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a    Car 

In  an  ably  presented  address  before  the  members  of  the 
Women's  Organization  for  the  American  Merchant  Ma- 
rine, Robert  E.  Mayer  of  the  Pacific  American  Steamship 
Association  brought  the  record  up  to  date  on  shipping 
conditions  and  problems.  That  his  message  Was  effective 
in  relation  to  the  Marshall  Plan  is  indicated  by  the  action 
of  the  Senate  after  receiving  protesting  letters  from  our 
leading  ladies  on  the  "donate  ships  to  Europe"  phase  of 
the  Plan. 

The  meeting  was  presided  over  by  President  Mrs.  John 
F.  Johnston  and  was  held  in  the  Army-Navy  Club  of 
San  Francisco. 

Moran  Elected  to  Board  of 
Marine   Exchange 

Andrew  A.  Moran,  new  vice  president  of  the  Inter- 
ocean  Steamship  Corporation,  Ltd.,  has  been  elected  to 
membership  in  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Marine 

Mr.  Moran,  long  prominent  in  Bay  Area  maritime 
activities,  was  one  of  three  original  founders  of  the 
present  operational  setup  of  the  Exchange,  along  with 
John  C.  Rohls,  retired  marine  department  manager  of 
the  Standard  Oil  Company  and  Frank  O'Connor,  present- 
ly a  director  of  the  American  President  Line.  He  has 
recently  been  manager  of  the  Port  of  Redwood  City,  on 
San  Francisco  Bay. 

Moran,  chairman  of  the  Bay  Area  Council's  Maritime 
Committee,  recently  presented  to  the  coastwise  trans- 
portation meeting  held  in  San  Francisco,  a  plan  to  de- 
velop the  overland  cargo  movement  of  the  Bay  Area  and 
the  Pacific  Coast.  Basis  of  the  plan  is  the  formation  of  a 
trafiic  and  transportation  bureau  modeled  along  the  lines 
of  the  New  York  Port  Authority  and  a  somewhat  similar 
and  very  successful  bureau  in  New  Orleans. 

Moran  is  best  remembered  for  the  part  he  played  in 
establishing  the  round-the-world  service  of  the  former 
Dollar  Line,  the  first  of  its  kind  in  transportation  history. 




IHiniK   IT  OVER 

An  inch  won't  make  you  very  tall. 

You've  got  to  keep  on  growing; 
One  little  ad  won't  do  it  all. 

You've  got  to  keep  them  going. 
One  step  won't  take  you  far. 

You've  got  to  keep  on  walking; 
One  word  won't  tell  folks  who  you 

You've  got  to  keep  on  talking 
A  constant  drop  of  water 

Wears  away  the  hardest  stone; 
For  the  constant-gnawing  Towser 

Masticates  the  toughest  bone; 
The  constant-cooing  lover 

Carries  off  the  blushing  maid; 
And  the  constant  advertiser 

Is  the  one  who  gets  the  trade. 




ji  Francisco 
rneller  Members 
ri  Smart 

li  the  radio  program,  "Quiz  of 
1  Tines",  broadcast  over  the  Mu- 
I  icii  Lee  Network  Sunday  eve- 
i;  1  ehruary  22,  the  San  Fran- 
z.Aiih  beat  the  Los  Angeles  club 
.  sin. ill  margin.  The  San  Fran- 
;,  is  shown  in  the  photo 
iiinu  up  the  loot. 
S  nc  I  if  the  questions  were  posers 
ic  industry's  best  brains.  Capt. 
d  Harms,  operating  manager. 
ip  &  Talbot  Lines,  knew  what 
\ki  moth  holes.  Gene  Hoffman, 
iri;er  of  public  relations  and  ad- 
rtini:,  American  President  Lines, 
e  \\  here  to  find  Tara's  Halls. 
q  Ci.illagher,  vice  president  and 
acint;  manager,  Matson  Lines 
ff  who  got  the  axe.  Lewis  Lap- 
irpresident,  American  Hawaiian 
.■aiship  Company,  and  president 
-"ropeller  Club,  knew  his 
rcJ  Neighbors". 

The    fine    looking    group    ( 
Hugh    Gallagher.    Bill    Gv. 

ARCH      •      194 

Page  89 

Letter  to  the  Editor 

Naval  Architect  Submits  a 
Good  Idea 

Pacific  Marine  Review 
500  Sansome  Street 
San  Francisco  11,  Calif. 
Attention:  The  Editor 


In  the  past  year,  it  has  been  my 
duty  to  survey  a  large  number  of 
craft  which  were  damaged  as  a  re- 
sult of  striking  floating  debris.  In 
spite  of  the  regulations  dealing  with 
the  disposal  of  waste,  a  large  amount 
of  lumber,  garbage,  and  other  ma- 
terial finds  its  way  into  the  waters 
of  San  Francisco  Bay  and  its  trib- 
utaries. If  one  requires  visual  proof 
of  this  situation,  a  quick  glance  at 
the  Oakland  Estuary  will  be  highly 

Operators  of  vessels  are  suffi- 
ciently impressed  with  the  value  of 
their  charges  to  be  very  circumspect 
when  navigating  in  a  concentration 
of  rubbish.  In  spite  of  all  the  care 
that  is  exercised,  it  is  almost  im- 
possible to  see  many  pieces  of  wood 
and  rope  which  float  very  close  to 
the  surface.  As  a  result,  damage  to 
bottoms  and  propelling  gear  are 
reported  every  day  of  the  week. 
The  repairs  that  are  necessary  range 
from  neglibible  costs  to  expendi- 
tures of  many  thousands  of  dollars. 
This  situation  is  becoming  increas- 
ingly worse  and  something  should 
be  done  to  rectify  it. 

The  port  of  New  York  has  under 
construction  a  drift  collector  for 
the  purpose  of  picking  up  and  dis- 
posing of  floating  matter  which  is 
a  danger  to  navigation.  It  is  highly 
desirable  that  the  port  of  San  Fran- 
cisco should  also  have  such  a  vessel. 
I  should  like  to  suggest  for  your 
consideration,  because  of  the  pre- 
eminence of  your  position  on  the 
West  Coast,  that  you  urge  the  prop- 
er authorities  to  construct  and  op- 
erate a  drift  collector  in  San  Fran- 
cisco Bay.  The  cost  of  a  vessel  of 
this  type  will  be  about  .$350,000  but 
I  am  certain  that  the  expenditure 
would  soon  pay  for  itself  in  the  sav- 
ing of  damage  to  vessels  which  use 
our  excellent  port. 

Very  truly  yours, 



table  in  the  main   dining 
se.    left    to    right    arc    Arthur    Poo 






ildcnt  and  ti 
an  President  Lines;  James  M.  Bates  of  the  Maritime  Commission;  George  G. 
Sharp,  naval  architect  responsible  for  interior  arrangements;  Miller  Laughton,  Pacific 
Coast  general  manager  Bethlehem  Steel  Co.,  Shipbuilding  Division;  Russell  Luti, 
e«ecutive  vice  president,  American  President  Lines;  Henry  Frick.  Consultant;  and 
standing   chatting   v<ith  George  Sharp  is  Douglas  MacMullan,   editor  of  Pacific   Marine 

President  Cleveland  Pictures 

Pictures  taken  aboard  the  Presi- 
dent Cleveland  during  the  trials  will 
appear  here  from  time  to  time. 
There  were  so  many  important  fig- 

ures in  the  maritime  industry  con- 
cerned with  this  vessel  that  the  Pa- 
cific Marine  Review  continues  to 
receive  requests  for  them. 

Miller  Laughton,  of  Bethlehem,  and  M.  Rhine  and  George  Crow  of  General  Electri 
stroll  down  the  beautiful  promenade  deck,  while  other  guests  take  it  easy. 

Page  90 


Completes  Forty  Years 
Hfith  Bird-Archer 

Vernon  S.  Showell,  general  man- 
lucr  of  the  Bird-Archer  Company  of 
.ilitornia,  recently  completed  forty 
a.irs  of  service  with  the  company. 
Probably  known  to  as  many  sea- 
going and  shore-side  marine  engi- 
neers as  anyone  on  the  Pacific  Coast, 
ic  lias  been  general  m.anager  of  the 
Bird- Archer  Company  since  1918. 
He  has  played  an  important  part 
with  the  company  in  pioneering 
boiler  water  treatment  and  the  de- 
velopment of  test  equipment  in  the 
merchant  marine  which  has  now  be- 
come a  must  in  the  safe  operation 
of  the  modern  marine  high  pressure 

Showell  remembers  "hoofing"  the 
waterfront  when  the  horse  and 
buggy  was  a  luxury.  When  a  steamer 
arrived  in  port  in  those  days  it  was 
a  question  of  how  many  boiler  mak- 
ers and  how  many  scalers  were  re- 
quired. Nowadays  it  is  a  question 
whether  any  are  required,  and  why. 

The  Salinometer  was  then  "the 
king."  Feed  water  was  tested  by 
taste  and  all  boilers  were  loaded 
with  zinc  plates.  "Mr.  Alkalinity" 
was  not  yet  born.  Water  tube  boilers, 
then  called  "pipe  boilers,"  were  in 
their  infancy.  Coastwise  shipping 
was   at   its   height  with   a   hundred 

Left  to  right:   B.  R.  Wtiite  and  Vernon  S.  Showell  of  Bird  Arche 

Steam  schooners  and  probably  more 
than  thirty  passenger  ships,  includ- 
ing ships  to  Panama. 

Bird-Archer  Company  of  Califor- 
nia have  qualified  representatives  at 
all  Pacific  Coast  ports,  and  in  con- 
junction with  Timmons  &  Charles  of 
Jersey  City  and  the  Bird-Archer 
Company,  Limited  of  Canada,  they 
maintain  service  in  all  American 
and  Canadian  ports. 

We  Really  Haven't  Room 
For  This 

Grandpa:  "I  miss  the  old  cuspidor 
since  it's  gone." 

Grandma:  "You  missed  it  before 
— that's  why  it's  gone." 

in  Everett  Pacific  Group 


1      „; 



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February   issue 

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P.    O'Re 

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W.    Rekle 

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Right  front  to  back:  N.  W.  Reklev.  Estinnator, 
Everett  Pacific;  Mrs.  G.  W.  Simpson;  J.  P.  O'Rear, 
Estimator,  Everett  Pacific;  Ivlrs.  R.  LeBlanc;  H.  P. 
McLaughlin,  Asst.  Gen'l  Superintendent,  Everett 
Pacific-  Mrs.  H.  I.  Chatterton;  Mrs.  H.  P.  Mc- 
Laughlin; Mrs.  Q.  A.  Herwig;  J.  M.  Finlaw,  1st 
Lt  ATC.  Contract  Accountable  Property  Officer, 

MARCH     •      194 

Page  91 


John  Dietim, 


To  facilitate  operations  and  to 
improve  service,  George  E.  Swett  & 
Company,  Engineers,  San  Francisco, 
has  assigned  a  number  of  the  prod- 
ucts that  they  represent  to  a  new 
organization  which  will  be  called 
the  Swett-Stone  Corporation,  it  is 
announced  by  George  E.  Swett. 

While  the  new  corporation  will 
be  partially  controlled  by  Swett,  it 
will  operate  as  a  distinct  organiza- 
tion under  the  management  of 
Leighton  Stone,  who  has  been  a 
service  engineer  with  the  George  E. 
Swett  &  Co.,  Engineers,  for  20  years. 

The  offices  will  be  located  on  the 
third  floor,  256  Mission  Street,  San 
Francisco.  The  Swett-Stone  Corpora- 
tion will  represent  the  following 
well-known  products:  Manning, 
Maxwell  &  Moore  Safety  Valves  and 
Gauges;  Fisher  Governors  and  Con- 
trols; Ilg  Blowers  and  Fans;  Cun- 
ningham Whistles;  Copaltite  Joint 
Compound;  Paxton-Mitchell  Rod 
Packing  and  Cylinder  Liners;  and 
Cuno  Filters. 

The  George  E.  Swett  &  Co.,  Engi- 
neers, will  continue  to  represent 
Warren  Pumps;  Carrier-Brunswick 
Refrigeration,  Air  Conditioning; 
Markey-Cunningham  Steering 
Gears;  Diamond  Soot  Blowers; 
Smoke  Indicators;  and  Davis  Heat 

By  thus  separating  the  products 

into  specialties  and  major  equip- 
ment, it  is  possible  for  the  person- 
nel to  oflfer  more  exacting  and  spe- 
cializing engineering,  sales  and  serv- 

Leighton  Stone  who  will  direct 
the  work  of  the  Swett-Stone  Corpo- 
ration has  mostly  specialized  in  the 
products  that  have  been  assigned  to 
the  new  corporation.  He  attended 
Columbia  for  two  years  and  then 
received  his  degree  from  the  Uni- 
versity of  California  in  1928  at 
which  time  he  joined  the  Swett  or- 

Ronald  Oldershaw  and  John 
Dietzman  will  also  be  associated 
with  Stone  as  sales  engineers.  Rob- 
ert Long  will  be  purchasing  agent 
for  the  Swett-Stone  Corporation. 

"We  have  planned  this  separation 
of  products  for  some  time  as  we 
have  found  that  some  of  our  men 
are  more  familiar  and  know  more 
about  all  the  problems  of  a  few  of 
the  products  and  by  permitting 
them  to  give  all  of  their  time  and 
thought  to  them,  we  can  offer  faster 
and  more  thorough  service  all  the 
way  from  the  planning  operations 
to  the  complete  installations  in 
which  these  products  play  their 
part,"  reports  George  E.  Swett. 

The  George  E.  Swett  &  Co.,  En- 
gineers, will  continue  to  be  man- 
aged by  George  E.  Swett. 

Geo.  Swett  Appoints  — 

Henry  J.  Wickert  has  been  ap- 
pointed manager  of  equipment  sales 
of  the  George  E.  Swett  &  Co.,  Engi- 
neers, San  Francisco,  it  is  announced 
by  George  E.  Swett,  president  and 
general  manager.  He  will  have 
charge  of  the  sales  of  the  following 
products:  Carrier  Refrigeration  and 
Air  Conditioning  Equipment,  War- 
ren Steam  and  Centrifugal  Pumps, 
Davis  Heat  Exchangers  and  Markee- 
Cunningham  Steering  Gears  and 
Deck  Equipment. 

Wickert  will  absorb  the  duties  of 
Henry  Craig  who  has  resigned.  John 
Marsh  and  Henry  Buffalo  will  con- 
tinue as  chief  engineer  and  super- 
intendent of  construction  respec- 

Frank  Sloman  has  been  promoted 
to  office  salesman  of  the  refrigera- 
tion department  under  the  direction 
of  Wickert.  Henry  J.  Wickert,  an 
ex-naval  officer  who  was  chief  engi- 
neer of  an  escort-type  destroyer,  is 
a  graduate  of  Cornell  University  and 
has  been  with  the  Swett  organiza- 
tion for  the  last  two  years. 

Page  92 


Harbor  Supply 

In  anriDuncing  the  appointments  of 
Homer  Potter  and  Captain  Konrad 
N\stol  to  the  force  of  the  Harbor  Sup- 
ply Company,  821  Folsom  Street,  San 
i  rancisco,  A.  F.  ( Al )  Devoto,  Vice 
I'rtsident  and  General  Manager,  adds 
that  his  ship  chandlery  firm  have  sufti- 
cient  stocks  to  supply  huge  quantities 
of  deck,  engine  room  and  steward  sup- 

Mr.  Ed  Whittemore,  Sales  Manager 
.ind  General  Partner  for  the  Atlas  Paint 
,s;  N'arnish  Co.  of  Los  Angeles,  recently 
.isMgned  Homer  to  his  new  post  as 
iii.uiager  of  the  San  Francisco  office. 

Captain  Konrad  Nystol,  in  charge 
(it  Harbor's  Foreign  Ship  Department, 
was  educated  in  Sweden  and  speaks 
four  languages  fluently.  In  World  War 
11  he  was  decorated  with  the  Royal 
(  russ  by  the  King  of  Sweden  for  out- 
st.mding  services  as  Captain  in  the 
Roval  Swedish  Navy. 

Also  on  Harbor's  staff  and  very  well 
known  to  the  marine  fraternity  are 
Hobbs  Merle,  Jim  Burke,  John  Eagen 
and  Ben  Limberg. 

Manufacturers  represented  by  Har- 
bor Supply  include:  Great  'Western 
Cordage  Company,  manila  rope;  Jones 
&  Laughlin  Steel  Corporation,  wire 
rope;  Atlas  Paint  &  Varnish  Company, 
marine  paints;  Boston  &  Lockport 
Co.,  tackle  blocks;  Sumco  Products 
Ci).,  Inc.,  cleansers  and  engine  room 
chemicals;  Walworth  Company,  valves; 
Columbia  Steel  Company,  wire  prod- 
ucts, steel  and  sheets;  Griffin  Manufac- 
turmg  Company,  hinges  and  butts; 
Pheoll  Manufacturing  Company,  screw 
products;  Bright  Star  Battery  Company, 
flashlights  and  batteries;  Band-It  Com- 
p.uiy,  clamps  and  tools;  Thomas  Laugh- 
hn  Company,  shackles,  hooks,  etc.;  Dia- 
mond Calk  and  Horseshoe  Company, 
w Tenches  and  pliers;  Halstead  Products, 
oils;  cutting  and  penetrating;  Palmer 
Thermometers;  Bell  &  Gossett,  heat  ex- 
changers and  centrifugal  pumps;  Ful- 
ton Sylphon  Company,  temperature 
controls;  Pioneer  Rubber  Company, 
hose  and  packing;  Wilcox-Crittenden 
Company,  blocks,  shackles;  and  the 
■^'oung  Iron  Works,  Seattle,  Washing- 

In  addition  to  the  Folsom  Street 
plant.  Harbor  also  maintains  ware- 
houses on  Clara  Street  and  at  6th  and 
Hubbell  Streets  in  San  Francisco. 










d    Nystol 






Harbor    Supply    Office    Staff. 

Rig'ht:    Ho 

Tier   Potter.   Atlas   Paint  Compan 


and    A.    F.    (Al)    De   Voto,   Vice 


and     General     Manager     of    th 

Harbor   Supply   Co. 

MARCH     •      1948 

Page  93 

R.  L  Minckler  kvn  President  of 
General  Petroleum  Corporation 

R.  L.  Minckler  has  been  elected  president  of  the  Gen- 
eral Petroleum  Corporation,  succeeding  on  January  1,  S. 
J.  Dickey,  who  is  retiring.  R.  A.  Sperry,  senior  vice  presi- 
dent and  a  director  of  the  concern  also  retired  on  that 

Minckler  was  born  in  Minneapolis  and  first  worked 
for  the  Great  Northern  Railway.  He  served  in  the  Army 
during  World  War  I  and  subsequently  attended  the 
University  of  Washington.  Before  joining  General  Petro-